Categories for Disability

Population Advocate Role Essay

Population Advocate Role Essay

More than 50 million people in the United States have disabilities (Bauer, 2008). With the growing population and the careless lifestyle of some people, it is envisaged that more people would fall into this bracket. These disabilities include blindness, deafness, the handicapped, the mentally retarded and other ailments that does not allow people function as they would in the society. Although the government is doing its best to curb the rate of disability, it seems as if enough attention is not being given to those that are already disabled in our society.

This is the job of the population advocate. The population advocate role has become a necessity in the human service field. This is because unlike other people of the society, these sections of the society have special needs and they need special attention. However, the question is who will take his/her time to attend to the needs of these people? The populations advocate for the disabled plays the role of speaking on behalf of the disabled section of the society.

As a result of their condition, disabled people are often sidelined in the society and given little or no attention. The population advocate takes it upon himself/herself to see to the welfare condition of these people. The duty of advocacy should not be left to individuals and welfare organizations. It should be the collective responsibility of everyone as these people are also part of our society. People with disabilities have needs such as housing, treatment, short and long-term medical care, education, probation, and domestic violence.

As an advocate, I can play a role by volunteering to take anybody with disability around me for treatment and ensure that he/she is treated like other patients. Apart from this, I would speak up, make a report to the police and rise in defense of the disabled whenever I see them being a victim of domestic violence. I will also make sure that I become a guide to the disabled person around me and become friends with them. I will also contact various welfare organizations to fund housing projects for the disabled in my community.

Why Person Centered Values Are Important Essay

Why Person Centered Values Are Important Essay

We all have our own values that have developed as a result of our family and childhood experiences, and as a result of our friendships and relationships. Our values are also influenced by people in our local community, as well as by national figures and the media. Support workers in social care are expected to promote particular values. There are two important points to note. First, the idea that learning disability workers are supporting a person. It is not a question of being in charge or in control, because choice and decision-making should lie with the person, as far as possible.

Second, it is very important that these principles are part of your everyday work. There should be nothing special about them, they should be part of day-to day life.

Within a few days of starting work with people with learning disabilities, it should be clear to you that everyone you work with is an individual, with their own particular likes, dislikes, strengths and personality.

Services and support workers should always focus on the individuals they are working with, rather than the needs of a group of people. You and your colleagues should have the hopes, dreams, interests and needs of each person you support as a top priority in your daily work.

Why it is important to promote rights and values
When we talk about promoting rights and values, we mean:
• actively using those rights and values to influence everything we do • seeing them as having an important role in all our work as learning disability workers encouraging their use as the standards by which we and others judge the quality of life of the people we support, and the quality of the services that support them. This is a big task. The use of values as standards is a huge challenge to services. But the idea is central to the basic principles of supporting people with learning disabilities. To demonstrate that you have understood this, you should be able to discuss why it is important to work in a way that promotes these values when supporting those who have a learning disability. The following example should help you to develop the skills you will need to discuss values in relation to the lives of the people you support.

Person centred values mean that people with learning disabilities should:
• no longer be marginalised and isolated within society
• have the same social status as other people
• no longer be subject to exploitation and abuse
• have their opinions taken seriously
• have their adult status recognised
• have the same citizenship rights as other people.

The General Social Care Council (GSCC) is the organisation set up by the government in 2001 to register and regulate all social care workers. It has produced a Code of Practice which states that social care workers should work in a certain way. You can see some of these requirements in the table below:

Code of Practice for Social Care Workers requirements

Protect the rights and promote the interests of service users and carers
Strive to establish and maintain the trust and confidence of service Users and carers
Promote the independence of service users, while protecting them as far as possible from danger or harm
Respect the rights of service users, while seeking to ensure that their behaviour does not harm themselves or other people

Anti Discriminatory Practice: Assessors Training Program Essay

Anti Discriminatory Practice: Assessors Training Program Essay

Anti-discriminatory practice underpins all good practice as it seeks to prevent the division and oppression created and legitimised by individuals, groups and organisations, divisions that include class, race, gender, age, disability and sexual orientation. These divisions are often accepted as the norm and are then perpetuated unwittingly.

Good anti-discriminatory practice requires competent workers to be aware of discrimination and how to challenge this. Gender awareness includes the need to avoid stereotyping roles and employment as “women’s work” and to challenge the notions that women are unable to undertake certain roles within the workplace.

