Categories for Crime
In this paper I am talking about Hate crimes against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. I show that though Hate crimes are classified as crimes that are evoked by sexual orientation, race, identity, gender, or religion.
Economic globalization Essay
Economic globalization has changed the concept of crime and justice from being unique to one area to now knowing no boundaries. Terrorism is the most recent issue brought before the world and knows no boundaries. Is terrorism a crime that screams for justice? Or a declaration of war? If we use traditional meanings we cannot use the term war because war is started by a state and the terrorist acts of today are by small groups with fundamental ideas. The United States has declared war on terror calling for justice after 911.
The world was outraged and shocked. The terrorist attacks were intended to destroy the foundation of western society.
The events did not change the world order, but did change the world none the less. Technology that has helped business to go global also enhanced criminal networks to go global also. Global crime begs for global justice. The increase in global crime needs a global response. There has been progress towards global law such as the international criminal tribune that began in the 1990’s for Rwanda and The International Criminal Courts, ICC, created in 1998 in Yugoslavia.
These organizations created treaties that were recommended for use by the European Parliament (Delmar-Marty, 287).
But the reluctance of the United States to acknowledge a need for global justice has prevented the concept from developing to its fullest potential. How the U. S. defines terrorism conflicts with international interpretation and this fact won’t help to end global crime. International criminal law, on the other hand, would help in global crime. The creation of these global courts would “guarantee the independence and impartiality of judges, for it recognizes that they represent different legal traditions, including that of Muslim states” (Delmar-Marty, 291).
The concept of crime or what is deemed a crime varies from culture to culture, so that fact alone calls for an international court that can accomplish more than relying on each countries law for justice. In the article “Global Crime Calls for Global Justice”, the author suggests instead of using the word terrorism to decide criminality the term “crime against humanity” should be used. Giving recognition of universal values that would ensure not only protection of human rights but also dignity of human beings around the globe (2002, 292).
So when looking at 911 one should consider it a terrorist act, but instead as a crime against humanity. The global war on terrorism is constricting the flow of financial support to terror groups through Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil. To circumvent these measures, transnational terrorist organizations are moving deeper into organized criminal activity. This transition poses a tremendous challenge to states struggling with a threat that has changed significantly since September 11.
As terror groups transform into hybrid criminal/terror entities and partner with criminal syndicates, the threat to the United States increasing every day. Over the past few years and increasingly in recent months, leading intelligence and national security minds have noted the growing threat created by the transformation and convergence of transnational organized crime and terrorist groups. While there is some debate as to whether these groups are “converging” or “transforming,” it is clear that this growing threat is complex and increasingly difficult to counter with standard law enforcement and military counter-measures.
As the United States and other nations adjust to the post 911 world of stubborn problems such as the Iraqi insurgency, Afghanistan, and Al Qaeda, the nexus of organized crime and terrorism, especially between the tri-borders of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil could prolong these challenges and lead to further disruptions and threats to global security and prosperity. Impediments to wholesale cooperation between the two parties remain, but the merging of transnational organized crime and international terrorism in these countries is nonetheless on the rise (Sanderson, 2007).
Global economics has truly been the core of crime that is called terrorism. There has been a connection to terrorism and money from oil. In an article by D. Ekman Kaplin he suggests billions of dollars in oil money goes to fund global terror and their networks. The article in U. S. News and World Report showed that I the 1980’s Saudi Arabia’s somewhat official charities became the primary source of funding for the jihad movement that spanned some 20 countries. The money was used to run paramilitary training camps, buy weapons and recruit new members.
The charities the Saudi’s had started was in hopes of spreading their fundamentalists ideas globally. The money that was raised went to build hundreds of radical mosques, schools and Islamic centers that supported networks for the jihad movement. This is despite the fact that the United States had knowledge of this since 1996. The U. S. felt that foreign terrorism outweighed fighting terrorism at that time. In 1998, when terrorist struck two U. S. Embassies in East Africa officials in the White House felt a better picture of just how much money and where this money was coming from was needed.
This was where the connection was found and it was shocking. The White House enlisted the help of the CIA to answer questions into the funding of Al Qaeda and of the leaders, Osama Bin Laden’s personal finances. Most of the money Al Qaeda had was a direct source of fundraising by Saudi Arabia. An ally to America and the world’s largest producers of oil. Many believed and probably still do today, that Osama Bin Laden’s personal fortune and businesses in Sudan was the source of this funding.
William Wechsler, director of the task force NSC (responsible for the investigation), stated that, “Al Qaeda was a constant fundraising machine” (Kaplan, 18). U. S. officials did not confront the Saudi’s about this fact until after Sept 11, 2001. In 25 years the Saudi’s have been “the single greatest force in spreading Islamic Fundamentalism. ” (20). The Saudi’s unregulated charities have funneled hundreds of millions of dollars to Al Qaeda cells and jihad groups globally. U. S. Ambassadors, CIA station Chiefs and Cabinet secretaries were encouraged by Saudi’s using billions of dollars in contracts, grants and salaries, to turn a blind eye.
When Washington refused to confront the Saudi’s on their part of the terrorist’s network. This was the failure point in sounding the alarm of the rising of the jihad movements globally and of the events of 911. The Saudi’s argued that their charities have done an enormous amount of good work and blames the problems on what they call “renegade offices” (22). Foreign advisor to the crown prince of Saudi Arabia promises that steps are being taken that will ensure that it never happens again. The fear is that some of the Saudi’s charities played more of a role in terrorist activities.
