Categories for Educational psychology

Initial Assessment Essay

Initial Assessment Essay

The reasoning for using Initial Assessment in my curriculum area is because the majority of students have not completed a formal education or if having done so hold little or no qualifications. The majority of the courses start at entry level therefore no qualifications’ are require, but to offer students progression on to higher levels they need to be holding or be able to achieve a level 1 in communication and application of number.

This is the minimum requirement to complete an apprenticeship programme and the vast majority wish to follow the vocational route to being a ‘qualified tradesman’.

Procedures Before the day of enrolment students are fore warned at the interview stage what the awarding bodies’ requirement is to do a particular course. In the case of Construction Awards Alliance they have their own assessment criteria to try a match the suitability of the student to a particular trade.

However because we deliver from entry to level 2 with three bodies to keep to the assessment process standard the college format is used( booklet produced by the learning centre, attached).

Hillier. J (2005 p62) states “Great care must be used with such assessment activities. Many potential learners will feel highly by being threatened by being asked to undertake a diagnostic assessment. ” In my opinion as long as students are made aware that this is not a formal test the majority do not mind taking the test, provided that the reasoning behind it is explained correctly.

As a tutor it is important I remember the purpose of the test as Lambert. D and Lines. D (2000 p20) state “formative assessment is undertaken so that positive achievements of a pupil can be recognised and the appropriate next step planned”. Once all the information is collated this is entered into the course/ student profile booklet, this enables me or any other tutors to look at a particular student or group qualifications and progress as they are recorded for each achievement.

Personally I think that the process works well when we complete the diagnostics on line as students can not see how others are doing. Most students feel more comfortable using this method as they do not feel as much pressure as they can wear head phones if required. The whole purpose works well because as a tutor working on entry level and to a certain degree on level 1, communication and application of number can be imbedded into the practical aspects of the course.

The major weakness that I feel of the assessment process is that they are not curriculum specific; aspects of application of number are not relevant to the vocational subject. As I have experienced my self and some mature students the terminology of key words has changed until we have had them explained. When using the paper versions students that struggle to read or write often do not complete enough of the booklet, for the tutor to find the true level the students capable / working at.

An important aspect that is often missed is the fact that to help students there is a requirement to have extra support in place if require for individuals. If there is no support is there a need for assessment? Yes but ensure all the support is provided and available as required in a timely manner. References a. Hillier. J (2005) Teaching in Further and Adult Education Gosport; Ashford colour press Ltd, p62 b. Lambert. D and Lines. D (2000) Understanding, Assessment ,Purposes, Perceptions, Practice London; RoutledgeFalmer, p20.

Principles of assessment Essay

Principles of assessment Essay

1. 1 Explain the functions of assessment in learning and development What is assessment? This is the term given to the process of checking that learning has occurred and to check if that learning is effective. It is a way to evidence/ prove a learners’ achievement in the area being assessed. Assessment I is also used to identify learners’ needs, how best to support such learner while contributing to quality assurance and the development of good practice . There are three main stages of assessment namely;

1. Initial Assessment

2. Formative Assessment And 3. Summative Assessment . 1. 2 Why Assess? If you have just delivered a training session and you don’t assess, how can you be sure that any learning has taken place? Or if you are trying to work out a person’s level of skill in a particular area, how would you know whether their skill level is poor, moderate or exceptional without assessment? There are various reasons to assess such as: •Determining level of knowledge & understanding •Ensuring that learning is taking place •Checking progress.

Fulfilling part of a certification requirement like Nvq, PTTLS, etc. . Ensuring the learners’ specific domains has been considered. Hence the need for assessment at various stages of learning. Giving a summary of learning for the person carrying out the assessment means they can be confident that the candidate has the required level of knowledge on a particular topic or competency for a certain task. For the candidate, assessment usually means reassurance of their own level of knowledge / competency and usually a certificate at the end of the day.

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Formative Assessment Essay

Formative Assessment Essay

Chapter IV A Fundamental Duties ARTICLE 51A Fundamental Duties – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; (e)

To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; (g)

To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to have compassion for living creatures; (h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; (i) (j) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence; to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

CONTENTS Page No.

Acknowledgments Preface Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous & Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation in e-Typewriting- English/Hindi Assessment Rubrics e-Typewriting Syllabus and Scheme of Examination for Class IX TERM-I Unit 1: Introduction to e-Typewriting Unit 2: Keyboard Layout (QWERTY & INSCRIPT) Unit 3: Touch Typewriting 10 16 21 XL XLI 1 (I) (II) (IX) TERM-II Unit 4: Introduction to Word Processing 29 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.

ADVISORY BODY • Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman – CBSE. • Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head – Innovations & Research, CBSE. EDITING COMMITTEE • Prof. Om Vikas, Retd. Prof. from DIT, Government of India. MATERIAL PRODUCTION GROUP • Mr. Yogesh Kumar HOD, Computer Science. Meera Model School, Delhi. • Dr. D. P. Bhatia, Mata Sundri College,University of Delhi. • Ms. Gayatri Subramanian, Consultant, Ministry of Corporate Affairs , Govt of India. • Mrs. Sunita Chug, Senior Lecturer, Mira Bai Polytechnic, Maharani Bagh, New Delhi. • Mrs. Nancy Sehgal, Mata Jai Kaur School, Delhi. CO-ORDINATION • Mrs. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer (Commerce) CBSE.

PREFACE Typewriters were developed to prepare documents with uniform letter prints, to overcome illegibility of hand written material and produce documents faster. Initially typewriters were mechanical, then electric and electronic typewriters came into being. Over a period, QWERTY keyboard layout was in use and it became the defacto standard for Roman Typewriting. Computers also use keyboard as an input device. Keyboard layout has specific ‘letter on key’ allocation on the basis of frequency and count of letters over a fairly large sample of documents. High frequency letters are on middle/home row, distributed on both sides. For Indic scripts, Standard keyboard Layout is INSCRIPT. Mechanical typewriters are now becoming fast extinct.

Computer empowers the user to input information with accuracy, speed and additional features of Word processing. The syllabus of ‘Typewriting’ is hereby revised as ‘e-Typewriting’ with an additional unit on ‘Word processing’ in view of the growing use of computers for typewriting documents. Self assessment and keeping record of progress in Assignment files are encouraged so as to keep students motivated towards excellence. Profuse thanks are due to Prof. Om Vikas for steering the experts members Mr. Yogesh Kumar, Ms. Nancy Sehgal, Ms. Sunita Chugh, Dr. D. P. Bhatia and Ms. Gayatri Subramaniam for contributing towards development of the syllabus on -‘e-Typewriting’ and also the Formative Assessment Manual for Teachers. I also thank Ms.

Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer for coordinating the meetings and bringing out the manual in this shape. It is expected that the students will enjoy this course even as an additional subject in view of the benefits of touch-typing skills in future career. We would welcome suggestions to improve upon content assessment methodology in tune with the objectives of CCE. (Vineet Joshi) Chairman, CBSE I Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful members of a society. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are built through learning experiences and opportunities created for learners in school.

It is in the classroom that learners can analyse and evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question, to investigate and to think independently. The aim of education simultaneously reflects the current needs and aspirations of a society as well as its lasting values and human ideals. At any given time and place they can be called the contemporary and contextual articulations of broad and lasting human aspirations and values. An understanding of learners, educational aims, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the school as a social space can help us arrive at principles to guide classroom practices. Conceptual development is thus a continuous process of deepening and enriching connections and acquiring new layers of meaning.

