Categories for Discrimination

Discrimination and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Essay

Discrimination and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Essay

The South was racially biased for years after the Civil War. The Southern states would create legislation to enact “Jim Crow” laws upon the black community. Segregation was at its peak in the United States and the black community had been oppressed long enough. Conforming to the segregated South only caused hostility. The government that recognized blacks as members of society ignored them. In fact, the government that could protect the black community from the violence incurred by terrorist groups was often members of the groups themselves.

Rebellion was the only and final option. In order for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to be ratified by Congress, the black community needed to rebel against the “Jim Crow” laws of the South, the violence invoked by hate organizations, as well as (with assistance from white college students) the hypocrisies of the United States government. Jim Crow became a general term used in the South to refer to the segregation and discrimination laws that affected African-American life.

The name originated from “an 1832 song called Jump Jim Crow by Thomas Rice” (Hillstrom 9).

The song may have been named after a slave that Rice knew or from the expression “black as a crow”. The main purpose of Jim Crow laws was to segregate and disenfranchise the black community. During the Jim Crow era, “various states passed laws that banned blacks from hospitals, schools, parks, theaters, and restaurants” (Hillstrom 9). In all cases, the facilities marked colored were noticeably inferior to the whites. Many cities and states would ratify their own specific Jim Crow laws.

Some laws such as blacks having to cross the street when a white woman, on the same sidewalk, was walking toward them or “maintaining a separate building, on separate ground, for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of colored or black race” (Bell 4) were absurd. In the summer of 1955, a 14-year-old boy was brutally beaten and killed for allegedly whistling at a white woman. The husband and brother-in-law of the woman were charged with murder but were acquitted of all charges after only sixty minutes of deliberation.

In an interview months later, with protection from the Constitutional clause of double jeopardy, both brothers openly admitted, without remorse, to maiming and killing the boy. The quick deliberation and acquittal outraged the country and helped to energize the Civil Rights Movement. The Jim Crow laws were progressively getting worse for the black community. Lawmakers needed to be black, or abolitionists, in order for the laws to change. Rebellion by way of the ballot box was the answer. In The United States, the democratic process is supposed to allow voters a chance to correct social injustices.

Citizens within the black community should have the ability to vote black candidates into office. Blacks could elect city council members, mayors, judges, and even state representatives. But in Mississippi the people in power, all of whom were white, denied blacks the opportunity to vote. The white community believed that if blacks achieved the right to vote, they would make up the majority. The black majority would force out the racist whites from power and change the social injustices.

Mississippi Senator Eugene Bilbo stated, “If you let a few (blacks) register to vote this year, next year there will be twice as many, and the first thing you know, the whole thing will be out of hand” (Aretha 20). The black community needed to vote in order to achieve change. Without the right to vote, segregation and the disenfranchisement of African-Americans would cease to change. The southern-white lawmakers created a complicated system to keep African-Americans from voting. “White local and state officials systematically kept blacks from voting through formal methods, such as poll taxes and literacy tests” (Summer 1964).

The literacy test prevented even educated African-Americans from achieving voter registration. The test required voters to “read and interpret a section of the state constitution to the “satisfactory” of the registrar” (Aretha 21). This allowed “white registrars to decide whether or not a person passed. Most blacks, even those with doctoral degrees, failed” (Cozzens 1). Fear was a constant tactic for the racist south. Black applicants “had to give, under oath, information about his or her address, employment, and family members.

This information would then be given to the applicants employer, the KKK, and other organizations” (Let Freedom Ring 149). Having the bravery to rebel against society, by registering to vote, caused many blacks to fear retaliation from the KKK and their employer. In the post-Civil War era many white Southerners resented the changes imposed by the Union. In the years during Reconstruction, terrorist groups sprang up all over the south. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and the White Citizens Council, “the uptown Klan”, which was often made up of sheriffs, doctors, lawyers, and even mayors, quickly gain thousands of members across the south.

The KKK had four explicit tactics in their war against blacks, “First was cross burning, second would be the burning and dynamiting of houses and buildings, third was flogging, and the Fourth was extermination” (Watson 143). In 1964, a single Mississippian county had “37 churches and 30 black homes and businesses were firebombed or burned, and the cases often went unsolved” (Summer 1964). Hate crimes were becoming increasingly common and extremely brutal throughout the South. The black community needed and sought change.

After many years of brutality and hatred, many blacks believed they were inferior to whites. To combat the inferiority thought, Bob Moses created “Freedom Schools” and community centers open to the black community. “The community centers would offer facilities limited by the Jim Crow system: libraries, arts and crafts, daycare, and literacy classes” (Burner 124). Freedom Schools taught students African-American history and current events. Moses saw the Freedom Schools “as an opportunity to teach the “politics of Mississippi” and begin to build a core of educated leadership in the state” (Burner 124).

Members of SNCC and CORE believed that rebellion was a necessity, and rebelling with nonviolent methods would allow the nation to see the atrocities inflicted in the south. In order to gain momentum, the black community needed assistance from the federal government and the national media. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) came to the forefront for reform. In 1961, seven blacks and six whites tested the federal law, which called for the desegregation on interstate travel. Called the Freedom Riders, thirteen people “rode buses into the south, daring the federal government to enforce the law.