Race awareness includes the need to be aware of how language and behaviour discriminates against individuals from ethnic groups on an individual, organisational and societal level. There is also a need to have some understanding of custom and norms for an individual and to show sensitivity to that individual. Disability awareness requires the need to understand that disability is created by society, both physically and by the way that society is ordered.

Good practice demands that norms are challenged and individuals are supported to access mainstream activities such as employment, social opportunities and healthcare.

In order to ensure assessments are fair the workplace assessor needs to ensure that the assessment is carried out solely against the National Occupational Standards and that the assessment is organised and conducted in a way which does not disadvantage the candidate. Candidates need to be made aware of the appeals process in order to act when they disagree with any decisions of the assessment process. The process needs to be free from barriers which restrict access and progression for candidates and needs to be available to all whom are able to demonstrate the standard by whatever means.

The assessor needs to ensure that there is no discrimination against candidates and that if any evidence gathering methods are found to be discriminatory, they are reported to an appropriate authority without delay. The assessment process needs to take account of any special requirements of the candidate and that the assessor ensures fair access to assessment takes account of the candidates shift patterns , domestic circumstances and that valid evidence of competency can be demonstrated at work. Assessors may also need to be aware that evidence may be presented in a different format than that which the assessor would prefer e.g. oral instead of written, alternative forms of evidence can be clarified with the internal verifier.

There is the potential for bias in the assessment process both for and against candidates. Assessors need to be aware of the need to judge the evidence only against the agreed standards and not be influenced by friendship with the candidate. It is useful to be aware that the assessment process is one of examining practice in the workplace and not an examination of the candidates’ personal attributes. Bias can influence the assessment process in many ways: ‘Halo’ / ‘Horns’ effect where the assessor assumes good or poor practice by the candidate without any evidence being shown, based on past experience. Stereotyping, where assumptions are made about a candidates practice based upon their personal characteristics, this can lead the assessor to be biased in the assumption about the candidates practice and about evidence gathering by the assessor.

Contrast effects, where one candidate’s performance is compared to another candidate and found to be not-competent, without being objectively assessed against the national standards. Excessive evidence demands, the assessor may need to liaise with the internal verifier to ensure that the demands for evidence are not excessive. This is particularly pertinent where a candidate’s performance has not met the standard on one occasion, the assessor may ask for an undue amount of evidence of competence. Generalising where the assessor decides that evidence of competence of one standard infers competence in others with no supporting evidence.

The assessor may encounter the need for special assessment requirements in the process of assessment against the national standards. The assessor needs to be aware of the need to provide alternative forms of assessment for candidates whom face difficulties in accessing the assessment process. These difficulties may include:

Learning difficulties
Permanent physical impairment
Temporary physical impairment
Hearing impairment
Visual impairment.

The assessor may need to find an alternative way of assessing the candidates’ competence, which must however be valid, authentic, current and competent as well as meeting the standards set out in the National Occupational Standards. The assessor may find it helpful in consulting the internal verifier to ensure that planned assessments and evidence gathered will satisfy the standards.

The practicalities of assessing candidates with special assessment requirements will depend on individual candidates but there will be some common solutions. The use of interpretation services such as signing for a candidate whom is hearing impaired, transcription of the standards to Braille or audio tape may be useful for someone with a visual impairment.

Evidence could be presented in alternative formats where require. A person with a visual impairment may choose to present aural evidence such as taped statements which could be recorded in the evidence index and transcribed to a Personal Statement form for the assessor and verifiers. In most cases the candidate will be able to choose which format will be the most useful for the purpose and as long as the evidence can be made accessible to the assessor and verifiers then there should be a minimisation of the barrier to fair assessment for the candidate.

Chronically Mentally III Population Essay

Chronically Mentally III Population Essay

The main focus of state and federal policies lies on the provision of support and long-term care services to the individuals with significant disabilities or those who are very old. These individuals, almost one and a half million, are taken care of in the nursing homes and Medicaid covers almost half of the total cost charged by nursing homes for their institutionalization (Tallon, 2007).

While the total population of this special group of individuals only accounted for only 7 percent of the total population supported by Medicaid, it became expensive for Medicaid to support them as they accounted for almost half of the total expenditure of Medicaid.

