Categories for Disease

Insert Abbreviated Title Essay

Insert Abbreviated Title Essay

It’s a very baffling thing that as humanity and technology has progressed, the rate at which the different diseases have emerged and multiplied has been almost directly proportional. If we look back at the last few generations we find that the diseases that were prevalent then were very different from ours. There was no such thing as the bird flu or the swine flu back then, it was just normal everyday flu which people would get and then recover from in a bit.

But today the type of diseases that can be found are numerous with many direct and indirect costs (which are both financial and non financial) linked to them.

The Costs The costs that one faces are numerous and it’s not just the person who is afflicted with the illness but all the people around them and the society suffer to some degree or another. The costs are both financial and nonfinancial. The costs of the treatment, the testing, the commuting from the house to the hospital or to wherever the testing and examinations might have to take place, the medication all fall under the heading of direct financial costs related to the disease.

The non direct financial costs that are related are time spent away from work, the number of sick leaves one can avail and most of these are without pays. The non direct financial costs also put a strain on the workplace as deadlines are not met and other workers have to try and meet the demands of the employers, creating stress for them which could lead to them falling ill or having high blood pressure or asthma attacks. Ill-Health Costs Introduction, 2005). Other costs that a person faces are the non financial ones where the inflicted person and family and friends go through much agony, trauma and pain hoping for the ordeal to end soon. The more life threatening or severe a disease the more people are worried, they stop taking care of their health, and are constantly worried and hoping things will improve which they may very easily not.

Testing and preventing It is therefore advisable that a person has regular checkups with a doctor especially when they know there is a family history of some ailment or another within the close family (Early Disease Detection , 2008). This saves one from much pain and trauma later also preparing one mentally for what may come. The biggest advantage is that it reduces financial costs to a minimum preventing the major costs that arise when a disease is diagnosed at a later stage, when it might be even more difficult to beat it at its own game making the person terminally ill.

Conclusion The lives of everyone in this world are interconnected and dependent on each other in some way or another. It is therefore important that to go on living healthily we take preventive measures to ensure that we lead a healthy life in a healthy environment. If the machine remains well oiled, it will function properly, if not, it’ll creak and squeak and make the functioning of the rest irregular.

HIV Diagnosis Essay

HIV Diagnosis Essay

Because a new HIV diagnosis can be stressful to an individual, it is not only important to seek follow-up care from a medical standpoint, but from a mental and spiritual standpoint as well. Some follow-up recommendations may include: 1. Prompt medical treatment for initiation of antiretroviral medications, appropriate vaccine administration 2. Continuation of medical care including taking prescribed medication, even when not symptomatic. 3. Education regarding changes in behaviors to reduce risk of transmission to others. 4. Referrals to behavioral and psychological services to assist with emotional needs as well as assistance with coping strategies to deal with the many changes that accompany the diagnosis.

5. Encouragement to seek spiritual care and companionship.

6. Education regarding reproductive choices and contraceptive information.1

What is hiv?

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, which leads to immunosuppression. The immunosuppression can cause opportunistic infections, cancer, central nervous system degeneration, and death. HIV is transmitted from person to person from sexual contact, blood contact, or from mother to infant.. 2 HIV is generally classified into three categories; the primary infection phase, the latent phase, and the overt AIDS infection phase.

The progression of these phases typically spans 8-12 years.

Many people have symptoms after their primary infection that may include: fever, fatigue, sore throat, night sweats, gastrointestinal problems, rash, and headache. If the infection is detected during the primary infection period, the patient may have a much better outcome with early treatment. The primary phase is followed by the latent phase, when the patient is asymptomatic. This phase lasts an average of 10 years. The latent phase is followed by overt-AIDS. If untreated, this phase can lead to death within 2-3 years, or sooner.2 who’s at risk?

Men who have unprotected sex with men are at the greatest risk for acquiring HIV. Infants are at risk for acquiring HIV from their mothers in utero, during labor and/or delivery, and during breastfeeding; however transmission can be almost entirely prevented by the proper use of antiretroviral medications and the absence of breastfeeding. 3 Sharing contaminated needles, unprotected sex, receiving unsterile medical procedures, and accidental needle sticks put individuals at risk. testing There are several different tests available to screen for HIV. Testing is recommended at least once per year for sexually active persons. Enzyme immunoassay test (results take up to two weeks) 4

Rapid HIV antibody test (results take 10-20 minutes) 4

Both tests may be done using blood, oral fluid, or urine. If a positive result from either of the previous two tests, a Western Blot test must be performed. Testing may not be positive even in the presence of infection if testing occurs shortly after infection. The results of the Western Blot test may take up to two weeks. 4 Antigen test (blood test. Can diagnose earlier at 1-3 weeks after first infection) 4 PCR test