These charities helped to make the more primitive jihadists and insurgents into a more sophisticated global movement. It seems that individuals that were spreading the Wahhabist doctrine, a doctrine held by the Saudi royal family, turned out to be the most radical of the believers in the holly wars. They poured huge sums of money into the newly formed Al Qaeda network. According to a 2002 report Al Qaeda and others jihadists received $300 million and $500 million from Saudi Charities and private donors (Kaplan, 2003).
To fund the mujahideen in Afghanistan. Washington and Riyadh helped with some $3. billion to aid in the fight with soviets. Bin Laden personally helped gain millions from clerics in the Muslim world to aid in this cause. The Saudi charities were able to operate in some of the hottest spots around the globe. There was no control on how the money was spent, U. S. officials said. The charities were perfect front’s organizations. They provided safe houses, false identities, travel documents and arms. All the organization were able to dispense large amounts of cash with little or no documentation. The private foundations were not what Americans would call charities.
At the time terrorism was not views as a threat and the link of Saudi Arabia with terrorism was not deem as important and kept on the back burner (Kaplan, 2003). In 1998 the CIA began an investigation in Chicago which led them to over $1. 2 million terrorist gained from a local chemical firm. The money had been sent t Hamas and the source of the money came from a Saudi charity. Saudi’s spread the money through-out Washington by the millions that helped to buy friends and influences. One group, Carlyle Group in particular, made huge amounts of money dealings with the Saudi’s.
Top advisors for the group included former President George H. W. Bush, James Baker, his secretary of state and Frank Carlucci, former Secretary of Defense. Saudi investment in America was as much as $600 billion in U. S. banks and stock markets. In 1998 attacks on the U. S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania changed all of that. A Task force on terrorist’s finances was formed and in 1999 the charities were even closer linked to the jihad movement. In June of 2003 Saudi officials finally admitted something had gone very wrong and felt they were not at fault for their shortcomings on how funds from the charities were handled.
But in 2003 a lawsuit was filed by the 900 members of families of the victims of 911 totaling over $1 trillion dollars and names Saudi princes, businessmen and charities that handled terrorist responsible for the 911 attacks. Reform for the Saudi’s society will be the ultimate test (Halloran, 2006). Presidents Bush’s military tribunal system is another way of the U. S. is attempting to control crime and terrorism. The system is struggling with issues that range from questions that arise such as, what would qualify an individual as a combatant and are the same rules for war applicable to the war on terror (Waldman, 2006).
The United States government has come to another problem with the war on terror. In recent years U. S. anti-terrorism units has been slowly decreasing the assets that were frozen stating the effort to “lack of urgency” as the reason. President Bush disagrees and believes that in order to stop terrorism the flow of money must stop (Johnson, 2007). Since it is clear that terrorism is here for sometime and funding is a key force to keeping them active and needs to eliminated, it is still clear that international laws governing terror is still another key focus the globe needs to address.
Jails and Prisons Essay
The four types of prisons are women’s, maximum, medium, and low security. Women’s prisons in our country are very different in some aspects as the male’s prisons. Women have greater needs than men do. They have to adjust to their needs, whether it is pregnancy, or the emotional needs of the woman. Maximum Security prison is a massive building with large inmate population.
They offer tight security, high fences, thick walls, and secure cells. They are very closely monitored concerning every moment they are incarcerated there.
(Schmalleger, 2011)Medium security prisons are permitted more freedom generally than the maximum security prisoners. They receive more privileges such as they can go to the prison yard, exercise room, and the library. They still strict security but they have more freedom. (Schmalleger, 2011) Minimum security prisons offer a number of programs for the prisoners.
They offer services to help rehabilitate the prisoners. The primary force behind the minimum security is the prisoners’ own restraint.
They are there because of their behavior and they have the choice to stay there and do well or get transferred to another level based on their behavior. (Schmalleger, 2011) These types of prisons are also classified as federal, state, women, and private prison’s. Even though every one of these institutions is different they are all there for the same reason.
Prisons are made to house the most violent to the first time offenders. The concept of the institutions is to provide safety to the communities from these offenders. To keep control and keep them housed in a facility to spend out their sentence. (Schmalleger, 2011) Jail plays a very important role in our criminal justice system. Before an inmate gets sentenced to prison, they are often watched in jail to see how they react with others.
Based on how they act in jail usually decides what kind of prisoner they will become. Jail is also used in our system for those spending less than a year in jail, to keep down overcrowding of prisons. They house individuals pending arraignment, readmit probation or parole, temporarily houses juveniles, the mentally ill, and bail bond violators. They also hold individuals for the military, they transfer inmates to their designated facility, and they also operate community-based programs.
In conclusion all of the prisons and jails in our country work together like a fine oiled machine. They work together to ensure that an inmate gets from one place to another. They also work together to ensure the inmate remains safe and that the public is safe from the offenders.
Fighting Police Abuse: A Community Action Manual Essay
Stop and Frisk has been a very active public affair that had held serious concerns over racial profiling, illegal stops, and privacy rights. The police were stopping hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers yearly. Stop and Frisk is based on a standard of the power granted upon the standard of reasonable suspicion. A police officer has the power to stop, question, and frisk suspects given reasonable circumstances. It is a question of each individual case that determined whether it is necessary for reasonable detention or investigation.