Alongside is the development of theories that children have about the natural and social worlds, including themselves in relation to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are and the relationship between cause and effect. Attitudes, emotions and values are thus an integral part of cognitive development, and are linked to the development of language, mental representations, concepts and reasoning. As children’s metacognitive capabilities develop, they become more aware of their own beliefs and capable of regulating their own learning. Characteristics of learning All lchildren are naturally motivated to learn and are capable of learning.

Understanding l Children l and developing the capacity for abstract thinking, reflection and work are the most important aspects of learning. learn in a variety of ways-through experience, making and doing things, experimentation, reading, discussion, asking, listening, thinking and reflecting, and expressing themselves in speech or writing-both individually and with others. They require opportunities of all these kinds in the course of their development. something before the child is cognitively ready takes away real learning. Children may ‘remember’ many facts but they may not understand them or be able to relate them to the world around them. takes place both within school and outside school.

Learning is enriched if the two arenas interact with each other. Art and work provide opportunities for holistic learning that is rich in tacit and aesthetic components. Such experiences are essentially to be learnt through direct experience and integrated into life. Teaching l Learning l II Learning l must be paced so that it allows learners to engage with concepts and deepen understanding rather than remembering only to forget after examinations. At the same time learning must provide variety and challenge, and be interesting and engaging. Boredom is a sign that the task may have become mechanically repetitive for the child and of little cognitive value.

can take place with or without mediation. In the case of the latter, the social context and interactions, especially with those who are capable, provide avenues for learners to work at cognitive levels above their own. Learning l Place of Evaluation in the Curriculum A curriculum is what constitutes a total teaching-learning program composed of overall aims, syllabus, materials, methods and assessment. In short it provides a framework of knowledge and capabilities, seen as appropriate to a particular level. Evaluation not only measures the progress and achievement of the learners but also the effectiveness of the teaching materials and methods used for transaction.

Hence evaluation should be viewed as a component of curriculum with the twin purpose of effective delivery and further improvement in the teaching learning process. If properly understood, evaluation or assessment will not be perceived as something administered by the teachers and taken by the learners on the conclusion of a period of learning. When evaluation is seen as an end of the learning exercise, both the teachers and the learners will tend to keep it outside the teaching-learning process, rendering assessment broadly irrelevant and alien to the curriculum. Further such a perception associates anxiety and stress with evaluation for learners.

On the contrary, if evaluation is seen as an integral part built into the teaching learning process; it will become continuous like both teaching and learning. When evaluation is subsumed into teaching-learning, learners will not perceive tests and examinations with fear. It will lead to diagnosis, remediation and enhancement of learning. The scope of evaluation in schools extends to almost all the areas of learners’ personality development. It should include both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, i. e. it should be comprehensive in nature. This is in line with the goals of education. Evaluation is continuous and reveals the strengths and weaknesses of learners more frequently, so that the learners have better opportunity to understand and improve themselves.

It also provides feedback to the teachers for modifying their teaching strategies. In view of getting a complete picture of the child’s learning, assessment should focus on the learner’s ability to – learn and l acquire a l acquire desired skills related to different subject areas. level of achievement in different subject areas in the requisite measure develop child’s individual skills, interests, attitudes and motivation l understand and lead a healthy and a productive life. l monitor the changes taking place in a child’s learning, behaviour and progress over time.

l III l respond to different situations and opportunities both in and out of school. apply what is learned in a variety of l work l independently, collaboratively analyze and evaluate. l environments, circumstances and situations and harmoniously. be laware of social and environmental issues participate in social and environmental projects and causes. l retain what is learned over a period of time. l Thus assessment is a useful, desirable and an enabling process.

To realize this one needs to keep the following parameters in mind The need to: assess the learner. l use l a variety of ways to collect information about the learner’s learning and progress in subjects and cross curricular boundaries. collect information continuously and record the same.

l give l importance to each learner’s way of responding and learning and the time it takes to do so. report on an ongoing continuous basis and be sensitive to every learner’s responses. l provide feedback that will lead to positive action and help the learner to do better l In the assessment process, one should be careful NOT to: l label learners as slow, poor, intelligent etc. make comparisons between them. l make negative statements. l Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system of school-based evaluation of students that covers all aspects of a students’ development. It is a developmental process of a child which emphasizes on two fold objectives.

These objectives are continuity in evaluation on one hand and assessment of broad based learning and behaviourial outcomes on the other. The term `continuous’ is meant to emphasise that evaluation of identified aspects of students `growth and development’ is a continuous process rather than an event, built into the total IV teaching-learning process and spread over the entire span of academic session. It means regularity of assessment, diagnosis of learning gaps, use of corrective measures and feedback of evidence to teachers and students for their self evaluation. The second term `comprehensive’ means that the scheme attempts to cover both the scholastic and the co-scholastic aspects of students’ growth and development.

Since abilities, attitudes and aptitudes can manifest themselves in forms other than the written word, the term refers to application of a variety of tools and techniques (both testing and non-testing) and aims at assessing a learner’s development in areas of learning like : Knowledge l Understanding/Comprehension l Application l Analysis l l Evaluation l Creativity Objectives of CCE are: l To help develop cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills. l To lay emphasis on thought process and de-emphasise memorization l To make evaluation an integral part of teaching-learning process l use To evaluation for improvement of students’ achievement and teaching – learning strategies on the basis of regular diagnosis followed by remedial instruction l.

To use evaluation as a quality control device to maintain desired standard of performance l determine To social utility, desirability or effectiveness of a programme and take appropriate decisions about the learner, the process of learning and the learning environment l To make the process of teaching and learning a learner-centered activity. Features of CCE are: l The ‘continuous’ aspect of CCE takes care of ‘continual’ and ‘periodicity’ aspect of evaluation.

Means assessment of students in the beginning of instruction (placement evaluation) and assessment during the instructional process (formative evaluation) done informally using multiple techniques of evaluation. means assessment of performance done frequently at the end of unit/term (summative) l Continual l Periodicity V l The ‘comprehensive’ component of CCE takes care of assessment of all round development of the child’s personality.

It includes assessment in Scholastic as well as Co-Scholastic aspects of the pupil’s growth. aspects include curricular areas or subject specific areas, whereas co-scholastic aspects include Life Skills, Co-Curricular Activities, Attitudes, and Values. in scholastic areas is done informally and formally using multiple techniques of evaluation continually and periodically. The diagnostic evaluation takes place at the end of a unit/term test. The causes of poor performance in some units are diagnosed using diagnostic tests. These are followed up with appropriate interventions followed by retesting.

in Co-Scholastic areas is done using multiple techniques on the basis of identified criteria, while assessment in Life Skills is done on the basis of Indicators of Assessment and checklists. Source – Examination Reforms, NCERT Scholastic l Assessment l Assessment l The functions of CCE are: l It helps the teacher to organize effective teaching strategies. Continuous l evaluation helps in regular assessment to the extent and degree of learner’s progress (ability and achievement with reference to specific scholastic and co-scholastic areas). evaluation serves to diagnose weaknesses and permits the teacher to ascertain an individual learner’s strengths and weaknesses and her needs.

It provides immediate feedback to the teacher, who can then decide whether a particular unit or concept needs re-teaching in the whole class or whether a few individuals are in need of remedial instruction. evaluation, children can know their strengths and weaknesses. It provides the child a realistic self assessment of how he/she studies. It can motivate children to develop good study habits, to correct errors, and to direct their activities towards the achievement of desired goals.

