Categories for Damage

Damage and destruction Essay

Damage and destruction Essay

A suicide attack, also known as suicide bombing, homicide bombing, or kamikaze is an attack intended to kill others and inflict widespread damage and destruction, in which the aggressor is expecting or intending to die in the process. The concept of self-sacrifice has long been a part of war. However, many instances of suicide bombing today have intended civilian targets, not military targets alone. “Suicide bombing as a tool of stateless terrorists was dreamed up a hundred years ago by the European anarchists immortalized in Joseph Conrad’s ‘Secret Agent’.

” (Feldman, 2006).

The ritual act of self-sacrifice during combat appeared in a large scale at the end of World War II with the Japanese kamikaze bombers. In these attacks, airplanes were used as flying bombs. Later in the war, as Japan became more desperate, this act became formalized and ritualized, as planes were outfitted with explosives specific to the task of a suicide mission. Kamikaze strikes were a weapon of asymmetric war used by the Empire of Japan against United States Navy and Royal Navy aircraft carriers, although the armored flight deck of the Royal Navy carriers diminished Kamikaze effectiveness.

Suicide attacks were used as a military tactic aimed at causing material damage in war, during the Second World War in the Pacific as Allied ships were attacked by Japanese kamikaze pilots who caused maximum damage by flying their explosive-laden aircraft into military targets, not focused on civilian targets. During the Battle for Berlin the Luftwaffe flew “Self-sacrifice missions” (Selbstopfereinsatz) against Soviet bridges over the River Oder. These ‘total missions’ were flown by pilots of the Leonidas Squadron under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Heiner Lange.

From 17 April until 20 April 1945, using any aircraft that were available, the Luftwaffe claimed that the squadron destroyed 17 bridges, however the military historian Antony Beevor when writing about the incident thinks that this was exaggerated and that only the railway bridge at Kustrin was definitely destroyed. He comments that “thirty-five pilots and aircraft was a high price to pay for such a limited and temporary success”. The missions were called off when the Soviet ground forces reached the vicinity of the squadron’s airbase at Juterbog.

(Beevor). Suicide bombing is a popular tactic among Palestinian terrorist organizations like Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. Bombers affiliated with these groups often use so-called “suicide belts”, explosive devices (often including shrapnel) designed to be strapped to the body under clothing. In order to maximize the loss of life, the bombers seek out cafes or city buses crowded with people at rush hour, or less commonly a military target (for example, soldiers waiting for transport at roadside).

By seeking enclosed locations, a successful bomber usually kills a large number of people. In Israel, Palestinian suicide bombers have targeted civilian buses, restaurants, shopping malls, hotels and marketplaces. (Analysis: Palestinian suicide bombings). Palestinian television has aired a number of music videos and announcements that promote eternal reward for children who seek “shahada”, which Palestinian Media Watch has claimed is “Islamic motivation of suicide terrorists”.

The Chicago Tribune has documented the concern of Palestinian parents that their children are encouraged to take part in suicide operations. Israeli sources have also alleged that Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah operate “Paradise Camps”, training children as young as 11 to become suicide bombers. Pape’s Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism (2005) contradicts many widely held beliefs about suicide terrorism.

Based on an analysis of every known case of suicide terrorism from 1980 to 2005 (315 attacks as part of 18 campaigns), he concludes that there is “little connection between suicide terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism, or any one of the world’s religions… . Rather, what nearly all suicide terrorist attacks have in common is a specific secular and strategic goal: to compel modern democracies to withdraw military forces from territory that the terrorists consider to be their homeland” (p.4).

“The taproot of suicide terrorism is nationalism,” he argues; it is “an extreme strategy for national liberation” (pp. 79-80). Pape’s work examines groups as diverse as the Basque ETA to the Sri Lankan Tamil Tigers. Pape also notably provides further evidence to a growing body of literature that finds that the majority of suicide terrorists do not come from impoverished or uneducated background, but rather have middle class origins and a significant level of education.

In a criticism of Pape’s link between occupation and suicide terrorism, an article titled “Design, Inference, and the Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism” (published in The American Political Science Review), authors Scott Ashworth, Joshua D. Clinton, Adam Meirowitz, and Kristopher W. Ramsay from Princeton charged Pape with “sampling on the dependent variable” by limiting research only to cases in which suicide terror was used.