Can identify HIV in blood within 2-3 weeks of infection.
Used in testing of babies born to HIV positive mothers to determine if the babies themselves are positive
4 Home testing kits
Home test kits may be purchased at most pharmacies. A small blood sample is mailed in and the patient is contacted with results.
4 Prevention
There are several different ways individuals can help prevent acquiring HIV. Some of the methods include:
1. Correct and consistent use of condoms
2. Abstinence or mutual monogamous long-term relationships
3. Regular testing for HIV
4. Use of sterile syringes by IV drug users
5. Antiretroviral treatment for those infected5
6. Male circumcision


There is no cure for HIV. Treatment focuses on slowing down the replication of the virus. Treatment of the HIV virus involves taking medication that interrupts the virus’s replication process. Typically this involves using a combination of medications. The current standard treatment is a combination of three to four antiviral medications which is referred to as high active antiretroviral therapy or HAART.2 Because opportunistic infections are highly problematic in individuals with HIV/AIDS, infection exposure should be limited and vaccines should be obtained as recommended. 2

Millions With Chronic Disease Get Little to No Treatment Essay

Millions With Chronic Disease Get Little to No Treatment Essay

Relation to Management: The management team of every organization is expected to handle employee issues to be able to increase their competencies at work, which includes their health status at work. Helping employees avoid developing chronic illness through giving them better access to healthcare assistance availabilities as well as giving them fine environment for work is a huge step up in solving this issue on the part of the organizations’ management team.

The rate of employees having the need to deal with suffering from chronic disease increases every year, especially in the American region.

It could not be denied that the stress and the pressures that most employees deal with at work costs their lost of health stability. The article of Reed Abelson aims to show how many employees today are already affected by the illness.

As the years of economic downfall over the world enters the scene, the problem becomes even more serious thus demanding a more serious attention on the matter from the management teams of the different business organizations all over the world.

(Abelson, 2008, Intenet) The most disturbing issue that has been noted by the author is that most of the people having this particular illness actually receive lesser attention from the administration of the business organizations that they are working for.

This is the reason why Jeffrey Harris and his colleagues decided to search for evidences that prove that chronic disease among employees in America today and thus be able to find a solution to the said issue. The group of Harris conducted a pilot test of the American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, which they applied as intervention system in the work operations of eight major employers in the Pacific Northwest.

         The said intervention proposed at least 15 major focus-activities that are further subdivided into five categories that are listed as follows:

  1. health insurance benefits
  2. policies
  3. workplace programs
  4. health promoting communication
  5. tracking of employees health behaviors to measure progress

Along the said process of intervention, the researchers even added a 4-meeting session to be held with the employers of the companies involved for two months which are to begin with handed questionnaires that are designed to asses their involvement in the program and how well their employees are faring due to the effects of the program.(Harris, et al, 2008, 16)  TO be able to test the effectiveness of the program, the researchers decided to present the data in a before-after pattern which gave a clear depiction on how the program affected the existing systems of the organization and the health awareness culture that the said business organizations adapt to.

Why have the research been concentrating on the employers as source of motivation on the staff personnel of the business organizations tested and not direct the study on the employees at once? There are three main reasons why this process had been considered effective by the researchers:

  • Employers have power over the workplace environments that directly affect the health of the old-aged employees of the organizations.
  • Employers face rapidly mounting healthcare and productivity costs that could affect the process by which they aim to safeguard the health of their people at work.
  • Employers are the once who are in charged of controlling health insurances of employees.

These reasons actually showed how much the employers could do to imply a health-conscious environment at work and thus increase health assured number of employees, in the aim of trying to help them avoid the causes of Chronic Disease that could result to long time illness.

As a result of the study, the data gathered by the researchers showed that most employers who to involved in the study chose to impose non-smoking policies. Since it appeared to be the least expensive and actually the easiest way to encourage employees to be health conscious, it has been the “favorite” of the employers. Least applied on the organization on the other hand is the sun-protection program which aims to protect the employees, especially the ones working in the field, from being affected by the heat rays of the sun at work. (Harris, et al, 2008, 13)

It is also through this study that it was found out that employers are less able to apply policies, especially when they are not at first handed through a written proposal that would outline the significance of the process to their business and their employees as well. More over, the study revealed that employers are more than willing to learn how to deal with the health needs of their people. Primarily, this is because aside from increasing the employees’ loyalty to them, it also serves as a protection to their gains in the future time as it would help them avoid paying for unnecessary or emergency health cases that their employees have to face.