It helps a learner to determine the areas of instruction in which more emphasis is required. and comprehensive evaluation identifies areas of aptitude and interest. It helps in identifying changes in attitudes, and value systems. in making decisions for the future, regarding choice of subjects, courses and careers. Continuous l By lcontinuous Continuous l It helps l It provides l information/reports on the progress of students in scholastic and co-scholastic areas and thus helps in predicting the future successes of the learner. VI Continuous evaluation helps in bringing awareness of the achievement to the child, teachers and parents from time to time.

They can look into the probable cause of the fall in achievement if any, and may take remedial measures of instruction in which more emphasis is required. Many times, because of some personal reasons, family problems or adjustment problems, the children start neglecting their studies, resulting in a sudden drop in their achievement.

If the teacher, child and parents do not come to know about this sudden drop in the achievement and the neglect in studies by the child continues for a longer period then it will result in poor achievement and a permanent deficiency in learning for the child. The major emphasis of CCE is on the continuous growth of students ensuring their intellectual, emotional, physical, cultural and social development and therefore will not be merely limited to assessment of learner’s scholastic attainments. It uses assessment as a means of motivating learners in further programmes to provide information for arranging feedback and follow up work to improve upon the learning in the classroom and to present a comprehensive picture of a learner’s profile.

It is this that has led to the emergence of the concept of School Based Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation. Source : Ncert VII Scholastic and Co-scholastic Assessment In order to have Continuous and Comprehensive evaluation, both scholastic and co-scholastic aspects need to be given due recognition. Such a holistic assessment requires maintaining an ongoing, changing and comprehensive profile for each learner that is honest, encouraging and discreet. While teachers daily reflect, plan and implement remedial strategies, the child’s ability to retain and articulate what has been learned over a period of time also requires periodic assessment. These assessments can take many forms but all of them should be as comprehensive and discreet as possible.

Weekly, fortnightly, or quarterly reviews (depending on the learning area), that do not openly compare one learner with another and are positive and constructive experiences are generally recommended to promote and enhance not just learning and retention among children but their soft skills as well. VIII School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation There has been a consistent move towards reducing the load on the student by making public or board examination stress free. Over the decade there has been a high pitched race towards more marks and thus more competitiveness among students and schools. The move of the CBSE to replace marks with grades is a step in the right direction.

The paradigm shift is to empower schools by creating a workable school based continuous and comprehensive scheme. School Based Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation system should be established to: reduce stress on children l make evaluation comprehensive and regular l provide space for the teacher for creative teaching l provide a tool of diagnosis and remediation l produce learners with greater skills l Position Paper on Aims of Education – NCF 2005.

NCERT Aims of School Based CCE l Elimination of chance element and subjectivity (as far as possible), de-emphasis of memorization, encouraging Comprehensive evaluation incorporating both scholastic and co-scholastic aspects of learners development. evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional time as an integral built-in aspect of the total teaching-learning process.

And meaningful declaration of results for effective use by teachers, students, parents and the society. uses of test results for purposes not merely of the assessment of levels of pupils’ achievements and proficiencies, but mainly for its improvement, through diagnosis and remedial/enrichment programmes. in the mechanics of conducting examinations for realizing a number of other allied purposes Continuous l Functional l Wider l Improvement l Introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and methodology.

l Introduction of the semester system from the secondary stage onwards. l The l use of grades in place of marks in determining and declaring the level of pupil performance and proficiency. The above goals are relevant for both external examination and evaluation in schools IX Characteristics of School Based Evaluation : l Broader, more comprehensive and continuous than traditional system. l primarily to help learners for systematic learning and development. Aims l Takes care of the needs of the learner as responsible citizens of the future. l Is more transparent, futuristic and provides more scope for association among learners , teachers and parents.

School based evaluation provides opportunities to teachers to know the following about their learners: What they learn l How l they learn l What type of difficulties / limitations they face in realising learning objectives together l What the children think l What the children feel l What their interests and dispositions are. The focus has shifted to developing a deep learning environment.

There is a paradigm shift in the pedagogy and competencies of ‘controlling’ to ‘enriching’ to ‘empowering’ schools. Traditional Schooling l Teacher centred l Subjects and classes l Sorting and ranking Enriching Schooling Student centred l l Directed Self l Continuous assessment Empowering Schooling Experience centred l l Virtual authenticity l Multi literacies individuals Competency: l Memory l Competitive Competency: l Critical thinking l Collaborative l Creative Competency:

l taking Risk l Ethical l Interactive There are four Assessment Paradigms Assessment of Learning Most commonly, assessment is defined as a process whereby someone attempts to describe and quantify the knowledge, attitudes or skills possessed by another. Teacher directedness is paramount and the student has little involvement in the design or implement of the assessment process in these circumstances – X Summative l Teacher designs learning l l Teacher collects evidence l Teacher judges what has been learnt (and what has not) Assessment for Learning The assessment for learning involves increased levels of student autonomy, but not without teacher guidance and collaboration.

The assessment for learning is sometimes seen as being akin to ‘formative assessment’ and can be seen as informing teaching. There is more emphasis towards giving of useful advice to the student and less emphasis on the giving of marks and the grading function – Teacher designs learning l Teacher designs assessment with feedback to student l Teacher assesses what has been learnt (student develops insight into what has not) l Assessment as Learning ‘Assessment as learning’ is perhaps more connected with diagnostic assessment and can be constructed with more of an emphasis on informing learning. Assessment as learning generates opportunities for self assessment and for peer assessment.

Students take on increased responsibility to generate quality information about their learning and that of others – Teacher and student co-construct learning l Teacher and student co-construct assessment l Teacher and student co-construct learning progress map l Assessment for learning and assessment as learning activities should be deeply embedded in teaching and learning and be the source of iterative feedback, allowing students to adjust, rethink and re-learn. Assessment in Learning The assessment in learning places the question at the centre of teaching and learning. It deflects the teaching from its focus on a ‘correct answer’ to focus on ‘a fertile question’.

Through the inquiry, students engage in processes that generate feedback about their learning, which come from multiple sources, and activities. It contributes to the construction of other learning activities, lines of enquiry and the generation of other questions Student at the centre of learning l Student monitors, assesses and reflects on learning l Student initiates demonstration of learning (to self and others) l Teacher as coach and mentor l XI Teachers and students need to understand the purpose of each assessment strategy so that the overall assessment ‘package’ being used by learners and teachers accurately captures, generates and uses meaningful learning information to generate deep learning and understanding.

Purpose of Assessment To lascertain what learning, change and progress takes place in the child over a period of time in different subjects of study and other aspects of the child’s personality. To find out the needs and learning style of every learner. l To ldevise styles. To improve the teaching-learning materials by adding value. l To help l every learner find out their interests, aptitudes, strengths and weaknesses so that the learner can evolve effective learning strategies. a teaching-learning plan that is responsive to the individual needs and learning To measure the extent to which curricular objectives have been realized. l To enhance the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. l To l record the progress of every learner and communicate it to parents and other stakeholders.

a dialogue between the teacher and the student and also the parents as a collaborative endeavor for overall improvement of the system. To lmaintain To involve the learners in the process through peer and self assessment. l Different stages in Assessment Examination is not assessment; it is only one of the tools of assessment. As we have seen above, assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process and hence cannot be seen as the final stage in isolation. The overall aim of assessment is to gather information to improve the teaching-learning process. So it has certain distinct stages. Stage – 1: Gathering information about and evidence of the extent of effectiveness of teaching and learning We gather information in a variety of ways, using a number of tools.