If an officer suspects that a person is armed and dangerous, a frisk may be conducted without a warrant. Under the stop and frisk law, officers can stop people walking down the streets and search them for weapons, drugs and other illegal pieces of stuff.
The stop and frisk were created to embrace the proactive and preventive theory of crime fighting. It was prioritized to conduct street surveillance of suspicious people and habitual offenders. Though the start of stops and frisk sounds protective and safe, it ended up as an aggressive policing, which was in a very heated situation for years.
The vague suspicion, the search of an individual and the force used upon the target was incredible. Nearly most of the people stopped and frisked was innocent. “In 2002, New Yorkers were stopped by the police 97,296 times. 80,176 were totally innocent (82 percent)” (the NYCLU Campaign). Even without suspicion of wrongdoing, an officer approached someone and interrogate them based on their appearance. These searches were often unsuccessful in catching criminals, but few of them believed it was a success at crime control and stopped potential crime.
Race played an important role in how minorities were targeted by the stop and frisk policy. The law strictly targeted African American and Hispanics and other disempowered communities. For example in the article of NYCLU Campaign, it mentions, “Young black and Latino men were the targets of a hugely disproportionate number of stops. Though they account for only 4.7 percent of the city’s population, black and Latino males between the ages of 14 and 24 accounted for 40.6 percent of stops in 2012. The number of stops of young black men neared the entire city population of young black men (133,119 as compared to 158,406). More than 90 percent of young black and Latino men stopped were innocent.” The stops indicated the innocent of a person and the color basis of a person. Walking around the city and being stopped by a police officer because of the skin tone resulted in racial discrimination. Majority of Latinos and African American were scared when they saw an officer because they used excessive force and targeted them as a criminal or an outsider. Stop ¬and frisk indicated that race was the primary factor in certain, whom the NYPD mostly stopped were Black and Latino neighborhoods and even in areas where populations were racially mixed or mostly White. Blacks and Latinos were treated more harshly than Whites, being more likely to be arrested instead of given a summons when compared to White people accused of the same crimes.
In addition, Blacks and Latinos were also more likely to have force used against them by police. The amount of force used against African American and Hispanics did not only affect them physically but also created lasting feelings of resentment and distrust on officers. “People who have been stopped say that if they show the slightest bit of resistance, even verbally, they can find themselves slammed against walls, forced to the ground and, on rarer occasions, with officer’s guns pointed at their heads.”(Rivera). The experience of being stopped and frisked by police often lasted emotionally. People who were stopped felt a range of emotions during stops, such as anger, fear, and shame. Stop and frisk left people feeling unsafe and afraid to leave their homes whenever they see the police. People who were stopped reported that stops often resulted in excessive force by police, for example when officers slapped them, beat them, or hurt them physically. The force not always paid out compared to the effect that it left on the people. Being harassed in public, a person could go through life challenges, feeling hopeless, uncomfortable, vulnerable and high alert. The body and the mind get tensed and start to get conscious around the surroundings that stares and ignores with a disgusting looks.
Therefore, in the article of Rivera, two officers stopped a man named Christopher Graham19 years old after leaving his friend’s apartment. He was pushed against the walls and when the officer groped his personal space, Graham said, “I said, ‘Whoa, what are you doing?’ ” Mr. Graham recalled. “The cop put his hand on the back of my cap and, boom, smashed my head into the wall of the apartment, for no reason.” The aftermath of the frisk was horrible because he had gone through six stitches, terrifying experience and an unfortunate dreadful account with the officers. He was neither arrested nor called for summons but yet had a scar that would remain in his whole life. The stops explored that young people perceived the police whether or not they felt safe where they lived, not to turn to law enforcement for help or to report crimes they knew about. The experience being stopped by police repeatedly perceived to be unfair and could be associated with undesirable developmental consequences.
The Terry v. Ohio supreme court case was one of the biggest cases regarding the policy of stop and frisk. It lasted a great impact on the practice of stop and frisk, sometimes called Terry stop. An officer stopped John Terry the petitionary after the officer observed Terry staring at the store for a possible robbery. The officer ran a quick search and after approaching three men, the officer found revolvers that denied their appeals. The Terry stop gleaned from the information about whether the search was the protection of the officers and the public safety. The stop must have a reasonable suspicion to initiate the suspect and explain why the suspect behavior suggested criminal activity. The stop had to give reasons and explain, more than just hunches. The Terry stop cannot take the suspect to the police, move to a second different location, use excessive force and search for anything besides weapons.