From the study analyzed, it could be noted that employers are indeed expected to take serious consideration of their employees’ health as they are considered to be the organization’s foundation now and in the future. Hence, the application of health-conscious programs on their part for the benefits of their people is an essential part of employee loyalty enhancement proceedings. Being able to establish such particular program in an organization makes the process of dealing with health issues in the organization be met with better ease and understanding on the part of the parties involved in the situation.

     True, as Abelson notes in his article, understanding the health needs of the employees working for the success of the business actually ensures the progress of the entire business in the industry that they are involved with. This is the reason why the management team of the organizations today should actually give focus in answering these issues to ease the employees of the health problems that they need to deal with and thus give them better chances of performing better for the business organization’s sake.


Harris JR, Cross J, Hannon PA, Mahoney E, Ross-Viles S, Kuniyuki A. Employer adoption of evidence-based chronic disease prevention practices: a pilot study. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(3).

Reed Abelson. (August 2008). Millions With Chronic Disease Get Little to No Treatment. (August 5, 2008).


Tay-Sach’s Disease Essay

Tay-Sach’s Disease Essay

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the hereditary genetic disease Tay-Sach’s, discovered during a pregnancy. The discussion will focus on developing an interdisciplinary team and care plan for the expectant parents based on their wishes. This paper will also cover any ethical and/or legal dilemmas that may arise as well as identify counseling needs of those involved. In addition, there will be a personal reflection about high risk pregnancy, abortion, and the decision made by the expectant parents.

This study involves a married couple who after two years of trying to conceive a child became pregnant. The expectant Mother Rita Trosack is 43 years old and her husband Peter is 46. They are both Caucasian and have mediocre knowledge of their family history. Due to advanced maternal age, chorionic villus sampling was performed and it was determined that the baby is affected with Tay-Sach’s disease. Criteria Interdisciplinary Team, Rationales and Expectations Due to positive finding of the fetus being afflicted with Tay-Sach’s disease, this pregnancy is now considered to be high risk.

This will require a more specialized interdisciplinary team to follow her intensely throughout her pregnancy as well as the baby after he/she is born. First and foremost the patient(s) are always going to be a part of the interdisciplinary team. Making them a part of the team helps them to be more comfortable with the situation as a whole. It also makes them feel as though they have some sort of control throughout this ordeal. It will be the patient(s) responsibility to voice their concerns and wishes. The first healthcare member of the team is the RN.

The RN will be the advocate for the family. It will be his/her responsibility to build a trusting relationship and rapport with the family in order to build their confidence and make sure that their wishes are being adhered to. In this particular case the RN will need to be able to recognize her own feelings in regards to the issues that surround Tay-Sach’s disease and know how to set them aside so that he/she can properly advocate. The RN will need to assess the situation, background, culture, and beliefs to get a good sense of who the family is.

It will be the RNs duty to try and answer any questions the family may have and direct the family to the necessary resources that they may require. Another member of the team will be the perinatologist. This is a physician who specializes in high risk pregnancy and births. There will also be a neonatologist, this is the physician who specializes in newborns that are premature and/or have birth defects. This member of the team will be involved in the care of the fetus throughout the pregnancy as well as at the birth and will follow the baby until care is transferred over to a pediatrician.

The pediatrician will provide the necessary care and treatment for the infant and into his/her childhood, basically throughout life. A genetics counselor will be brought in to speak with the family about Tay-Sach’s disease. The counselor will be able to assess the parent’s knowledge base of genetics, explain the disease and how it is caused, discuss any concerns they have, and explain the possible outcomes of future pregnancies. A social worker will also be involved to provide the family with any other resources they may need such as support groups, counseling and/or legal help (Ainsworth, 2011).

Teaching Plan The RN would need to initially call the patient and set up an appointment for them to come in and speak with the physician. The physician would be the one that would explain to the family exactly what Tay-Sach’s is. The physician would explain to the expectant parents that Tay-Sach’s is an inherited disorder that is caused by a genetic mutation that both parents carry. What happens is the body is missing an important enzyme and without it, there is a buildup of a fatty substance within the cells of the nervous system, mainly the brain, ultimately resulting in permanent malfunction.

Signs and symptoms of the disease do not begin to surface until the child is around six months of age and it begins with gradual dysfunction of the motor skills. As the nervous system further degrades the symptoms become worse and the child loses sight, hearing, and mental functionality. Unfortunately there is no treatment for Tay-Sach’s except comfort measures and the life expectancy for a child with infantile Tay-Sach’s disease is typically four to five years (Ainsworth, 2011). The physician would need to emphasize that maternal age or lifestyle does not have any part in the cause of this diagnosis.