Observation, conversation and discussion, assignments, projects, different types of tests etc are some of the methods and tools we use for collecting information. Stage – 2: Recording of Information The information gathered has to be systematically recorded because it constitutes not only rich inputs that have to be used for improving teaching and learning but also evidence to support the conclusion we come to about the progress made by the students. In order to make the recording effective, we must use different recording devices such as learner profile, XII ancecdotal records, case studies, report books etc. It is essential that the information is recorded in both quantitative and qualitative terms along with well thought out and objective observations by the teacher.

It is also necessary to keep samples of students’ work as evidence to support the report of the teacher. The most important aspect of good recording and reporting is that it shows the progress of the learner in different domains over a period of time. Stage – 3: Analysing and Reporting the Information Collected The recorded information constitutes valuable feedback that the teacher, the student and the parents should use to enhance the learning process. To do this, the gathered information has to be analysed periodically so that the teacher can draw conclusions about how a child is learning and progressing. Such analysis and the grading that is done is actually a mapping of the progress of students in a learning environment.

Analysis and review also leads to unambiguous statements about the strengths of every child and the aspects requiring further improvement. The report has to be communicated to the learners and their parents so that they are able to collaborate with the teacher to take the necessary steps for improving learning. It is essential that the child is encouraged to compete with self rather than with others. One of the key components of engaging students in the assessment of their own learning is providing them with descriptive feedback as they learn. Research shows descriptive feedback to be the most effective instructional strategy to move students forward in their learning.

Descriptive feedback provides students with an understanding of what they are doing well, links to classroom learning and specific input on how to reach the next step. Stage – 4: Using the Information for Improvement Assessment should result in improvement. Though the student, the teacher and the parents are all stakeholders in this paradigm, it is the teacher who has to take the initiative to use the analysis of information on each learner to enhance learning. This calls for reflective practices. Some questions that the teacher could ask himself/ herself are: 1. Are all the learners involved in the activities of the class? 2. Are there learners who face problems in coping with the pace and flow of the teaching learning process? 3. What are their problems and how should I help them? 4.

Is there something in my teaching strategy that has to be modified to make the class learn better? How should I go about it? 5. Are there some learners who are not challenged by the materials and methods and hence lose motivation quickly? How should I respond to their special needs? 6. Are there some lessons/ chapters/ units that pose difficulties to many learners? How should I add value to these portions of the syllabus? 7. Have I identified certain common errors, mistakes and instances of lack of conceptual clarity from the information collected and analysed? How should I go about an effective programme of remediation? XIII 8. Is my classroom time management effective?

What are the changes that I could introduce to make it more learner and learning oriented? 9. Am I getting adequate support from the school management, my colleagues, the parents and the community? How can I involve all the stakeholders more actively in what I am doing for the benefit of my learners? 10. What are my own needs of professional development? How can I fulfil them in a continuous manner? Such reflective questions will help the teacher modify and refine the programme of teaching to achieve the learning objectives as well as to enhance his/ her professional competence continuously. By now it is well established that learning is a continuous process and it involves informal, formal and non-formal modes.

It is also widely acknowledged that children learn by constructing their knowledge and it makes learning a process that takes place within the children rather than without. In this paradigm of constructivism, the teacher ought to recognize the importance of different stages of learning i. e. , the initial stage where the existing knowledge of the learner is seen as the entry level, the second stage where new knowledge is understood and accommodated with the existing knowledge and the third stage where the constructed knowledge as a ‘whole’ is tested by the learner by applying it to real life situations for making sense of the world and the self and for drawing conclusions, problem solving, decision making etc.

What constitutes knowledge at the third stage automatically becomes the learner’s existing knowledge for further learning and thus it is a cyclical process. The main purpose of assessment is to enhance the effectiveness of the learning process and hence it has to be integrated appropriately with every stage of learning. Since learning is continuous, assessment also must be continuous. Otherwise the learner will not be able to know whether she/ he is proceeding along the right lines, what is the stage at which he experiences difficulties, what are the new inputs and strategies that are required to successfully continue the process of construction of knowledge and what is the help that is expected from the teacher.

Similarly the teacher also has to know at what stage of learning each learner is at a particular point of time, what are the changes that are to be made to the teaching strategies to make every child learn effectively and what further help can be provided. For instance, when a child in class I comes to school, it is probable that the child has not had any formal schooling earlier. It does not mean that the child has no prior knowledge because learning, as has been pointed out earlier, can be through informal and non formal modes too. So the teacher’s duty is to identify the prior knowledge of the child while dealing with a particular concept or skill.

Student Assessment Essay

Student Assessment Essay

A current policy issue that is plaguing our educational system is the emphasis put on student assessments. Teachers are at odds in their classrooms on whether to teach the necessities that students will need to be productive in our society, to simply teach what will be tested on state and federally mandated assessments, or both. Teachers are forced to find a balance within their instructions due to the time restraints that stand in their way.

When teachers are able to find this balance and present all the concepts that are included in assessment, plus all other concepts, the results from the assessments can be very beneficial to their classrooms.

Assessment results have important implications for instruction. The primary aim of assessment is to foster learning of worthwhile academic content for all students (Wolf, Bixby, Glenn, & Gardner, 1991). School communities use assessment results in a formative way to determine how well they are meeting instructional goals and how to alter curriculum and instruction so that goals can be better met.

But if what schools assess and how schools assess do not match what is taught and how it is taught, then the results are meaningless, if not potentially harmful. There’s also potential for harm when decisions affecting students’ futures are being made based on results of assessments made with tools that are not appropriate for the purpose. Some schools are attempting to change assessment to match the content and format of instruction, and are therefore relying more upon alternative assessment. Alternative assessments include performance-based assessment, portfolios, student-designed assessments, etc.

, and are considered by many educators to be more reflective of new curricular goals and methods of instruction. Some educators view alternative assessment as a better way to determine how well students are learning traditional forms of assessment like multiple choice tests. Alternative forms of assessment might best serve some of these purposes while more traditional forms could still serve others. Regardless of the purpose, however, the form of assessment used must reflect a teacher’s instructional goals and must be of high technical quality.

(White & Fredericksen, 1994) Alternative forms of assessment require knowledge and skills that most teachers have not had the opportunity to learn, which in fact poses another issue with these types of classroom assessments. Without the knowledge and skills, teachers will be doing their students a disservice by conducting faulty assessments. Providing teachers with the time that is essential for learning is necessary to making changes in assessment practices. Teachers need time to produce and implement the assessments.

Teachers also need time to work with one another to share ideas and reach consensus because integrating instruction and assessment requires coordination. Alternative assessment will not be effective if it is added to the list of responsibilities for teachers. (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 1991) When assessment results are used to make important decisions, there is a danger that instruction will narrowly focus on what is assessed while other important curricular goals and content are neglected (Romberg, Zarinnia, & Williams, 1989). All assessments include only a sample of the total content contained within a curriculum.

Critics of multiple-choice tests, for example, suggest that the skills usually assessed by multiple-choice testing become the focus of instruction at the expense of more substantial content. Alternative assessment presents a solution to this situation by ensuring that the content of the assessment matches the most important content in the curriculum. However, regardless of how much the content of an assessment is improved, when teachers narrowly focus on what is tested, the assessment results will only reveal the students’ learning of the test content, not whether they could perform a related task in a different environment.