The Freedom Riders were arrested in North Carolina, beaten by mobs in South Carolina, and saw their buses fire bombed in Alabama” (Watson 24). The thirteen men rode into the south with whites sitting in the back of the bus, the blacks in the front, and would use the same facilities at bus stations as stated by federal law. James Farmer, one of the thirteen riders and the director of CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) stated, “We felt we could count on the racists of the South to create a crisis so that the federal government would be compelled to enforce the law” (Cozzens 1).

The rebellion of the thirteen brave men to ride into the south created the national media attention the activist desperately needed. The national media started to show the country how hypocritical the United States had become. Men of many races fought for their country in a time of war, but came home to a country that was at war within itself. In the early 1960’s, the black community rebelling for equal rights began to capture the attention of Americans across the country. 1964, a presidential election year, was a pivotal time to rebel for the African-American right to vote. For generations the south held a dominant Democratic Party.

Rebelling against the injustices set by the “whites-only” Democratic Party could only be changed by use of the ballot box. Bob Moses, a member of SNCC, decided to send volunteers into Mississippi to register voters. The voter registration drive came to be known as “Freedom Summer”. Bob Moses outlined the goals of Freedom Summer as to increase black voter registration and to organize a legally constituted “Freedom Democratic Party” to compete with the whites-only Democratic Party. Moses instructed recruits, “Don’t come to Mississippi this summer to save the Mississippi Negro.

Only come if you understand, really understand, that his freedom and yours are one” (Aretha 41). To achieve the attention of the national media, Moses and other members of SNCC decided to recruit white college students from the north. “Violence against Northern Whites would at least get Mississippi on the nightly news” (Rachall 173). Children of the dominant social class, rebelling against their parents and the accepted society of the south, in fact attracted national attention. Moses stated, “These students bring the rest of the country with them. They are from good schools and their parents are influential.

The interest of the country is awakened and when that happens, the government responds” (Aretha 30). Rebelling against the hypocrisies of their nation, their parents, and even society, white college students came by the hundreds to volunteer for “Freedom Summer”. Volunteers went to Oxford, Ohio, currently the campus of Miami University, for a weeklong orientation. Volunteers were not going to be paid and would need to support themselves. They were told to bring money for living expenses, bail, and even medical bills if necessary. The volunteers had to be prepared for death.

James Forman, of SNCC, told the volunteers, “I may be killed, you may be killed, the whole staff may be killed” (Cozzens 3). The students were told that if arrested, go to jail quietly. The authorities would have cause to react violently if volunteers were to resist. The national media and the south would exploit the aggression and discredit the actions of a nonaggressive rebellion. Rebellious college students used Hitler and Mussolini’s ideologies, fascism and the idea of a united master race, as a direct correlation to what was happening to blacks in the South.

World War II was only twenty years prior and the Cold War was just beginning. Many Americans still held hostility towards Germany and the idea of racial class distinctions. The spread of communism and Nuclear War were constant backdrops to every evening newscast. If the United States could announce to the world their “Policy of Containment” then the world should hear about hypocrisy within the United States. The Blacks and volunteers used the memories of the war to prove how fascist ideas were being entertained. Rebelling and protesting would allow the world to see the deceitful ways America.

In June 1964 rebellion against hate crimes, voter rights, and the segregation of blacks was underway. A Michigan State student said of their arrival in Mississippi, “The greyhound bus dropped us off on a residential street, we had no idea where we were. Almost immediately we found ourselves being circled by pickup trucks with rifles and big dogs in the back” (Aretha 47). Jane Adams, Southern Illinois University, stated, “Mississippi had geared up for war. They saw us as invaders coming in for a complete assault on their way of life. Everybody on both sides expected that there would be a bloodbath. We all expected we could die” (Aretha 47).

Two white men and a black man rebelling against southern society were easy targets for police. Two white men, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, as well as a black volunteer James Chaney were last seen going to a bombed out church to offer their condolences to the congregation and to offer their assistance with the investigation. The men disappeared after being singled out by the racist authorities. The next day, staff called police when the three men failed to check in at their headquarters. The police, often members of the KKK, often used their authority to invoke fear into both black and white volunteers.

KKK pamphlets declared, “We are now in the midst of the long, hot summer of agitation which was promised to the Innocent People of Mississippi by the savage blacks and their communist masters” (Watson 142). After the disappearance of Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney, President Johnson and the FBI became involved. The story of the missing, as well as the peaceful rebellion, quickly gained national attention. Two of the men’s skin color became a key factor for the instant media. Rita Shwerner declared, “We all know that the search with hundreds of sailors is because my husband and Goodman are white.

If only Chaney was involved, nothing would have been done” (Rachal 168). The media may have not paid much attention if only a black man went missing. The media told the story of the missing men on nationally televised nightly newscasts and public outcry immediately followed. Finally the south received assistance from the federal government. Lyndon Johnson sent hundreds of men from the military to search for the three men. As the search went on, the Mississippi Governor and a member of the White Citizens Council exclaimed, “Of course I don’t approve of murder, but those kids were asking for trouble” (Aretha 50).

The shot and beaten bodies of the missing men were found after a month. It later surfaced that the local police arrested the three men for speeding. After dark, the police released the men to the KKK. Eighteen men were originally arrested but only a few were convicted and served light sentences. Finally in 2005, 41 years after the murders, Edgar Ray Killen was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to three life sentences, without the possibility of parole, to be served in succession. After the deaths of Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney was the perfect time for blacks to rebel louder.