The Floyd vs New York City supreme case was yet one of the biggest controversial on stop and frisk. It was a case that questioned the stops that were not caused due to probable or reasonable stops. It violated the Fourth Amendment and the Fourteen Amendment which was not an equal protection due to all the obvious racial disparities in who is stopped and searched by NYPD. Both the Supreme Court case lawsuit challenged the use of stop and frisk as a violation guaranteed to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures. Comparing the differences between past stop and frisk and the recent ones that have taken place, I believe the recent ones have become more lenient towards the people. In the past, the officers did not stop a person because of reasonable suspicion; they were stopping to fulfill the record of their data and show their superiors what they have done for the day. The data recorded in stop and frisk was recorded in the person’s background check. The record stayed in the data for a lifetime, which did not come in the good outcome because even though they were innocent a criminal record was there in the system. Plus, during the olden days, police stopped a person regarding their guesses and suspicion and did not have a valid reason for a stop. After the supreme cases, the violation of the Fourth and Fourteen Amendment came to a tight spot where people knew about their rights and the officers grew more attention on the reasonable and suspicions stops. Therefore, based on past and toady’s issues time in New York City, after the cases, it provides an environment by bringing humanity together without any kind of race and social system. The stop and frisk that adapted during the beginning early was a process of improving the city. Looking back at the times when the rights were violated and not respected, we can just emphasize and see the wrongdoings that can be prevented today.
Stop and frisk is not just an impractical way of fighting crime in New York City but also violated towards people’s right to walk freely. People were being stopped based on their skin color and appearance, the way they walked and even the neighborhood they lived in. The use of force against the minorities left them devastated and also affected others who lived under the same weight of this unprecedented policy. These stops had become extensive that many people learned to adjust their daily routines to protect themselves from regular police harassment. Thus, it created distrust towards the law and harmed people who were already disadvantaged in our city.
The effects on crime rate were not so huge either. It did make a difference in the statistics but compare to the stops and the statics of crime report, it was humongous. There was no relationship between the stop and frisk and crimes took place. After all the scenario of protest, the New York City police restricted their stop and frisk policy two years ago. Even after restricting the policy, there were no impact or increases in the crime rates. In fact, the crimes had gone down and were stable as it was. In another hand, it did keep guns off the street but unfortunately; violating constitutional rights of some of the minorities did not work together with the policy.
Budget Request: Hiring New Officers in the Community Essay
1. Include at least two (2) robust justifications for hiring new police officers. The justification should anticipate the key questions that the chief executive and council will likely ask. a. If this request is the result of an increased workload, how quickly did the workload increase? Could the increased workload be covered by part-time employees or by shifting employees from another area? b. How long have you known this need was developing? Was the manager previously briefed on the growing workload? c. If the request is not funded, what impact will it have on the department?
On citizens? (Hint: If your request is not funded this year, managers often look to see if a request is repeatedly put forward to gauge its urgency.
) The present police force include thirty uniformed officers, there is an immediate need to hire three to five more officers. The many of the citizens in this city have observed crime in the downtown area is rising rapidly. With a population of over 75,000 residents in the community, I strongly encourage increasing our police force to offset of crime rate in the community.
For every police office there are 2500 citizens at that ratio we are definitely under manned. The budget while important cannot be the determining factor. Our officers must know that we support them as a department and want them to be apart of their families lives. Much of the data from my department show no increase of crime rate however we cannot substaine control of this amount of population without adding to the force. With many veterans returning home from the wars we should be able to get qualified applicants.
When hiring these types of talents there will be less money in the training of the individual and more concentration on the duty of the officer saving the community more money. This request will be justified as an increase in crime and workload has increased over the years, the crime and workload has risen moderately over the six year period we never hired new officers and now seems like a great time to contain the problem. The increased workload and crime increase will have to be covered by three full time employees and two part time employees.
This need has been developing since the year of 2006 when the economy seemed to be going into an economic depression, when people began losing their jobs crime increased and the workload for the officers went up as well because they were handling situations they were not accustomed to such as counseling families and being mentors to children whose parents were working to help with the ever rising gas and food prices. The manager was informed of the changes in the workload and bought it to my attention that something has to be done or we will lose business in the area due to crime and on other factors.
If the request is not funded this will have a major impact on the department the public will no longer believe we are here to protect them just to satisfy a fiscal budget that is drawn up every year. People in the communities will then feel as though they will have to take the law into their own hands causing turmoil within the communities. My second justification citizen appreciation and safety, hiring the new officers will show citizens that we put their public safety knowing that our budget will not be balanced.
Analysis executed by the statistical department forecast and increase done by my team and the increase in the population is what prompts us to request for the hiring of new officers. Community policing is required in each community by officers hired through the state this type of policing promotes structural strategies, which provides the officers with partnerships and problem-solving skills, that will deter crime and social disorder. The safeties of each citizen will the number one concern citizens should feel safe walking home from school, the movies or even walking to their dogs.
This justification of hiring new officers will just make people feel safer, when they see our patrol cars covering their areas, and also when they see our officers in their local school protecting their kids from any type of violence or verbal assaults. This year we are seeing the biggest increase in retirees, our senior officers are retiring this is also a factor in our need to hire new officers. The first objection would be that after doing the analysis of 911 response calls and hands-on activities of the officer do we really need more fficers? The officers are very efficient and they exceed all of their goals that are placed before them currently. With crime rate at in the community at six year low, why do we need these officers? With the hiring of these new officers the demand for overtime pay with the existing officers will decrease. Overtime cost the department a significant amount it also puts a mental strain on the officers. Financing of the new officer packaging will come from those decreases. Another objection proposed revenue for salaries where does it come from?
We are going to approve a parcel tax that would give the city millions of dollars to hire more police officers? Will there also be a program in place where the community participates in helping the officers with crime control? If this is put in to place then there will not be a need to higher new officers because this will cut down on cost. Not many citizens oppose hiring five new police officers because of the immediate benefit to morale of the city and police department. One objection is proper allocation of funds throughout the force.