For example, if instruction is focused on a skill that is a test requirement, the results of the test will reflect only the students’ performance in a testing environment, not his/her general ability to perform that skill in everyday settings. This limitation is primarily a concern in large-scale districts or state testing situations where important decisions are based on a limited sample of student performances. The most important factors in determining the technical quality of assessments are the assessments’ reliability, validity, and fairness.

If the quality of an assessment is not ensured, grouping practices, and coverage and pacing decisions may be based on invalid estimates of students’ capabilities. Sometimes grouping decisions can reflect or reinforce racial and socioeconomic inequities, or the decisions might be based on prior achievement that was artificially low due to past limited opportunities to learn. If all students have not had an equal opportunity to learn, then grouping and pacing decisions based on test results are unfair. (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 1991)

Good assessment requires minimizing factors that could lead to misinterpretation of results. The criteria for meeting this requirement are reliability, validity, and fairness. Reliability is defined as “an indication of the consistency of scores across evaluators or over time. ” An assessment is considered reliable when the same results occur regardless of when the assessment occurs or who does the scoring. There should be compelling evidence to show that results are consistent across raters and across scoring occasions.

(Elliott, 1994) Validity is defined as “an indication of how well an assessment actually measures what it is supposed to measure. ” Three aspects of an assessment that must be evaluated for validity are tasks, extraneous interference, and consequences. Every assessment requires students to complete some task or activity. A valid task should reflect actual knowledge or performance, engage and motivate students to perform to the best of their ability, be consistent with current educational theory and practice, be reviewed by experts to judge content quality and authenticity.

Extraneous interference occurs when there is something in the assessment that might get in the way of students being able to demonstrate what they know and can do. A valid assessment does not require knowledge or skills that are irrelevant to what is actually being assessed. Some examples of these might include students’ ability to read, write, role-play, or understand the context, personality, physical limitations, or knowledge of irrelevant background information. Valid assessments also minimize unintended negative consequences.

Negative effects of assessments might include restricting curricula to what can be easily assessed, communicating unintended messages about power, control, or social status, and fostering narrow images of the nature of a particular discipline. (Elliott, 1994) Fairness means that an assessment should “allow for students of both genders and all backgrounds to do equally well. All students should have equal opportunity to demonstrate the skills and knowledge being assessed.

” The fairness of the assessment is jeopardized if bias exists either in the task or in the rater. (Elliott, 1994) In this atmosphere of reform, student assessment is the centerpiece of many educational improvement efforts. Policymakers hope that changes in assessment will cause teachers and schools to do things differently. Assessment reform is viewed as a means of setting more appropriate targets for students, focusing staff development efforts for teachers, encouraging curriculum reform, and improving instruction and instructional materials.

(Fuchs, 1994) Many educators and policymakers believe that what gets assessed is what gets taught and that the format of assessment influences the format of instruction. Contrary to our understanding of how students learn, many assessments test facts and skills in isolation, seldom requiring students to apply what they know and can do in real-life situations. Standardized tests do not match the emerging content standards, and over-reliance on this type of assessment often leads to instruction that stresses basic knowledge and skills.

Rather than encouraging changes in instruction toward the engaged learning that will prepare students for the 21st century, these tests encourage instruction of less important skills and passive learning. (Fuchs, 1994) Since the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only national representative and continuing assessment of what America’s students know and can do in various subject areas, it seemed to be the most obvious choice for exploration. In exploration of this policy, research will be conducted to find out how affective it is within our country.

The terms of this policy requires that assessments be conducted periodically in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U. S. history. Because of the issues of assessment, NAEP’s assessment will be probed to find if they are reliable, valid, and fair being that it serves as a type models for all other assessment practices. Under the current structure, the Commissioner of Education Statistics, who heads the National Center for Education Statistics in the U. S. Department of Education, is responsible by law for carrying out the NAEP project.

The National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB), appointed by the Secretary of Education but independent of the Department, sets policy for NAEP and is responsible for developing the framework and test specifications that serve as the blueprint for the assessments. The National Assessment Governing Board develops the frameworks that provide the theoretical basis for the assessment and specific direction for what kinds of knowledge and skills should be assessed, how the exercises should be designed, and how student responses should be scored.

These frameworks are the result of comprehensive efforts in which teachers, curriculum experts, policymakers, and members of the general public worked to create a unified vision of how a particular subject ought to be assessed. This vision is based on current educational research on achievement and its measurement, and good educational practices. (National Center for Education Statistics) References Berk, R. A. (1993). National Trends in Student and Teacher Assessment: Issues in Performance Assessment. Retrieved January 17, 2008 from http://nesonline. com/PDFs/1993_05Berk. pdf Elliott, S. N. (1994).

Creating meaningful performance assessments: Fundamental concepts. Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children. Fuchs, L. S. (1994). Connecting performance assessment to instruction. Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children. National Center for Education Statistics. NEAP Overview. Retrieved on January 20, 2008 from http://www. nces. ed. gov/nationsreportcard/about/ North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, PBS Elementary/Secondary Service, in partnership with the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (UCLA/CRESST) (1991). Schools That Work: The Research Advantage.

Part IV: Alternatives for Measuring Performance. Oak Brook, IL: Authors. Romberg, T. , Zarinnia, A. & Williams, S. (1989). The Influence of Mandated Testing on Mathematics Instruction: Grade Eight Teachers’ Perceptions. In Romberg, T. & Wilson, L. (1992, September), Alignment of Tests with the Standards, Arithmetic Teacher, 40 (1), 18-22. White, B. Y. & Fredericksen, J. R. (1994, Fall). Using Assessment to Foster a Classroom Research Community. Educator, 19-24. Wolf, D. , Bixby, J. , Glenn, J. , III, & Gardner, H. (1991). To use their minds well: Investigating new forms of student assessment. Review of Research in Education, 17, 31-74.

Summative assessment Essay

Summative assessment Essay

THE TAQA AWARDCANDIDATE SUPPORT DOCUMENT Candidate Name Assessor Name Vocational Mentors Name Start Date Introduction to document This document has been developed to assist you to develop your skills and knowledge to be able to operate as an effective Assessor. The completion of this document will provide knowledge for learning outcomes in order to complete a multi-choice test for unit 1 Understanding the Principles and Practices of Assessment. In your introduction to the award you will have been provided with a variety of information including.

The role of the Assessor Guidance on assessment of different types of evidence Guidance on the arrangement for assessment The Centres appeals and complaints policy The Centres Quality Assurance Policy These documents and other information provided during your training should assist you in the completion of this document. Introduction to Qualifications and Credit Framework QCF Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) is a unitised qualification framework underpinned by a system of credit accumulation and transfer.

The QCF is designed to allow learners to achieve credit for individual units or qualifications, providing learners with the opportunity to accumulate credit at their own pace and use it to claim for a qualification when they are ready.

The Assessment Process Assessment is the process of collecting evidence of performance and knowledge and making judgements on Whether the evidence meets the required standard Whether there is sufficient evidence to justify a position decision. The assessment is concerned with whether the candidate has collected and presented sufficient evidence to demonstrate that they can carry out work to the agreed standard and possess the knowledge and understanding which underpins their practice.

If the evidence is sufficient then the candidate is judged to be competent in the specific area of practice. If the evidence is insufficient then the judgement is that competence is not yet demonstrated. Candidates should be afforded every opportunity to demonstrate their competence but it should be acknowledged that some candidates may, irrespective of their assistance and work opportunities available, find themselves unable to demonstrate competence.