To achieve the voting rights for the segregated community, the rebellious blacks and whites created a stronger alliance than ever before. By coming together, the black community showed America that the rebellion would not end until equal rights and the ability to vote was achieved. The summer of 1964 became the high water mark for equal rights in America. “Freedom Summer” along with nonviolent protests across the south lead to the signing of Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Voting Rights Act “prohibits voting practices or procedures that discriminate on the basis of race, color.

Discrimination to voting applies nationwide to any voting standard, practice, or procedure that results in the denial of the right of any citizen to vote. Section 2 is permanent and has no expiration date” (Section 2). Rebellion was a necessity to end the disenfranchisement of the African-American community. Rebellion for the black community was not to conform to the racist south, but to consciously do the opposite. Without rebellion and bravery the south may have never changed. Volunteer Bruce Hartford professed, “We used to say: If you don’t like the history they’re teaching you in school, go out and make some of your own” (Aretha 35).

Diversity in the Workplace Essay

Diversity in the Workplace Essay

Discrimination are more common in workplaces, because some people only think of discrimination as making a distinction and judgment of a person based on color of skin. Discrimination goes far beyond color of skin. A person can be disseminated agonist for their age, disability, gender, religion, or even for being pregnant. In a workplace there are standards and policies in place to decrease the chances of a person being discriminated against. When the staff is diverse in a workplace, discrimination less likely to happen.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission indicates that it is “illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person’s race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or disability” (). I experienced discrimination in the workplace, and after making an EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) complaint on a supervisor, she became more discriminatory towards me.

The supervisor would make racist statements, once she found out I put an EEO complaint in on her, she would deliberately change my schedule, and put me on shifts that I could not work, to get me to quit.

Most places do not give “set schedules” which means a person works the same shift and works the same hours on the same days. However, the position I worked, was a set schedule position. After going through weeks of the hostile environment, and continued derogatory statements, I quit as it was stressing me out, which caused me to lose severe weight. There are federal and state legislation that supports fair and impartial practices in the workplace.

Federal legislations that supports fair practices include: •Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; •The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA), which protects men and women who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex-based wage discrimination (Scott, 2014). •the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), which protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older; •Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended (ADA), which prohibit employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in the private sector, and in state and local governments; •Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibit discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities who work in the federal government; •Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA), which prohibits employment discrimination based on genetic information about an applicant, employee, or former employee; and •The Civil Rights Act of 1991, which, among other things, provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination (Scott, 2014). There are responsibilities that human resource managers should uphold to protect the employees from discrimination in the workplace.

It is important for human service mangers to strive to have a diverse workplace, while maintaining awareness of equal employment legislation and affirmative action (Lewis, Packard, & Lewis, 2012). Human service mangers objectives should include, but are not limited to promoting awareness of workplace diversity, develop and maintain a highly skilled, diverse and effective workforce, where all employees and members are valued, encouraged and provided with opportunities to develop their potential (Workplace Diversity, 2014). It I s also import to develop a supportive workplace culture which allows employees and members to balance their work and personal life, and provide a discrimination and harassment free workplace; and embrace workplace diversity principles in recruitment and selection processes (Workplace Diversity Plan, 2014). It is important for human service mangers and others who make decision to be aware of the effects of their practices (book). Their practices could either make the organization more effective and receptive, or continue discrimination against, women, elderly people, color people, and others (Lewis, Packard, & Lewis, 2012).

There are many strategies involved in risk management. One strategy is human resources being accountable and responsible for providing information and recommendations about local, state and federal laws pertaining to equity and human rights, including an affirmative action place (Lewis, Packard, & Lewis, 2012). When human resource management are aware of their practices, human service organizations less likely to have cases of discrimination in the workplace. Another strategy is providing training in diversity and equity to increase knowledge and understanding of critical issues, improve job-related skills, develop leadership, and ensure responsive, sensitive support for individuals (Workplace Diversity Plan, 2014). Diversity within the workplace are paramount for human service workers and for management of human service organizations, because human service organizations can offer services to a more diverse community with staff, who are culturally competent. This makes them able to give services to all group of people leaving no error for discrimination.

When a human service organization is committed to helping children who are sexually abused, these is no room for discrimination. Diversity is important in the dream organization called ChildFocus Sexual Abuse Organization (CFSAO), as many children will be from different ethnic backgrounds, with different beliefs, and different social-economics statues. The experience explained above consists of a supervisor making racist statements. In the CFSAO, diversity would have a huge influence on the clients as well as the human service workers. Racism would have a negative impact on the sexual abused children, which would further traumatize and victimize a child. It is necessary for the staff to be culturally competent, and sensitive to the experiences of all sexually abused children and their families. Culturally competency would apply to the development and management aspects of human services, because it provides human service workers with effective services that are equally accessible to each of the diverse groups that the organization serves.

In conclusion, there are federal and local laws that protect people from being discriminated in the workplace. The human resource managers should be aware of their practices during the interview and hiring process, by hiring a more diverse group of people for a human service organization. This would decrease the chances of human service workers or clients from being discriminated against. There are strategies that can help human service agencies decrease discrimination in a workplace which can include promote awareness in the workplace diversity, and develop a supportive workplace culture which allows employees and members to balance their work and personal life (Work Diversity Plan, 2014). It also important for human service workers to be culturally competent, so they are capable of serving all groups of people from different backgrounds.