Policy makers therefore focus on changing the predominant service locus to community and home based from nursing homes (Diamond, 2009). Deinstitutionalization of individuals suffering from chronically mentally ill differs depending on the objectives and policies adopted from time to time.

However, the interventions used to deinstitutionalize chronically mentally ill patients tend to share some lessons and parallels.

History of chronically mentally ill population As state objectives and policies change over time, the history of the chronically mentally ill population in the United States has experienced significant transitions. Initial interventions, as from 1955 to 1980, policies and objectives were aimed at moving the chronically mentally ill individuals from the public mental hospitals owned by the state (Tallon, 2007).

As a result of these efforts, the population of individuals residing in public mental health facilities reduced to 154,000 from 159,000 (Tallon, 2007). Later, there were approaches aimed at expanding and improving an array of services as well as supportive measures for chronically mentally ill in the community. There was massive closure of whole institutions which resulted to an increased emphasis on the rights which secured integration of the community. The rights that were emphasized included the right to have equitable access to housing (Bailey, 1999).

States could fund small pilot programs since the community for those individuals who positively responded to antipsychotic agents which begun to be available. Thereafter, the national deinstitutionalization movement officially got launched through the programs for community mental health centers in 1965 (Tallon, 2009). Concerns over institutional conditions and the rights of citizens propelled further the need for the movement. The courts then limited the number of involuntary institutions and set minimum standards that were critical for institutional care (Diamond, 2009).

The shift by states between sites of institutional care was fuelled by federal policy. The Commission on Mental Health Centers Construction (CMHC) program was intensively expanded in 1970s (Tallon, 2009). The coverage for Medicare and Medicaid was wide and it included mental healthcare services. Income support was mainly provided by the SSI (Supplement Security Income) program as well as the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) (Tallon, 2009). The psychiatrist beds in community care increased in number after federal Medicaid provided sufficient funds as incentives.

This saw the state moving individuals to the nursing home thus capturing the reimbursement from Medicaid which was not easy to find in mental hospitals of the states. In general, the overall progress of institutionalizing became immensely slow as the resources that were critical for community care. Until 1993, there were relatively fewer mental health dollars controlled by the state which served to assist in community care programs other than other state institution (Tallon, 2009).

Although promising models of successful community care were provided and experimented, these models were rarely evaluated with rigor. They were also rarely integrated into the standard models (Tallon, 2009). The Nature of Chronically Mentally Ill Chronically mentally ill individuals suffer from bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, recurrent and sever depression as well as other several conditions which worsen their quality of living. A number of mental illnesses exist where some of them include schizophrenia, depression, dementia and bi-polar disorder (Szwabo, 2007).

Individuals suffering from chronically mentally illnesses may present signs such as mental disturbances but these presentations vary depending on the type of disorder and age. Chronic mental illness produces major impairments in human functioning for a long period of time which normally covers the entire life span of an individual. For the chronically mentally ill individuals to get attention from the society, they require to negotiate with policy makers about a bureaucratic maze (Szwabo, 2007).

A very ugly history about the chronically mentally ill patients exists where individuals used to be locked up and then forgotten. Today, there has been an emergence of state of the art hospitals, thanks to the historical forces (Bailey, 1999). The chronically mentally ill however, have been reported to face serious problems including incarcerations in the system of the criminal justice. This indicates how history is repeating itself and moving back to the pre-asylum ages when chronically mentally used to be locked in almshouses (Szwabo, 2007).

However, the shift in the locus and pattern of mental healthcare that arise from the deinstitutionalization forces have all resulted in the missing link between the problem definition and modern efforts used to address the problem (Diamond, 2009). There also seems to be a lack of consensus on the clear mark lines which best define the chronically mentally ill individuals. There are no clear boundaries which can serve as a scientific guideline for national policy making process.

Today’s approaches of treatment of the chronically mentally ill have incorporated trans-institutionalization, increased support from the family and the shunting into the system of criminal system (Szwabo, 2007). It is apparent that this special population seriously requires socialization, in-patient care and shelter. Common Clinical Issues and Interventions in the management of chronically mentally ill individuals Care provision to the chronically mentally ill needs adequate planning, trained and committed healthcare providers from both clinical and social capacities and financing programming.