With the addition al officers being added on the force their will be additional arrests, court appointed lawyers assigned to the case, and over populated jails. Each of the benefits lead to an increase of fines and revenue collections by the judicial courts. Prevention is the key when thinking of arrests and jail numbers; with the increase in police officers there will be an increase in costs within the community and state trickling to the federal government as well. The cost of equipment replacement and repair could play a role in the investment of new officers.
If there is an increase in officers within the community what guarantees that the rate of crime in the downtown area will decrease? There are other areas within the state that has an increase in crime would these officers be beneficial for all areas or just the intended areas? Will the citizens of the city have to worry about a tax hike to pay for these officers? These are very relevant questions that should be answered only to protect the citizens within the community. In conclusion the budget request definitely points towards the hiring of the officers, more than one hundred percent of the money goes to creating jobs.
Job creation is very important to the community because it provides family stability. There is funding in the federal government that includes grants if you are hiring police officers and the COPS Hiring Program (CHP) this program has awarded 111 million dollars in grant money to help with the hiring of police officers. (http://www. cops. usdoj. gov/Default. asp? Item=2367). With the increase of crime increasing within the community there is much need for the new officers to be hired our number one goal is to protect the people of the community and state.
Police officers are here to suppress the fear of crime and also to decrease the rate of crime. There are many factors that are covered by the federal government when funding each state with enough funding for police enforcement. The federal government uses these funds to initiate activities that combat violence in local communities, including $25 million for the Community- Based Violence Prevention Initiatives that aim to reduce gun and other violence among youth gangs in cities and towns across the country.
Crime and Hurricane Katrina Essay
Hurricane Katrina caused many forms of distress, displacement and disruption to the community of New Orleans and the citizens most certainly were forced to act in drastic ways for survival. The response by the people has been considered forms of criminal activity and in all senses of legal activity has been defined as crime. Acts of looting and violence were reported by many reporters of various news media. Crimes were not only committed by everyday citizens of New Orleans, but volunteer workers as well and even, what people saw as the most shocking display of violence and betrayal of trust, by the Law Enforcement Officials as well.
What is also interesting is how this destructive event altered the residents’ perception of what is crime and what can be considered criminal. What was once considered to be a betrayal of trust towards another member of the community had been transformed into an activity that was now a means of survival. Some of the acts varied from a “need” to steal because they “had to” (i.
e. , stealing from Bath and Body works for soap, supermarkets for food, water, clothes, etc. ) and then increasing to other side of the spectrum to murder of strangers, friends, and even family.
Hurricane Katrina caused a massive social disruption to the people of New Orleans and this catastrophic event would eventually lead to their breakdown of societal rules and values. And it is this breakdown that would not be lost to the eyes of the news media and would be broadcast everywhere, all across the world (of Katrina, apocalypse 2005). The New York Times gave many accounts of the violence, destructive and slide into anarchy that was happening in New Orleans. One article, published September 29th, 2005, After Katrina, crimes of the imagination, detailed the mass amount of looting and violent crimes in the area.
The article details the fears and horrors of becoming a broken society and living in fear of your once loved neighbor. Another thing this article seemed to touch on was that it was possible that fear was actually caused by a trick of the mind. “…Some, but not all, of the most alarming stories were figments of frighten imaginations, the product of no reliable communications, and perhaps the residue of raw relations between some police officers and members of the public. ”
Speaking of the “raw relations between some police officers and members of the public,” these supposed raw relations were only further hurt and ripped apart by actions made by the police department themselves. Five police officers were accused and convicted (six years later) of shooting and killing defenseless citizens attempting to cross a bridge in search of food, water and shelter. These same officers along with the help of their department attempted a brilliantly mastermind plot to cover up their crime.
This included “made-up witnesses, falsified reports, and a planted gun” to prove that they were under fire by the citizens and were only trying to protect themselves. This news article Jury Reaches Guilty Verdict in Hurricane Katrina Shootings Trial by Fox News shows the corruption and hidden brutality of the law enforcement department of New Orleans. In association with police corruption and brutality, there was a similar crime committed by five different police officers a mere two days before the crime previously mentioned. An injured 31 year old male was taken to the temporary headquarters of police by his friends in search of help.
The officer drove off with the car with the injured male still in the back seat and his remains were found in the torched car. The implicated officer, for shooting the injured male and attempting to cover up by burning the car with the body still inside (oddly enough) was charged with a civil rights violation and the remaining four were charged with obstruction of justice. This just yet another article (5 cops charged in post-Hurricane Katrina shooting, burning death) found in the Daily News archives describing the corruption and brutality of law enforcement in the face of disaster.
However the actual brutality of the police system is not entirely at fault on its own. In a New York Times article: More Horrible Than Truth: News Reports published September 19th 2005, described of the crimes of the people against each and against law enforcement. There were gangs shooting at rescue crews, emergency room physicians were being confirming the rising amount of murders and rapes, and there were eye witness accounts of police officers being shot at while trying to help out a group of helpless victims.