Discrimination Worksheet Essay

Discrimination Worksheet Essay

• What is discrimination? How is discrimination different from prejudice and stereotyping?

Racial and Ethics Group 13th Edition by Richard T. Schafer defines discrimination as the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons. Discrimination is different from prejudice and stereotyping because discrimination is the act of excluding a group from some right, privilege, or service which is based upon some form of prejudice or stereotyping. Stereotyping is a generalization of a group of people from a certain race which is usually negative and a prejudice is a first impression of a person which is usually based off a stereotype.

Discrimination is actual positive or negative actions towards a person or group based solely on their differences. An example would be an employer not hiring Hispanics because he does not like them.

• What are the causes of discrimination?

Discrimination is caused by race, religion, gender, ethnicity; this can affect promotions, or even getting the job to begin with.

Discrimination is often based on ignorance, fear and stereotypical viewpoints. There are many causes for discrimination. One of which is learned from behavior. If you grew up seeing discrimination practiced by your parents, you will probably follow the same mind-set and this will be passing on through generations and generations of families. Racism is the major cause of Discrimination. It creates a big gap between people the hate for minority groups and the action to oppress them. For example to deny a Hispanic family living in an all-White community.

• How is discrimination faced by one identity group (race, ethnicity, religious beliefs, gender, sexual orientation, age, or disability) the same as discrimination faced by another? How are they different?

Discrimination at times is something one person cannot control such as age, race or even one’s disability. The similarities are that they are all suffering at the hands of insensitive and ignorant people. To be honest I really do not think there is an actual difference at all in the discrimination faced by one group versus another group. To me discrimination is discrimination. I do not see a difference with discrimination from one person to another person; the only difference is that person’s ethnicity. Someone may not like blacks over Hispanics but when it comes down to it and they had to choose let’s say for example an employment opportunity that person might go along with the black person. That one person might have just picked the black male over the Hispanic male because he does not like Mexicans and now that one person may think all Hispanics are Mexican.

Lucas v Dole Essay

Lucas v Dole Essay

In the Fall of 1987, plaintiff Julia Lucas appeals the dismissal of her job discrimination suit. Lucas, a white woman, argues that she was the victim of reverse discrimination when Rosa Wright, a less qualified black woman, was promoted to the Quality Assurance and Training Specialist position at her job. The judge dismissed the claim, finding that Lucas did not make out a prima facie case (Open Jurist, 2011).

Statement of the Problem Both Julia Lucas, a white woman, and Rosa Wright, a black woman, work for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

They both applied for Quality Assurance and Training Specialist (QATS) positions at the Flight Service Station in Leesburg, Virginia. Both women, along with nineteen other applicants, were qualified for the two positions that were available. Edward Dietz, the official who interviewed the top four applicants, selected Rosa Wright and another woman named Sharon Hall as the best candidates to fill the positions. Edward Dietz did not consider Julia Lucas. Lucas believed she was reverse discriminated and took the case to court (Open Jurist, 2011). Findings of Fact It was verified that although FAA determined that all nineteen applicants were ualified, Wright did not have a current Pilot Weather Briefing Certificate at the time of her selection, a QATS job requirement.

Lucas presented other evidence in order to show discrimination. She testified to the subjective nature of the interviewing process, which consisted of five general questions concerning the QATS position. She presented Lucas v. Dole 3 evidence that her answers were detailed and job specific, while Wright’s were broad and could apply to many jobs. Evidence also showed that in July 1985, Wright was given a temporary position involving education and training of students learning about the air raffic control system. The temporary position was not advertised to other workers in the customary way, and Wright was selected before some workers knew of the opening.

Five other employees also testified that race may have been a factor in the selection of Wright and in other situations at the Leesburg facility. Favoritism there had helped create poor labor-management relations, although it is not clear whether the favoritism was racially motivated. The last piece of evidentiary support Lucas had was the comparison of her own professional experience and qualifications with those of Wright (Open Jurist, 2011).

Impact in the Workplace Reverse discrimination is a controversial form of discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group, including the city or state, or in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group” (Wikipedia, 2011). Whether discrimination is reversed or not, Conclusions The judge dismissed the case, finding that Julia Lucas did not make out a prima facie case. In other words, it was not “based on the first impression; nor was it accepted as correct until proven otherwise” (Wikipedia, 2011). A prima facie case of unequal treatment by direct or indirect evidence of discrimination is under the McDonnell Douglas framework.

To establish a prima facie case under the McDonnell Douglas framework, a plaintiff must show (1) she is a member of a protected group; (2) she applied and was qualified for a job that was open; (3) she was rejected, and (4) the job remained vacant. Lucas satisfies the basic requirements of McDonnell Douglas, except that the job did not remain open. In her testimony, Lucas admitted that she scored in the bottom third among the interviewees, and that those above her included blacks, whites and Hispanics. In conclusion, there was no evidence that racial discrimination was involved in Rosa Wright’s promotion. (Open Jurist, 2011).

Discrimination Paper Essay

Discrimination Paper Essay

As you all probably know: discrimination is any situation in which a group or individual is treated differently based on something other than individual reason, usually their membership in a socially distinct group or category. These categories include ethnicity, sex, religion, age or disability. Discrimination can be thought of as favorable or unfavorable; however, today, “discrimination” is usually considered unfavorable. Racial discrimination, discrimination against women, and discrimination outside the United States, are some of the most common types of discrimination in the world.