There are many issues which need to be resolved in order to tackle challenges facing effective management of chronically mentally ill patients. Some of these issues are parity for mental healthcare services, availability of mental healthcare provider, care planning and broader case management coverage, education and training in mental health, and warehousing of the patients (Szwabo, 2007). Lack of parity continues to be an issue in the provision of healthcare among mental healthcare providers.

This is due to the low amount of reimbursement made to social and nursing work. There is an intense lobby for social workers and advanced nurses to be reimbursed differently. There is also an inadequacy for the provision mental healthcare services. For instance, the reimbursement for the psychotropic which is an essential part of chronically medically ill is still inadequate (Szwabo, 2007). There is need to provide medical treatments apart from the psychiatric treatment interventions.

However, major problems such as lack of adequate geriatrics to address the rising population of the aged have always been a weakness to the management of chronically mentally ill patients. It is also observed that attending to chronically mentally ill patients in nursing homes require access to suitable mental healthcare amenities. Unfortunately in many situations, access to living facilities, programs, trained staff and oversight becomes difficult to afford. Education and training for mental healthcare professions is inadequate as they lack facilities for long-term care (Bailey, 1999).

It then appears that most managed care programs for chronically mentally ill patients are poorly managed, designed and therefore do not offer the required standards. The traditional mental healthcare systems only focus on reducing the costs of operation while failing to address the important element of patient care. In a capitated mental healthcare, the systems prompt physicians and other caregivers to limit medications to the least minimum in an effort to only manage overt symptoms. The practice literally condemns chronically mentally ill patient to medical starvation doses (Bailey, 1999).

Summary and Future Considerations While the incidences of chronically mentally illnesses have increased and their prevalence well documented, there are still problems related to the use and access of general medical care. For effective management of chronically mentally illness in the future, there should be proper education for the healthcare providers about the condition. Service planning, outreach and assessment are also important elements in improving the way the condition is being managed.

Mental healthcare providers should perform good service delivery monitoring and advocacy. In case of limitations of healthcare providers, psychiatric nurses can take the roles of consultation and supervision. The nurse can also execute roles as a nurse practitioner and deliver services in primary care. In the society, members of the family having an individual suffering from the condition should not neglect him or her. Instead, they should care for and encourage the patients.

Community Based Rehabilitation Essay

Community Based Rehabilitation Essay

Community Based Rehabilitation(CBR) may be defined, according to three United Nation Agencies, ILO, UNESCO, and the WHO, as a “strategy within community development for the rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities, and social integration of all people with disabilities. CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of disabled people themselves, their families and communities, and the appropriate health, education, vocational and social services” (WHO, 1994).

Institutional Rehabilitation provides excellent services to address the problems of individual disabled persons and is often available only for a small number at a very high cost.

CBR as the name implies has have found in the community, its roots in the community and has to derive sustenance and support from the community. They should be rehabilitated in their community by and with people in their community. CBRfocuses on * enhancing the quality of life for people with disabilities and their families, * meeting basic needs and * ensuring inclusion and participation.

CBR was initiated in the mid-1980s but has evolved to become a multi-sectoral strategy that empowers persons with disabilities to access and benefit from education, employment, health and social services.

CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of people with disabilities, their families, organizations and communities, relevant government and non-government health, education, vocational, social and other services.Mainstreaming and inclusion is seen as an effective way:to include persons with disability;to give equal opportunity and to provide a non discriminative environment for their growth and development In practical terms this means persons with disability are included in the programmes and schemes formulated by the government and others, not as mere beneficiaries but as equal members who can participate with full recognition of and exercise their rights.

Need of CBR Institutional overheads and other major infrastructural expenses make the process very expensive. Moreover, the endeavours in an institution are often out of context to the felt needs of the disabled person, and thus falls short of their expectations. The fact that this person comes from a particular background and cultural setting is often ignored. The institutional culture is imposed on the disabled person and they are often expected to function as advised by the “experts”. In an institutional rehabilitation programme, the community is not linked with the process. Hence, when the disabled persons return home, it may become difficult for them to integrate into their community.

Disability -Situation Time line In the 70s it was based on western health care model largely urban based and not cost effective. No real service provision for disabled. In the 80s/90s there was a shift from medical towards employment and community development. In real terms this was a social model. In the year 2000 CBR perceived in terms of Human rights and involvement and awareness of disabled persons was advocated. WHO approach emphasizes basic rehabilitation involving working partnership with local community, disabled, family, governments and professionals at regional and national levels.