While there is no excusing the horrible brutalization by the police department, it is clear to see that all of it is not always unprovoked. There have also been many other forms of crime in the wake of Hurricane Katrina that do not involve looting and murder. There have also been crimes by the state and government which have affected the residents of New Orleans. In Time Runs Out for St. Bernard Parish, an editorial in The New York Times, the housing and racial discrimination was brought to light.
The parish was banning anyone who was not a “blood relative” from seeking shelter at the parish. Since being in a predominantly white neighborhood this was implied to many any people of color was banned from the church. There were also crimes against the government through insurance fraud and lawsuits. Insurance companies were defrauding their clients (Attorneys arrive for opening of first Katrina insurance lawsuit, 2006) and then also evacuees of New Orleans were attempting to fraud insurance money away from FEMA and FBI grants (Katrina: Four Years Later, 2009).
The aftermath of Katrina was no match for the crime that occurred during and after it. The crime destroyed the faith and rationality of the people which prolonged and deepened the chaos of New Orleans. The news media as always played a big role in the hype of the crime wave but without the media the true seriousness of the crime would have never been investigated and given proper consideration to improve.
Blood Spatter in Crime Scene Investigation Essay
Checking all aspects of a crime scene is a crucial part of investigating a crime. The thorough sampling of all suspicious items in a crime scene, like footsteps, hair strands, and even the changes that took place in the pieces of furniture may help in leading the authorities to the doer of the crime.
Oftentimes, even the way the blood splattered from the victim to the walls and floors of the crime scene can help pave the way to the solution of the crime. Blood may be like any other piece of evidence in a crime scene. It is what everyone else immediately sees.
It does not talk, yet it can tell so much information. Through analysis of blood splatter, an investigator can tell how the person was killed and from what angle it was done. It can also tell whether the act done fast or as slowly as possible. Blood splatter can greatly help in crime investigation through the analysis of it.
Human Blood Normally, the human blood comprises seven to eight percent of the body weight. It carries the essential functions of carrying oxygen and nutrients to the body cells. It also rids the body of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other body wastes.
The blood also serves an important role in the body’s immune system and in maintenance of the body temperature. It is a specialized tissue that has various components. It is a four to six quarts tissue with many components being pumped throughout the body. It circulates constantly in the body, making everything function normally. This is the reason why, when this circulation is disrupted by any action, it spatters (O ‘Neil, 2008). There are various ways that can greatly disrupt the circulation of the blood. Definitely, the most disturbing are violent confrontations like, bullet-shot trauma, blunt force trauma, or knife trauma.
The effects of these acts on the blood may vary into two. It can either spill or the blood may spurt out of the body into scattered drops. These differences in the effects of action to blood can help tell the forensic experts of what truly happened in the crime and to the victim (Castillo, 2009). Blood Spatters and the Crime Scene The positions of the blood stains or the patterns of the blood can greatly help in the solving of crimes. As was mentioned, there are numerous ways in which blood may come out from the body once a violent act is done to disturb the circulation.
Through these various effects on the blood spatters, forensic scientist are able to conclude what really took place in the scene. Blood spatter normally tell the experts five important and oftentimes incriminating pieces of information about the crime. The positions of the blood spatters tell first, the activity at the scene. Second is the number of blows the victim received from the suspect or suspects. Third is the position of the victim and the assailant within the crime scene. Fourth is whether the death of victim was immediate or delayed.
The fifth and last things that blood spatters tell are the characteristics of the weapon utilized by the assailant in attacking the victim (Waldrip, 2008). There a number of ways to analyze a blood spatter pattern. Given a room where blood is all over the wall, a person may conclude that the traumatic attack have been done all over the room. However, carefully following the rules on blood spatter analysis, forensics will definitely disagree. One way of knowing this fact is through the string convergence analysis. The string analysis is a common means of analyzing blood spatters.
It utilizes strings that are attached to the points where blood has dropped. For instance, on a wall filled with blood droplets, an end of a string is pasted while the other end is pasted on another wall with a droplet. This is done with each remaining blood droplet all over the crime scene. If looked at by ordinary people, the pattern that will be formed by this activity may mean nothing. It will only look like a web created from a ball of yarn of string. However, for forensic experts, doing this will immediately tell them what they need to know (Carter, 2009).
The pattern that was formed from the strings may look like a cobweb in the eyes of ordinary people, but to forensic experts, it already told the position where the victim was attacked. If observed carefully, the strings which were connected always meet in one area. The intersection or convergence point of all strings is the exact position of the victim when the attack occurred. From this, any lie or alibi given in relation to the position of the body will immediately be dismissed. The blood spatters unlike men, can not lie. As such, it is commonly believed more by judges and jurors (Carter, 2009).
After the position of the victim is found, another form of blood analysis is done. The distance of the blood from victim is then measured. The measurement that is acquired from the distance always corresponds to a certain spatter velocity. This velocity also corresponds to a certain type of attack done to the victim (Waldrip, 2008). Low velocity blood spatter is typically indicated by five feet per second and three millimeter diameter and is usually dripping. Medium velocity blood spatter is on the other hand, indicated by five to twenty-five feet per second with less than three millimeter diameter.