The assessment system should be Transparent in that the assessment procedures are clear and easily understood by the candidate and that the evidence is explicitly presented and assessed and accessible and open for verification purposes. Valid in that the types of evidence used for assessment are clearly able to demonstrate competence, and where appropriate knowledge. However it should be borne in mind that knowledge does not in itself demonstrate competence, and Reliable in requiring different assessors to make consistent judgements based on the same evidence.

Evidence is classified into performance evidence, which refers to competence which the candidate has personally demonstrated and knowledge evidence which refers to what the candidate knows. The terms primary evidence and supporting evidence for any criteria, will normally be in the form of observation performance or assessment of a work product e. g. reports, records etc. Supporting evidence is used to support primary sources of evidence and is particularly important where there is a doubt as to the sufficiency of the primary evidence.

The evidence for the core competences in any element is commonly fully supported by using evidence from observation, work products and a reflective account.

Naturally occurring evidence is that which arises out of the candidates normal work activity and is considered to be the most useful type of evidence as it allows assessment of the candidates day to day competence without disruption to normal work activity. It is therefore likely to be a cost effective way of collecting evidence. Please answer the questions below- 1. Understand the Principles and Requirements of Assessment Explain the functions of assessment in learning and development Assessment is used to determine if learning and development is taking place with regard to specific criteria.

The criteria are usually set by the awarding body for each qualification the learner is taking. The purpose of assessment in learning is to determine the learners level of competence by using a range of different methods. Based on the findings of the assessment and the evidence gathered during the assessment, decisions can then be made by comparing the evidence against the qualification standards. This will determine if the learners Competence, Knowledge Understanding of the subject, and Skills required to carry out required tasks are of a sufficient level to meet the laid down criteria.

Assessment should be used to focus on improving and 1 / 10 reinforcing learning. It can help a learner understand how they are progressing and what they may need to do to improve their knowledge and progress further. ?Initial Assessment Review of Progress? Assessment Planning ???? ?Decision Feedback? Assessment Activity ? Initial assessment ascertaining whether a learner has any previous knowledge or experience of the subject or topic to be assessed. Assessment planning agreeing suitable types and methods of assessment with each learner and setting targets.

Assessment activity this relates to the methods used for example observation or reflective account. Assessment decision and feedback making and judgement of success or otherwise. Giving constructive feedback. Review of progress reviewing progress, assessment activities, targets/plans Define the key concepts and principles of assessment Concepts are the aspects involved throughout the assessment process. They include Accountability being accountable to my learners, my organisation and the awarding body to ensure an I am is carrying out my role correctly, Achievement the funding that an organisation receives is related to a learners achievement.

It is useful for me to keep a record of my learners achievement Assessment strategies following strategies in a specific subject will ensure roles are carried out correctly and working toward assessor qualifications Benchmarking involves comparing what is the accepted standard against the current position of our own learners performance Evaluation the assessment cycle should be evaluated on an on-going basis and feedback obtained from learners, managers and assessors Internally or externally devised assessment methods internal assessments would be devised by myself such as projects, questions or written assignments.

External are assessments produced by the awarding body Progression progression of a learner should be taken into account when Im assessing learners ie career progression. Progression should always be discussed with the learner Transparency to aid transparency I need to ensure that everyone involved in the process clearly understands what is expected of them Types of assessment includes initial, formative and summative as well as diagnostic tests which ascertain a learners current knowledge Key principles of assessment include Communication should take place regularly with learners, internal quality assurers and employers.

CPD maintaining currency of knowledge and skills Equality Diversity assessment activities embrace equality, inclusion and diversity Ethics assessment process should be honest, moral confidential and integral Fairness planning, decisions and feedback should be justifiable Health Safety this should be taken into account throughout the assessment process Motivation encouraging and supporting learners Quality assurance ensuring assessment decisions meet standards Record keeping accurate records should be maintained Responsibility following organisational guidelines and making objective decisions SMART assessment activities should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely.

Standardisation that all assessors are making comparable and consistent decisions Explain the responsibilities of the assessor By following the concepts and principles of assessment will ensure an assessor is performing the role according to all relevant regulations and requirements. The role of the assessor is to assess the learners knowledge and performance. This includes, Assess learners work and evidence against specifications. Ensuring work is authentic Make decisions and give feedback Provide support appropriate to learners.

(Adapting teaching, learning and assessment activities Decide whether the learner has demonstrated competence. Apply equal opportunities Ensure that their assessment practice meets QCF guidance. Keep up to date with training on assessment. Prove they can assess effectively Standardise judgements and practice with others Follow organisational and regulatory authorities procedures Identify the regulations and requirements relevant to assessment in own area of practice Health and Safety at work Act (to ensure the health, safety and welfare of persons at work).

I have to be aware of risks involving activities in the assessing of my subject. I need to confirm learners knowledge of fire exits, first aiders and any relevant points concerning the area we are working in. Health and safety issues should be acted upon Equality and Diversity requires me not to discriminate against any learners on the grounds of race, gender or disability. I must provide a learning environment where every learner is treated fairly and equally, promoting inclusion using various resources.

Promoting equality and valuing diversity means allowing every individual 2 / 10 regardless of age, race, gender, disability, and culture or religion access to learning and actively removing barriers that would prevent certain learners from gaining a learning experience. At the start of the lesson I would identify experience within the subject with a skills scan. Data protection Act states that I must safeguard personal information at all times, holding only the relevant information and only allowing authorised persons access to these details.

SoVA is ensuring I keep young people and vulnerable adults are safe. Recognising the signs of possible abuse and dealing with the situation in a sensitive and calm manner. A vulnerable adults is defined as a person aged 18 years or over, who is in receipt of or may be in the community care services by reason of mental or other disability, age or illness and who is or may be unable to take care of him or herself, or unable to protect him or herself against significant harm or exploitation (Bonnerjea 2009).

Code of Practice, as an assessor I must adhere to the principles, processes, practices, responsibilities and quality assurance as documented by my organisation assuring all learners receive the best possible learning experience.

A criminal background check is typically conducted by law enforcement or employers to verify your criminal history. A full criminal background check will list every arrest, charge, conviction and acquittal you have ever had. Criminal background checks are primarily used by law enforcement and the courts to determine an individuals criminal history for charging or sentencing purposes. Recently, employers, landlords and other organizations have begun using them to ensure they are not hiring or housing dishonest or violent criminals.

My role, responsibilities and boundaries as an assessor within the terms of the teacher/training cycle can be split into 5 areas Identifying the needs of the learner this is the first step within the teacher/training cycle and can also be known as the initial assessment. During this initial assessment it would be my responsibility to identify their needs this could be achieved by obtaining knowledge from the learner by completing a skills scan and by speaking personally to them.

The information gathered would enable me to plan a lesson around the individual or group taking into account abilities, disabilities or special requirements. Apply ground rules, these could include the respecting of others within the group, not to criticise their opinions but to understand the reason behind the idea. I believe this would promote equality and diversity within the group. This will also promote appropriate behaviour and respect for others. Planning and designing Now that I am aware of the learners needs I can progress to the next step of planning and designing.

There are many areas to address before planning starts. This ranges from the time, location, access, resources, risk assessments and health and safety. Different learning styles VAK must also be considered and the variety of resources available to me. I must also be aware of the core standards and work to a criteria and the learners must be conscious of time constraints ensuring the plan is completed on time. Facilitate As an assessor I must ensure the environment is suitable and the learner has every opportunity to learn, understand and be supported and that my aims and objectives are clear and can be met.