One of the most pervasive forms of discrimination in the United States is directed toward racial groups. There has always been conflict among the different races of people. The Constitution of the United States recognized the legality of slavery, the ultimate form of discrimination. Black males are one of the most common victims of discrimination. For example, a black male in the “ghetto” walks into a convenient store, the first thing that comes to the clerks mind is robbery or maybe even worse.

African-Americans and other people of different races other than white have always been mistreated or judged just because of their color. Racial discrimination against Hispanic-Americans is also widespread. Employment, housing, and access to the judicial system is a problem for people other than whites. Asian-Americans also suffer discrimination. During World War II, the Japanese were forced to evacuate from the West Coast.

American women have been victimized by discrimination in voting, employment, and other civil rights. Women were once known as “housewives”, and many men and women still think that is what a woman should be. Not only do people think women shouldn’t work, but they don’t think they should vote, serve on juries, or do anything else other than sit at home and do house work. In the late 160’s women organized to demand legal equality with men. They organized into the National Organization for Women and other groups for education, employment, and government. In 17, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was passed to the Constitution and submitted to the states for ratification. The ERA was suppose to eliminate legal discrimination against women, but it was not approved by the 18 deadline. Working toward the ERA built a skilled leadership of female politicians and lobbyists.

Most nations practice discrimination against foreigners within their borders. It may be religious, such as Muslims against Jews, Protestants against Catholics; racial, or sexual discrimination, as in many countries where women have few rights. People in other countries are always fighting because of discrimination. International efforts to combat discrimination were minimal until the passage of the United Nations Charter in 145. The charter encourages “respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.

Discrimination causes great conflict among many people. Regardless of race, religion, sex, or any other characteristics, a person should not be discriminated. Discrimination is one of the reasons this country is falling apart. Every man and woman whether they are black, white, yellow or green should be able to equally do what ever they wish. Most people don’t realize that every person, color not mattering, came from the same place.

Racial discrimination Essay

Racial discrimination Essay

The era of Jim Crow segregation will forever be linked with racial discrimination and the push for civil rights following Reconstruction.  The two most influential black men of the time, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, were also two of the most polarizing forces within the black community.  Both men strived for racial equality in the eyes of the law, but they employed contrasting strategies in order to combat the dire political and economic situation African Americans found themselves trying to escape.

With his leadership skills and political cache, Booker T. Washington was the most famous African American leading the black charge into the 20th Century.  His power increased with his economic and political ties through the Tuskegee Institute and his relations with Presidents Roosevelt and Taft, both of whom were racially prejudiced.  Mr. Washington believed that blacks should accept their subjugated citizenship for the time being instead of agitating the white population.  In his mind, if blacks could earn a dollar through industrial education they would be much better off than fighting the latent power of white society.

On the other end of the spectrum, Harvard educated W.E.B. DuBois took the intellectual path to the racial struggle.  His theory held that blacks should never accept a lower position in society just because that was the way things were.  Through his writings and organizing tactics, DuBois rallied the intelligentsia, The Talented 10th, in order to raise black consciousness above the perceived blind acceptance of Booker T. Washington.  DuBois was severely opposed to racial segregation in both politics and economics whereas Washington supported an agenda based on the separation of the races.

Disability Discrimination Essay

Disability Discrimination Essay

Would you deem Karina disabled under the ADAAA? If so, what reasonable accommodations would you offer to her?

Karina has a medical condition requiring her to take steroids and other medications. This condition led to Karina gaining weight and not able to wear two uniform items, the stockings and heels. These conditions affect her back, circulatory system, and endurance level. Additionally, according to her doctor, Karina must stop wearing the stockings and heels because of her condition. Based on this information, Karina does qualify as “disabled” even if she does not display symptoms that interfere with her ability to perform her duties.

By taking medication, Karina is mitigating (reducing) the effects of her illness. However, her employer cannot consider this information in determining if she has a protected disability under the ADAAA. The ADA was passed nearly 20 years ago to provide legal protections for, and to end discrimination against, workers with disabilities. The ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability.

It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other characteristics illegal. Under the ADA, an individual is considered to have a “disability” if that individual either (1) has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more of that person’s major life activities, (2) has a record of such an impairment, or (3) is regarded by the covered entity as having such an impairment. The determination of whether any particular condition is considered a disability is made on a case by case basis.

When the ADA was first passed into law in 1990, federal courts were very strict in determining which employees met the ADA’s definition of a “disability,” resulting in the dismissal of many cases. A series of such court decisions made it increasingly difficult to qualify for the law’s protections. To remedy this problem, Congress recently passed the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA), which went into effect on January 1, 2009. The ADAAA made five changes to the ADA that are significant. 1.It provides that the definition of the ADA “disability” must both be more “flexible” and “broadly construed.” 2.It expands the list of “major life activities.”

3.It provides that courts can no longer consider whether “mitigating measures,” such as medication or assistive technology, reduce the impact of impairment on an individual. 4.It states that diseases that are “episodic” or in remission may still be “disabilities.” 5.It provides that employees who claims they are “regarded as” disabled can now make an ADA claim, even if the “perceived” disability does not impact a major life activity. It is important that employers be up to speed on these changes. This is especially important because the ADAAA created a shift of emphasis in applying the law. In enacting the ADAAA, Congress instructed that it should be interpreted to favor “broad coverage of individuals under the ADA,” and that courts must focus not on whether an employee is “disabled,” but on whether the “employer is complying with its obligations under the law.”