This type of velocity is commonly caused by blunt force trauma or sharp pr knife trauma. The third type of velocity is the high velocity spatter, which is more than one hundred feet per second with a spatter of less than one millimeter. This is indicative of gunshot trauma, power tools, and objects striking with extreme velocity or an explosion (Waldrip, 2008). Through the analysis of these different velocities of blood spatter, forensic investigators easily learn what the weapon of attack was used (Waldrip, 2008). This helps in identifying the weapon even if the suspect has disguised it, hid it, or completely eliminated it.
This may incriminate the suspect or point the true criminal during litigation. Another use of blood spatter is in telling the angle of the impact of attack. This will point the position of the attacker from the victim and from where his arms began the movement for the attack. The tail of blood spatter is the most important aspect in this analytic strategy (Waldrip, 2008). In this analysis the most important things to look at are the positions of the drops. Drops that are circular are always from vertical positions. This means that the attack and position of the victim is above. This drop is commonly on the floor.
If the blood droplets are on the wall, its elongation should be checked. As the angle increases, the drops usually elongate. This points that there is an existing distance between the attacker and the victim. If the angle is decreased, this may point that the attack was done point blank or in shorter distance from the victim (Waldrip, 2008). Other than these strategies, there still remaining other ways in blood analysis. Sometimes, when the blood flowed freely on the floor of the crime scene, forensics can easily tell that there are objects removed from the crime scene, perhaps by the criminal or accomplices.
When the blood flowed freely on the floor of the scene, the area where there is no blood indicates that there had been an object in that place during the time of attack. The shape that was left by the object may help in locating this object which may be used as evidence against the criminal (Waldrip, 2008). Given these strategies or ways in analyzing blood spatters, it may be said that blood spatters or patterns of blood spills is a crucial part of a crime scene investigation.
The many ways in which the blood patterns in a crime scene may be analyzed helps in deciphering certain information that other pieces of evidence may not be able to tell. Even though blood spatters are hard to look at, looking closely at it may actually help in incriminating the suspect of a crime. Criminals should keep in mind that even though the victims died the blood they leave behind will point out what really took place, where it was done, how exactly it was done and more importantly, who had done it. References Carter, F. (2009). “Blood Spatter Analysis”. Iprimus. com. Retrieved May 3, 2009 from
http://home. iprimus. com. au/ararapaj/craigslea_testbed/Forensic%20Web%20Test%20 Site/blood_spatter_analysis. htm Castillo, F. (2009). “Forensic Blood Spatter Analysis- Stains and Spatter from Blood”. Ezinearticles. com. Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://ezinearticles. com/? Forensic-Blood-Spatter-Analysis—Stains-And-Spatter- From-Blood&id=934816 O ‘Neil, D. (2008). “Blood Components”. Palomar. edu. Retrieved May 3, 2009 From http://anthro. palomar. edu/blood/default. htm Waldrip, E. (2008). “Blood Spatter Analysis”. Basepairlibrary. com Retrieved May 3, 2009 From http://72. 14. 235. 132/search?
q=cache:SqqvCngUOhAJ:basepair. library. umc. edu/FBL M/BASE%2520PAIR%2520LABS/CSI%2520UMMC/H%2520- %2520Blood%2520Spatter%2520Analysis. ppt+blood+splatter+analysis&cd=8&hl=tl &ct=clnk&gl=ph Abstract The blood spatters in a crime scene greatly help in identifying the truths in a crime. There are ways to analyze the blood spatters in a scene. The spatters can tell the acts that were done in the scene. It can also tell the area in the scene where the act was done. It can also tell the weapon that was used. Through this, the criminal who did the act may easily be incriminated and the judge and juror may easily give a decision.
Essay about recent hate crimes and statistic Essay
Lifeless bodies with slashed throats were found in the mountains of Virginia nearly six years ago. This is quite a disturbing image; the unfortunate result of a hate crime. What exactly is a hate crime? The American Psychological Association defines hate crimes as “violent acts against people, property, or organizations because of the group to which they belong or identify with” (1). The different groups usually involved include homosexuals, ethnic groups, and religion affiliations.
Dr. Jack McDevitt, a criminologist at Northeastern University in Boston, said hate crimes are forms of messages the offender wants to send to members of certain groups letting them know they are unwelcome in that neighborhood, community, school or workplace (APA, 1).
According to CNN.com, Darrell David Rice of Columbia, Maryland, was found guilty of committing the 1996 slayings of hikers Julianne Marie Williams and Laura “Lollie” Winans, who were the girls in the opening disturbing image. Rice is serving an 11-year sentence in federal prison in Petersburg, Virginia, for attempting to abduct and kill a female bicyclist in the same park in 1997.
U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft called the killings of Williams and Winans “hate crimes” and said Rice could also receive the death penalty, in addition to the present sentence (Frieden, 1).
Examples of hate crimes provided by Stephen Wessler’s “Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives” include (3):
·the dragging death of African-American James Byrd, Jr., in Jasper, Texas
·the deadly attack on Matthew Sheppard, a gay student in Laramie, Wyoming
·the shooting rampage targeting minority citizens in Chicago
·the shootings of children at a Jewish community center in Los Angeles
·the murder of Joseph Santos Ileto, a Filipino-American mail carrier
A report done by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) states that 7,947 hate crime incidents were reported. In 1995, a comparison of states showed that California was at the top of the charts with 1,751 incidents reported, and Florida stood with 164 incidents (2). The total number of hate crimes only decreased by less than a hundred between 1995 and 1999. While these numbers may seem relatively small, the Southern Poverty Law Center has posted more dramatic statistics: every hour someone commits a hate crime, every day eight blacks, three whites, three gays, three Jews and one Latino become hate crime victims, and every week a cross is burned (1).