Feedback from the learners is important to ensure I am on the right track and that the session is being carried out correctly. I can adapt the session accordingly to ensure all learners receive the correct learning incorporating inclusion. It is my responsibility to maintain a safe and supportive learning environment for the learner to enable the best from the individual. This will ensure the learner is comfortable with me and their surroundings to be able to meet their needs and the criteria. Assess During the session I have to constantly monitor understanding, participation and assess progress.

The assessment phase of the teacher/learning cycle lists continuous progress and review. I must give feedback regularly and it must be kept positive and constructive. All records must be kept relating to the individual, these include test results, reviews, attendance, initial assessments and feedback. The boundaries are that I must only assess what is relevant and valid, always allowing the learner to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding without interference from me or outside sources not involved in the assessment. Evaluate It is my responsibility to evaluate how the session went.

With feedback it should be kept confidential as it usually contains personal views and information. There may also be a requirement to get other parties involved to promote the learners learning. It is my responsibility to ensure the session meets the needs of the learner and the 3 / 10 criteria. Understand different types of assessment method Compare the strengths and limitations of a range of assessment methods with reference to the needs of individual learners. Performance evidence provides proof of what a candidate can do. Sometimes, performance evidence can also provide evidence of what a candidate knows.

Method of assessment How and when this method could be usedEvaluation of methods (include reference to the needs of particular learnersStrengthslimitations Workplace observation ? During the learners day to day job role/taskGives a better overview of how the learner performs and how they can cover the criteria holistically. Observations are natural and reliableLearner can be called away to do something not related to the criteria. Can be simulated. Learner may feel nervous of on edge during observation Examining products of work Once an assignment has been set for learner to gather information needed.

This will emphasise what the learner understands about the criteria and it is product evidence that can be used and referenced within the learners portfolio. Reliable as these are naturally occurring Some learners may not be able to gather product evidence as they do not use it for their job role. Files may not be accessible due to confidentially Simulations and skills tests To ensure the learner has the relevant skills needed to meet the criteria. Simulate a situation to cover criteria. Skills tests will high light what strengths the learner has and what can be worked on to meet the criteria.

The learner can also have more input on how to achieve the units. Aids in covering awkward criteria and can make the learner think about their role in more depth Time can be a factor if the learner is too busy. If the learner has not completed a skills test before they may be nervous. Its not a real event and therefore could be completely false Projects and assignments To meet criteria of a unit that cannot be assessed by observation. This will show the knowledge the learner has and their ability to complete and understand the project/assignment.

Personal life can restrict a learner from completing assignments and projects. If they have not understood the criteria they may not cover it completely and need to revisit to complete. Questioning and discussion During an observation or guided discussionTests the learners knowledge and understanding. Prep the learner so they can do some research. Validates reflective accounts and learners knowledge If no prep has taken place the questions and the discussion will not be structured. Some learners do not perform well and they feel pressured. Witness testimony To cover criteria of certain units where a skills testimony is needed.

This is a statement from a peer regarding the learner and their competency. This will give an insight about the learner from another colleague or peer on how they complete certain tasks to cover the criteria. Good coverage of evidence when assessor is not there If the context of the WT is not explained an incomplete WT may be written or it can be unreliable. Learner statement/ Reflection To check the learners knowledge of certain criteria points and also a scenario they may have encountered that relates to the unit.

This will give an honest account from the learner regarding a situation they have been involved in and how they dealt with it. Some learners cannot reflect well and do not know how to converse situations onto paper. They can be completely false events Case study This can be used when the learner has a colleague/student they have worked with on a certain project. It can be a real situation they describe or a scenario set by the tutorThis method can be strong to be able to cover the criteria if the learner writes the case study well. Poorly written will not cover criteria and if the learner cannot convert a situation onto paper well it can cause stress to the learner.

RPL Recognition of Prior Learning is a method of assessment by which learners can gain recognition for Knowledge, understanding, skills and competences that they already possess. If a learner has evidence from another qualification or experience they have already completed it can be used to support the criteria on the new qualification. Theres no repetition in assessments and is time effectiveIf evidence cannot be found or it is out of date it cannot be used. This can mean that the learner will take longer to complete the qualification and will need to do more work if RPL was planned to be used.

Needs backing up with questioning as attendance doesnt necessarily mean understanding Understand how to plan assessment Summarise key factors to consider when planning assessment Evaluate the benefits of using a holistic approach to assessment Explain how to plan a holistic approach to assessment The 4 / 10 key factors to consider when planning assessment are Assessment type and method Dates, times and duration of assessment activities Individual learner and qualifications/employment level Location and environment Requirements for making decisions and giving feedback Resources and materials.

Special requirements/learner needs Staff availability Type of evidence required I must consider how the criteria will be met i. e. observation guided discussion or personal statement. I would plan the time needed for the assessment chosen to make sure enough is captured and the assessment process recorded. A holistic approach to assessment allows me to see the process as a whole and in some cases can cover so much of the units that cross referencing can be achieved. I will need to take into account the learners previous experience and if they can provide evidence relating to the experience.

This can all be considered if a holistic approach is carried out. This can be gathered and provided at the next planned meeting. Sometimes an observation can take place straight away as long as the key factors have been considered. If not I would plan for the next visit so the learner is aware and they can also make arrangements so I can observe holistically relating to the units and criteria. There are times when meetings and an assessment process have been scheduled but cannot be carried out because of an unplanned event. I would discuss a different approach with the learner to ensure the criteria can be covered.

Within my job role I have to take into account the needs of the learner and what is the best process to cover the unit. Some of my leaners do not feel comfortable writing so in this instance I would use a guided discussion. There are some learners that do not feel comfortable talking so I would explain the use of a personal statement/reflective writing and how it can be written. A personal statement/reflective account is a form of self- assessment for the learner. If they understand the unit and how it relates to their job role they will be able to write a detailed personal statement/reflective account about themselves and their understanding.

Summarise the types of risk that may be involved in assessment in own area of responsibility Explain how to minimise risks through the planning process 4. 1 Explain the importance of involving the learner and others in the assessment process With all assessment processes there are some risks involved and these need to be taken into consideration. I will always ensure I am not stopping the learner from completing their duties and that the assessment can take place. Health and Safety is very important as I may need PPE in some areas of the assessment. This should be asked and verified when the planning is discussed.

Lone working is another factor to consider. There are also risks relating to the learner work itself. Every learner has to sign their own work to validate it, but there is always a risk that the work that has been completed is false. This relates to breach of quality assurance principles (VARCS) Practical assessment and 1st hand observation helps reduce the issues of plagiarism of false misrepresentation.

Open questioning and rationales of duties roles and responsibilities, help promote confirmation of validity, as would a greater understanding of the candidates style of work Other risks may include Learners not turning up for their appointment Learners not being competent in their job role Learners not being ready for assessment.

Others involved may need notice of assessment ie managers and service users Costs involved in travelling if appointment are not properly planned To minimise these risks it may be possible to Send the learner a reminder message Complete a skills scan prior to sign up Email managers to keep them up to date with assessment appointment Ensure all parties agree and sign a plan.