The physician would then need to explain the options available at this time which are carrying the child to term or terminating the pregnancy via therapeutic abortion (Tay-sachs. org). Depending on the parent’s decision, should they choose to carry the child, they can also choose to care for the infant or place it for adoption. After the physician has spoken with the family, the RN would need to be there for the family, not only to listen, but again to answer any questions they may have. Mr. and Mrs. Trosack have decided to carry their infant to full term and care for their child due to their religious beliefs.

At this time the RN would be responsible to clarify and document the parents’ wishes. The RN would be responsible for coordinating appointments with the specialists that will be involved in the care and communicating this with the family. The RN will then give the family the educational information to the parents to take home with them and the web address to the online support group for Tay-Sach’s. While finding this type of information out is unsettling, it will be the RNs job to make sure and give the parents ways to cope.

The RN can teach them about relaxation techniques such as guided imagery, music therapy, or breathing patterns that can be done in situations when they are feeling anxious about the impending birth. The RN will educate the parents on maintaining a healthy diet and continuing regular activity and exercise as the physician recommends. The RN will explain to the expectant parents that since the pregnancy is considered high risk based on maternal age and the diagnosis of Tay-Sach’s there will be more frequent visits to the perinatologist than one would typically expect and there may be more ultrasounds performed to assess the baby.

With any pregnancy the RN would want to educate the parents about signs of labor and when to seek medical attention in case of an emergency. The parents would need to know things that are not normal during pregnancy such as burning upon urination, vaginal bleeding, fluid gushing from the vagina, severe swelling, vision changes, loss of consciousness, or a severe headache. Education about abstinence from smoking and consumption of alcohol is also a necessity, regardless. Another oint of discussion eventually will be the birth, the RN would need to let the parents know that with a high risk pregnancy, home births are not recommended (mayoclinic. com).

Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing Some would argue the genetic testing, especially during pregnancy gives someone the right to play “God”. In an article written by Dr. Rob DeSalle he discusses how we are now able to detect certain genetic disorders that parents can pass to their children such as Tay-Sach’s or Phenylketonuria. According to his article he wonders if this will give people a free pass to design their babies.

Dr. DeSalle also speaks about “superhumans” in his article and the fact that with advancing technology we could create a race without defects (amnh. ecolleg. com). Chorionic villus sampling is typically done at 10-12 weeks gestation. An ethical concern surrounding the timeframe of this testing is that it often causes the parents to make the decision of a therapeutic abortion in a pregnancy that may have spontaneously aborted on its own. Although this theory is not 100 percent, it still could prevent the family from going through such a disheartening experience (Himes, 1999).

Another dilemma families are faced with is the risk versus benefit. Chorionic villus sampling does not come with our risks. This type of test involved inserting a catheter either through the abdomen or transvaginally into the placenta and collecting a sample. Doing so has been known to cause a spontaneous abortion or even cause reduced limbs. The test, while important, could potentially do more harm than good. Ethical and Legal Dilemmas Whose right is it to bring a dying child into the world?

Some believe that everything happens for a reason and others believe doing so is a form of inhumanity. This could surely affect the parents decision, especially if they felt that carrying the child to term and bringing it into the world would cause it suffering. What if the test is wrong? It is known that chorionic villus sampling is not as effective of a test as an amniocentesis, therefore with this knowledge the parents may wish to wait until further testing can be done, however by that time, the choice of therapeutic abortion is no longer an option (Himes, 1999).

As far as legalities are concerned, discrimination would possibly be an issue. The parents insurance may not want to provide the necessary coverage for their child because the diagnosis was made in utero and they could have “prevented” it. The child is also going to require around the clock care, will either of the parents be let go from their positions for needing to take so much time off of work? These are two issues that also may affect the parent’s decision.

It was determined that they both work very extended hours and this child will definitely have an effect on that. Patient Advocacy Advocating for the Trosack’s means standing up for them so that their decision and wishes are adhered to and making sure they are heard by the interdisciplinary team. The RN would also be their voice of reason when trying to explain their decision to other family members that they may bring in to learn more about the situation.

Regardless of the RNs personal feelings it is his/her duty to make the parents feel confident in their decision and know that they are making the right decision for themselves. Personal Reflection As far as my own personal opinion, I am completely against abortion unless it is medically necessary or a woman has been raped or molested and does not want the baby that was conceived as a result. I do believe that the parents have the right to do whatever they feel is best for their family. In the case of the Trosack’s, I fully support their decision to carry their child.