How Is Discrimination Different from Prejudice and Stereotyping? Essay

How Is Discrimination Different from Prejudice and Stereotyping? Essay

Part I Define the following terms: |Term |Definition | |Discrimination |The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice | | |or for other arbitrary reasons | |Institutional discrimination |A denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups, resulting from the | | |normal operations of a society | | | | |Political correctness |Language or behaviors that does not offend particular groups of people | Part II Write a 150- to 250-word response to each of the following questions:

• How is discrimination different from prejudice and stereotyping? Discrimination differs from prejudice and stereotyping in a way that discrimination isn’t just an negative attitude that rejects an entire group, as prejudice is defined.

Discrimination is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons. Prejudice does not necessarily end with wealth. Discrimination also has cumulative effect so that people today are victims of past and current differential practices.

As whereas stereotyping is unreliable generalizations about all members of a particular group without considering a individuals differences.

I feel that discrimination has many forms aside from race, also age, sexual orientation or wealth. Discrimination can hinder a person from advancing in their life, which will affect their generations. I feel that a person can beat a stereotype, at times it may not be as severe, but when you deny someone or a group equal rights, it because a legal process. Stereotyping can be proved to be wrong, but with discrimination you can not prove it otherwise false, if your denied rights.

• What are the causes of discrimination? The causes of discrimination are having a certain preference for different groups of people. In example, preferring a man over a woman to be a president of a company, even though they are both qualified the same. Being misinformed also causes discrimination. Often, racism and prejudice cause discrimination. When an negative attitude is formed over a certain group of people, mainly the minority group. They face a social challenge, which leads to adding a denial of certain rights to a person. Although, discrimination is illegal, it happens often.

Family type business, who can hire freely can cause a type of discrimination. They have the choice to hire family, verses someone who is an outsider. Often discrimination is from our ancestors. If they had a certain way of living, it is passed on through generation. Often, we feel like we are better than a certain group, or that a certain group may owe us something because of our ancestors. • How is discrimination faced by one identity group (race, ethnicity, religious beliefs, gender, sexual orientation, age, or disability) the same as discrimination faced by another?

How are they different? Discrimination towards a certain race, is the same as being discriminated by you gender. We cannot change the color of our skin, nor can we change our gender. Being discriminated by your race, and by religious beliefs can be different is many ways. If a person was applying for a job, and was denied the job because being discriminated by their race, or religious beliefs, a person’s skin color is obvious. But, a person could change their religious beliefs to bend for whatever position they are applying for.

Discrimination can begin at birth. Identity groups can change, which changes the discrimination factors. You can change your hair color, or have a surgery to change your appearance to differ ante your age. Someone with a disability cannot just make a disability disappear. A certain sexual orientation can change around to date the opposite sex to be more socially accepted. I think it can differ greatly. Reference: Racial and Ethnic Groups, Thirteenth edition, by Richard T. Schaefer. Published by Merrill Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

You may also be interested in the following: how to challenge discrimination

Terminal Course Objectives Essay

Terminal Course Objectives Essay

Given an example of the need to increase productivity in a workplace unit, such as a department of a large corporation, analyze the impact of cultural diversity on team building in the workplace, and formulate strategies for facilitating cooperation among members of a culturally diverse work group. Key Concepts:

Define bias, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnocentrism.
Identify the impact of ethnocentrism on interpersonal relationships and communication. Develop strategies for expanding awareness and understanding of people from diverse cultures. Engage in the process of values clarification for self-assessment and learning to promote tolerance and acceptance.

Evaluate strategies for effecting behavioral change to avoid stereotyping and cultural prejudice.

Given a simulated situation where a qualified minority candidate is denied employment based on the hiring manager’s cultural prejudice and practice of discrimination, correctly assess the situation and recommend intervention strategies to correct the situation. Key Concepts:

Define stereotyping, racial/cultural profiling, and marginalization. Discuss personal situations in which bias, prejudice, or discrimination warranted intervention.

Identify the personal impact of individual, organizational, or societal inequalities. Plan personal and organizational strategies to overcome bias, prejudice, and discrimination. Identify strategies to promote acceptance of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. Examine potential sources and misinformation relating to stereotyping and racial profiling, including the media.

Given a situation in which an urban neighborhood is experiencing conflict due to increasing cultural diversity of residents, integrate critical thinking and decision-making skills in preparing a personal plan for developing cultural competence. Key Concepts:

Define cultural competence.
Describe personal strategies and skills necessary for cultural competence. Discuss strategies and practices essential for cultural competence at the organizational level. Identify learning that is necessary for societal cultural competence. Discuss current research findings relative to cultural diversity.

Assignments

Reading

Introduction to Understanding and Managing Diversity (p. xii – xvi)

Section I. Understanding individual perspectives of diversity.

Diversity Awareness Quiz (review exercise)

Thriving in a Multicultural Classroom

The Emotional Connection of Distinguishing Differences and Conflict

Section II. Understanding primary aspects of diversity

The Coca-Cola Company: Then and Now

Optional: Section V. Managing diversity: Ethical, legal, communication, and marketing issues.

Ethics and Diversity: Legal Applications in the Workplace

Assignment—Let’s Be Lefties for a Day!