4 Understand how to involve learner and others in assessment 4. 1 Explain the importance of involving the learner and others in the assessment process 4. 3 Explain how peer and self-assessment can be used effectively to promote learner involvement and personal responsibility in the assessment of learning HYPERLINK http//search. babylon. com/imageres. phpiuhttp//maslowa cademy. com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/pyramidwithoutkidswords. pngirhttp//maslowacademy. com/ighttp//t3. gstatic. com/imagesqtbnANd9GcQ6HZvvyF2O6VKf87r3uHageOCfEYIN4_9gJ4Vcqhtr 5jttnPc1x47ykaxth1886w2457qmaslowbabsrcHP_ss_din2g Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today

for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslows ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to 5 / 10 provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever. Abraham Maslows book Motivation and Personality, published in 1954 (second edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended his ideas in other work, notably his later book Toward A Psychology Of Being, a significant and relevant commentary, which has been revised in recent times by Richard Lowry, who is in his own right a leading academic in the field of motivational psychology.

Involving the learner and others is very important when discussing and planning an assessment. This will give the learner chance to give their input into how they can cover the criteria and also what evidence they can bring to supplement their knowledge and training they have already had. Encouraging the learner to reflect on, and correlate previous experiences or qualifications will aid the assessment process.

Reflective writing not only aids improvement, but promotes learner inclusion in their own learning. Reflective accounts throughout the course are a good example of this. By involving others i. e. learners manager or peer they can be used to provide a WT (witness testimony) relating to the learners everyday tasks and duties. This is ideal as the manager has a good insight into the learner and can give a very detailed account that is role related. This is also known as peer assessment and the learner will need to explain and work with their manager to ensure the manager understands the nature of the WT and how it relates to the qualification.

4. 2 Summarise types of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process 4. 4 Explain how assessment arrangements can be adapted to meet the needs of individual learners The learner induction guide is given to every learner. This contains a short explanation of the following Introductions Learning and training plan Visits to the workplace Assessments and the process Training Responsibilities of the learner, assessor, training provider and awarding body Health and safety Equal opportunities Data protection Roles of IQAs and EQAs Internet safety guidance Examples of reflective writing and witness testimonies Complaints and appeals procedure.

The complaints and appeals procedure is discussed with the learner at induction and revisited a number of times throughout the learner journey Visual is the providing of reading material for the learner to take away and research. I provide each learner with a list of resources at induction. Auditory is the explanation of how the unit can be covered and by what means to cover the criteria.

This will also give the learner a chance to have input into the method and assessment. Question and answer will enable me to get a better feel of the learners knowledge and understanding of the course. Most of my learners are different and not all will use the same learning technique or gain the same understanding if only one technique is used. I will always have resources with me and I will discuss this with the learner to gauge what is the best method for them to meet their learning needs. Some learners will learn better on a computer and feel more confident writing an essay on a computer.

Others need more visual stimulation so I will use easy read handouts and links to websites. I will always make the learner feel involved in the learning process rather than tell them what to do, this will make them feel more in control of the situation and can sometimes make the task more enjoyable if they can put their own spin on it. Understand how to make assessment decisions Explain how to judge whether evidence is Explain how to ensure assessment decisions are Sufficient enough evidence as specified in evidence requirements and/or assessment strategy Authentic – Being the candidates own work.

Current evidence that the learner possesses the skills and knowledge being claimed Made against specific criteria Valid selecting and using an appropriate method of assessment in relation to the skills and or knowledge being assessed Reliable assessors achieving a constant approach to the way they make judgements and learner evidence Fair ensuring candidates are assessed consistently and objectively to the standards Factors which could influence a judgement or decision.

Appeals ensure organisational procedures are followed and records are kept Complaints remain objective and do not let complaints influence future decisions Consistency remaining unbiased towards learners Methods of assessment using appropriate and alternative methods Plagiarism copied work the others or producing work that does not belong to them Pressure feeling of pressure to pass learners due to time, funding etc Type of 6 / 10 assessment assessment needs to be fair and ethical VARCS valid, authentic, reliable, current, sufficient When gathering evidence from the learner I must make sure it is correct and relates to the specific criteria of the units. I would judge the type of evidence submitted is sufficient by comparing it against the standards.

For instance if a personal statement is submitted I would sit down with the evidence and read thoroughly marking off the criteria as I read, this will ensure the information is valid. I would make sure the learner authenticates the evidence by signing and asking a manager to read, clarify and sign also. By asking for a managers signature it also ensures the evidence is current, reliable and relates to the learners job role. The assessment decision needs to be fair for all learners and feedback given regularly to the learner. This will ensure inclusion for the learner and equality and diversity is followed.

Another method of checking authenticity can be to ask the learner questions relevant to the work completed. It can sometimes happen that a learner will get another member of staff to do the work for them. This will ensure the work is their own and they understand it. You can also use another colleague or the manager of the company to authenticate the work. I can speak to the person named as the peer to ask if they can authenticate the work and get them to sign a separate sheet of paper. 6. Understand Quality Assurance of the assessment process 6. 1 Evaluate the importance of quality assurance in the assessment process. 6.

2 Summarise quality assurance and standardisation procedures in own area of practice. Quality assessment is part of the quality management process. Quality management processes are intrinsic to a quality management system. A quality management system may consist of policies and protocols to ensure that a service or intervention is optimally delivered and will incorporate indicators to demonstrate whether such success is being achieved, in the early, mid and end stages of an intervention or programme. Such indicators need to be reported and fed back in to the loop of assessors and IQAs so that quality improvements can be made continually.

These are fed back to assessors through personal one to one meetings with their line manager and standardisation meetings. Standardisation meetings are carried out regularly to ensure the assessment and IQA requirements are interpreted accurately and that all assessors and IQAs are making comparable and consistent decisions. Aspects which can be standardised are Assessment activities looking at safety, fairness, validity and reliability.

Creating a bank of assessment materials assignments, multiple choice questions How are wen resources are used How learner evidence meets requirements How assessors interpret the assessment procedure and standards and how they make decisions The way that assessment plans and feedback records are completed The way learner reviews are carried out Updating assessment and IQA documentation.

Internal quality assurance (IQA) relates to the monitoring of the learner journey throughout their award, this is to comply with internal and external organisations requirements to ensure the quality of assessment for all learners. All assessment decisions will be carried out by a qualified assessor in their own subject area and sampled by IQAs.

Academic degree Essay

Academic degree Essay

A person is educated if they constantly strive to attain knowledge while simultaneously recognizing that they know very little about the world around you. As a result, I am currently educating myself now, because it is my desire to pursue knowledge and understanding of life. Determining a person’s education is vital to understanding the nature of education. First of all, education is the pursuit of knowledge, not a goal that can be reached after a set number of years of doctoral study.

Consequently, a person, no matter how much they know, can never stop learning because they have already attained “education.” Instead, people are educated when they wholeheartedly devote their lives to understanding what they do not comprehend. As a result, I, a person with a strong will to understand, am more educated than those who work within the same profession regardless of the number of degrees they may posses. People truly become educated when they truly dedicate themselves to the pursuit of knowledge.

Clearly, education is a constant pursuit, and the educated person devotes his entire life to this quest for knowledge. Thus, I know that I am educated as long as I never give up attempting to understand the world around me. However, inseparable from this definition of an educated person, is the realization that no people, at least during my lifetime, can claim that they possess all knowledge and that their knowledge is irrefutable. Thus, the educated person is committed to the pursuit of knowledge, has a mind open to new theory, and never subordinates the truth to an authority’s dictate.

Personally, I know I am educated as long as I remain determined to understanding the world and to maintaining an open mind. Of course, this goal of remaining educated will lead me to new heights in the future as I continue my education throughout my doctoral program. I must remain committed to learning my entire life and to making new discoveries. Education cannot be measured by the number of degrees a person has earned. Instead, education is a mind set that must last a person’s entire life.