In a response to the article, Pape asserted that he dealt with these objections sufficiently in his book, and that he had not sampled at all, but rather included the universe of suicide terrorist attacks. (American Political Science Review, 2008).

References

Feldman, Noah. (29 Oct 2006). Islam, Terror and the Second Nuclear Age Beevor, Antony. (2002). Berlin: The Downfall 1945. Penguin Books. Analysis: Palestinian suicide bombings (May 2008). American Political Science Review. Volume 102, Issue 02, pp 269-273.

Damaging property Essay

Damaging property Essay

Much of Marlowe’s life would have brought much controversy. Christopher was reputation as a spy, a continuous blasphemer, a tough street-fighter and an openly gay homosexual did not let a lot of people love him. Although the fight that resulted in his death is the only situation where there is evidence of Marlowe assaulting a person, he had a history of trouble with the law. Marlowe was arrested in London dating September 1589 following a brawl in which Thomas Watson killed a man named William Bradley.

The jury found that Marlowe was not involved with William’s death and Watson was found to have acted in self-defense. In September 1592 in Canterbury, he was charged with damaging property.

The other accusations of Marlowe being a homosexual or an atheist has no inconclusive evidence to prove these statements. My personal opinion, I think that Marlowe was accused of being gay and an atheist and accused being the key word. There are too many instances where people were accused of something during this time and killed over it.

For example, the witch hunts that killed thousands of women after the Dark Ages. All because people were lead to believe that women could fly on brooms. So it is not far stretched to think that Marlowe may have been persecuted against for some trouble that he might have been linked too. These questions might never be answered.

Marlowe was above all an admired artist for his time in the literary world. Within weeks of his death, George Peele referred to him as “Marley, the Muses’ darling.” Marlowe’s last name is actually another question. He was referred by different versions of his last name: Marl, Marlowe, Marley, and Merle. But the meaning of Muse is actually Greek mythology. The Muses were Any of the nine daughters of Mnemosyne and Zeus, each of whom presided over a different art or science. People did not understand why someone could be so gifted at one thing and not the other so it must have been the gods that blessed man with these gifts. Not to say that George Peele worshiped the Greek gods but he is only admiring Christopher Marlowe’s talents.

As far as Christopher Marlowe’s career is considered, his work was glorified after his death. Obviously no one knew of the impact that his writing would have on English literature and the influence it would have on Shakespeare’s play writes. Shakespeare mastered blank verse after Marlowe introduced it into theatre. But even so, critics of his time recognized his talents. Robert Greene (1560?-1592) says “…who hat said with thee, There is no God, should now give glorie unto his greatnesse.” It is in that line that gives proof that people immediately recognized his talents.

Modern Criticism defiantly did what Robert Greene and glorifies his talents as well as his life. Today’s critics also make some outrageous assumptions about Christopher. But for such little knowledge on someone and so many speculations in his life, people cannot help but to be intrigued with the man’s career. Christopher Marlowe…A man who has no certain last name. A man who was incognito during a certain point of his life. A man believed in being a spy. A man who was a street fighter. A man who was believed to be a homosexual. A man who was believed in being an atheist. A man who was trouble with the law. A man who introduced blank verse to theatre. A man who faked his death. Christopher Marlowe is a man of unanswered questions, but what is for certain is his impact with the English language.

Bibliography

Jonathan Bate. “Danger down in Deptford The murder of Christopher Marlowe continues to fuel conspiracy theories, says Jonathan Bate. ” The Sunday Telegraph 23 Oct. 2005, ProQuest Newsstand, ProQuest. Web. 27 Jun. 2010.

Jeffrey Meyers. “Marlowe’s Lives. ” Michigan Quarterly Review 42.3 (2003): 468. Platinum Periodicals, ProQuest. Web. 27 Jun. 2010.

Ed. Judith O’neill. Critics on Marlowe. Florida: University of Miami, 1970.

Ed. Emily C. Bartels. Critical Essays on Christopher Marlowe. Florida: University of Miami, 1997