This assignment is designed to shift your viewpoint just a bit and hopefully help make clear what it is like to be different from the mainstream of society, as well as how the perception of normality is based on how closely
you resemble the majority of people. There are two concepts at work. One is institutionalized discrimination, in which groups or categories of people are placed at some level of disadvantage by the normal way that society operates. The other is the fact that we can learn to appreciate that differences do matter and that becoming aware of those differences will make interactions with others much easier.

Spend a morning living in a world that is designed for someone else. Here’s how: Hold a ping-pong ball or a similar object in your right hand (left if you are a lefty) and then slip a sock over it and tie or tape it in place. Keep your fingers folded around the ball inside the sock and try to go about your normal activities. The two main things you want to avoid are letting the ball get out of your closed hand and getting the sock wet.

Most of us are right-handed, and this should give you some sense of how much of our daily activities revolve around that fact. When you must use your left hand rather than your right, things seem to be a bit awkward, don’t they? If you want a real example, try to use a wall-mounted pencil sharpener, open a bottle of wine with a corkscrew, or turn the pages of a book. Are lefties at a disadvantage? Go price a set of left-handed golf clubs. Naturally, left-handed people have adapted to the right-handed world to the extent that most are ambidextrous.

Lefties, what did you get from this? Did your life become just a bit easier?

Your assignment is to write a brief two- to three-page essay paper, double-spaced, on the importance of understanding cultural, ethnic, and gender differences by managers and professionals in a business setting. Connect your observations and ideas to the materials and readings covered so far in the class. Don’t forget to include your experience with the ball and sock experiment in your paper, and be sure to relate the experiment to the importance of understanding diversity and applying this knowledge in the workplace. Please follow APA formatting requirements for this assignment, including a title page, and proofread to be sure that you have no spelling or grammatical errors.

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page. For instructions on how to use the Dropbox, read these step-by-step instructions or watch this Dropbox Tutorial.

See the Syllabus section “Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date information.

Course Project

There will be a Course Project for this class. The final paper will not be due until Week 7; however, you will have additional graded deliverables during the course. Please visit the Course Project section under Course Home for complete details.

Discussions

Introduce yourself to your instructor and to the rest of the class (not graded, but required) You Eat What?! (graded)
Some of My Best… (graded)

Lecture topics
Why Understand Diversity? | Institutional Versus Ideological Understanding | Understanding Ourselves, Understanding Others | The Challenge | Ethnocentrism | Study Tools

Explain the Different Types of Discrimination Essay

Explain the Different Types of Discrimination Essay

Discrimination has many meaning and many different ways people can discriminate against others. Discriminations can be as simple as a person making a judgment against someone else by the way they dress or the way they speak or it can be the people are discriminated against (out casted/left out) because they choose to be different or have a disability or different colour of skin or even religion.

Discrimination is unfair treatment of a person action based on prejudice which someone has of that individual and it can affect the targeted individual physically, this could be self-harm or eating disorders, intellectually, the individual won’t want to go to work because of how they are being treated, emotionally, which could be depression, anxiety, aggression, stress or fear, and finally, it can also affect them socially, because they might isolate themselves from the people around them which could result in the loss of friends and it may make some of their relationships with others strained because they think that everyone they know is going to treat them in the same way.

The types of discrimination are: culture, disability, age, social class, gender, sexuality, health status and cognitive ability.

The first type of discrimination is culture. This can be very important to some individuals because it shows their identity to other people and it is also the way in which they lead their life no matter what country they’re living in. Cultural discrimination means that when an individual from a different background or culture follows their cultures rules strictly; they are disliked by some people because they have a different lifestyle, following and they do not follow the same rules because of how they’ve been raised by their family. It is developed within the social group which they have been raised in; and it can change when they become mature enough to decide for themselves which culture best suited for them. In a profession in Health and Social Care it is important for everyone who is concerned to respect other people’s cultures.

It is important for the individual because it gives them a sense of understanding and support, promotes their well-being and can also help their health. Also it is important to health and social care professionals because they see the benefits of their care value base and it underlines the importance of respecting an individual’s culture. Sometimes people see this as if the individual is receiving special treatment because they are different; which can make them feel angry or strong jealousy and as a result they will make the individual from a different culture feel isolated; which might make any relationships which the individual has strained and it can make them feel like they have no respect from anyone around them because of how they look or behave.

In health and social care a lot of people work with and support people with varying degrees of disabilities. The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) makes it unlawful to discriminate against someone who has a disability. The act covers employment, access to goods, facilities and services of organisations, education, buying and renting a property and transportation services.

There has to be full access ability for anyone with a disability. However, people who are part of the same establishment might discriminate against a disabled person in a wheel chair or with a severe disability; by calling them disrespectful names and say that they don’t deserve to be a part of the establishment just because they are disabled in some way; and this can make the disabled person feel depressed and suffer from anxiety problems because if the same thing has been said enough times then they will believe that they don’t deserve an education or have the right to same things which a non-disabled person has the right to.

Age discrimination occurs “when someone is treated unfavourably because of their age, without justification, or is harassed or victimised because of their age”. There have been some controversies regarding the dispensing of certain very expensive drugs to older people because of their shorter life expectancy due to their age. And as a result some people have argued that the money would be better spent on drugs for younger people.

However, this would be denying a drug due to their age and would open the health service to considerable legal risk, and legal advice would be needed before discussions like this could happen. Also, sometimes when there are a lot of elderly people and only a few teenagers waiting to get on a bus and when the bus arrives at their stop the teenagers get onto the bus before the elderly people; the elderly people may decide to talk aggressively to the teenagers just because they are older and they feel that they are more important because they might have a disability.

Social discrimination is the actual behaviour of those who treat others differently depending on their social situation, to pigeon-hole someone socially, such that someone on benefits is treated unfairly compared to that of someone who works for a living. Invariably it’s a dysfunctional psychology re-enforced by peer pressure to gear an individual’s thought processes to fail to take into account or assess another individuals sole circumstances before passing judgement. It is not really seen as a problem by the bearer of the discrimination unless the bearer directly experiences some similar discrimination.

The social class of an individual is apparent from the area in which they live with their family; the higher the social class, the better the place is kept and maintained. This form of inequality has also infiltrated health and social care. In the foreword to a Department of Health education, the former Secretary of State for Health stated that the poor are more likely to get cancer than the rich, and their chances of survival are lower too; this letter carries on to say that health care is essentially a postcode lottery, which means that having access to health care is often determined by where an individual lives. However, in the Equality and Human Rights Commission it states “At the heart of human rights is the belief everybody should be treated equally and with dignity – no matter what their circumstances”.

An individual cannot be discriminated against because of their gender; if they are however it refers to a bias towards one gender. In the vast majority of careers, this bias means that women do not obtain the same opportunities as men for everything from their initial health care education right through to the hiring process and workplace environment. Their career advancement is also smaller and slower in comparison with career advancement for men. On top of that, women and men may perform the same jobs, but women will receive fewer benefits and less pay than men. Under the Gender Equality Duty 2007, all organisations, including health and social care services, cannot discriminate unfairly due to a person’s gender.

Equal rights of access, health care and rights must be adhered to. Sexuality is a very individual thing; although most people are ‘straight’, heterosexual, a significant percentage of the population are gay, bisexual, celibate or asexual. Unfair treatment on the basis of someone’s sexuality – or assumptions about their sexuality – is discrimination and has no place in the sport’s environment. Sexuality discrimination happens when someone is treated unfairly compared with others, because of their sexuality. It can also occur because someone makes assumptions about someone else’s sexuality. Under the Queensland Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (the Act), it can be unlawful to do this. Under federal legislation, it can also be unlawful.

The Act says it is against the law to treat people unfairly because of their sexuality, whether they are gay, lesbian, heterosexual or bisexual. The law also protects a person who identifies, or has identified, as a member of the opposite sex by living or seeking to live as a member of that sex. The law also protects sex workers working lawfully. Health status discrimination often occurs when an individual is diagnosed with HIV or AIDS. Sources of stigma include fear of illness, fear of contagion, and fear of death. Fear of illness and fear of contagion is a common reaction among health workers, co-workers, and caregivers, as well as the general population. Stigma is one means of coping with the fear that contact with a member of an affected group; by caring for or sharing utensils with a PLHA will result in contracting the disease.

HIV-stigma is often layered on top of many other stigmas associated with such specific groups as homosexuals and commercial sex workers and such behaviours as drug abuse by using needles and casual sex. These behaviours are perceived as controllable and are therefore assigned more blame, receive less sympathy, but instead, more anger and are less likely to receive assistance as opposed to people with AIDS who were infected through circumstances where there was no control, such as receiving a blood transfusion. However, sometimes it can be difficult to make decisions regarding a person’s medical treatment; their expected quality of life after the treatment has been given and their overall life expectancy have to be seriously considered.

And the people who are making these decisions for someone should always keep questioning their own assumptions and prejudices; and also do their best to balance the welfare of individual patients with broader funding considerations. Under section 2 of the Family Status Discrimination Ordinance (“FSDO”), family status means the status of a person who has the responsibility for the care of an immediate family member. An immediate family member is a person who is related by blood, marriage, adoption or affinity. However, this can lead to a variety of discriminations against members of the family; they can be against gay or lesbian parents, single parents, parents of different genders, parents of different races with mixed-race children and other family groupings.

It can either direct or indirect discrimination, direct discrimination means that a person is treated unfavorably because of their family status and indirect discrimination means when a condition or requirement, that is not justifiable, is applied to everyone but in practice adversely affects persons who have family status; an example of this would be a company insists that all its employees work overtime and a widower who has responsibility for care of his young children cannot comply with that condition. The company then dismisses him. The complainant feels aggrieved because as a single parent he cannot comply with that condition.

If the company cannot justify why each and every employee must meet that condition, it could be a case of indirect discrimination on the ground of family status. Cognitive disability is defined by some as bellow average intellectual function that adversely affects educational and adaptive performance. There are a broad range of disabilities that fit into this criterion. Cognition is the mental process of understanding and acquiring knowledge through the senses, thought and perception.

A person with a cognitive disability may have difficulty with some or all of the following cognitive areas: memory formation or retrieval; attention span; reading and comprehension; problem solving; and visual input. Discriminating against someone because of their cognitive ability might arise because of a brain injury, a learning disability or difficulty or a person’s social class or education. It can be easy to determinate against people with cognitive disabilities but care must be taken not to do so. Valuing People Now is a government strategy which aims to improve the lives of people with learning disabilities and those of their families and carers.