In order to prevent the hate crimes from occurring, different things are being done in order to prevent and deal with the hate crimes. In schools, the Anti-Defamation League websites suggests planning ahead by doing the following (1):
1.Work with your school administration to establish a plan for responding promptly to hate incidents and hate crimes.
2.Educate school staff on how to recognize hate-motivated incidents and hate crimes.
3.Establish procedures for reporting hate-motivated incidents/crimes.
4.Establish school policies which clearly indicate that hate-motivated behavior will not be tolerated.
On a wider scale, since the 1980s research on hate crimes has increased, especially from those in the fields of criminology and law enforcement. There focus is primarily on reporting the frequency of the problem and preparing criminal justice responses to it. While many hate motivated crimes go unreported, the number of reported incidents is up. However, with special training, people are prepared to deal with the situations.
According to Wessler, the first professionals to respond to the scene of a hate crime are police officers. How they act in the situation will affect the outcome of the incident. Wessler stated, “law enforcement agencies have a pivotal role in responding to, investigating, prosecuting, and preventing hate crimes.” Training is given to the police officers in order to carry out their role. Wessler said the training includes how to “recognize and investigate potential hate crimes, have clear protocols on how to respond to hate violence, and develop innovative programs for preventing the hate crimes.”
Along with the professional training of police personnel, laws against hate crimes have been enforced in some states. As of 1999, there are only eleven states that do not have hate crime laws: South Carolina, Hawaii, Wyoming, New York, Kentucky, Rhode Island, New Mexico, Kansas, Arkansas, Georgia and Indiana. The anti-hate laws may not be well known but there are some out there. For example, the Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act “provides assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies and amend federal law to streamline the investigation and prosecution of hate crimes.” This bill will change the already existing law, adding crimes against sexual orientation, gender, and disability. This law also allows authority to respond to all crimes covered by the existing law, meaning crimes based on race, color, national origin, and religion (1).
The number of hate crimes is slowly being decreased and the number of laws against hate crimes is slowly being increased, but the truth is, they are still out there. It may seem impossible to eliminate all the hate crimes that are occuring, but with more research, training, and handling each situation as they arise more seriously, America is slowly on it’s way to eliminating the problem of hate crimes.
American Psychological Association. 1998.
Anti-Defamation League. 1999.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform Crime Reports. 1995.
Frieden, Terry. 10 Apr. 2002.
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. NGLTF Communications Department. 25 Sep. 2002.
Southern Poverty Law Center.
Wessler, Stephen. Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives That Are Enhancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners. Feb. 2000.
Crime in America Essay
Crime statistics tells us the variation of crimes that are being committed in the United States. The Bureau of Statistics compiles information processed in the federal justice system and gives us statistics on the many different crimes in America. This is a site that compiles crimes and tells us about how many different crimes are being committed and how many times they are being committed. This also gives us an idea of how much space we need to house these criminals.
There are many jails and prisons that are over populated.
Statistics also tell us that our crime fighting is not as good as it should be. With the websites for crime reporting this helps us to see what crimes are being committed and, how we can prepare for this and, how to prevent it. There is not a way to stop all crime or even prevent it but if we know what crimes are being committed more it will help us get a better understanding on how to catch the criminals that are involved in this type of behavior.
In my honest opinion no crime is ever going to be completely stopped.
If we all work together to pinpoint the main crimes we may also be more prepared to deal with them and catch the individuals involved. Crime in America today is on the rise the question is how to fix it before it gets out of hand. There are many different crime reporting measuring systems today. These help us get an idea of what crimes are being committed the most in what areas. With these types of statistics we may be able to start fighting crime in these areas to prevent further destruction in our communities. The Nation’s two crime measures are the UCR program and the NCVS.
The UCR (Uniform Crime Reporting) this program collects information on crimes reported to law enforcement agencies. It compiles data monthly from the state agencies that report to the FBI. This system examines each report for accuracy or errors that may have occurred. It compares each monthly report to previous months and years to determine how much crime was committed from each month to each year. It gives us a detailed annual report. This comes in handy when trying to figure out if crime is on the rise or it is decreasing.
The NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey) this program gives us a detailed picture of crime incidents, victims and trends. This is used to uncover crime, update the survey methods and broaden the scope of crimes measured. The survey is designed to collect detailed information on the frequency and nature of the crimes that are being committed. This helps us to determine how many times this crime is committed and how it is being committed. It does over 43,000 personal household interviews twice a year.
They rotate new houses every couple of years to make sure that it remains as accurate as possible. It also estimates crimes that have been reported and those that have not been reported. It also summarizes the reasons that individuals give for reporting or not reporting the crime. These programs share many similarities and differences. The similarities that they have are that they both measure crimes. The way that they measure crimes are very different from one another. But they both hope to achieve the same things. How they differ the most is in what they do.
The UCR is designed to gather information and determine the statistics of the crimes reported by the law enforcement officers. The NCVS was designed to provide information about crimes that used to be unavailable. Also the two crime programs are different in other ways a well. One may judge crime by the size of the household, why the other judge’s crime by the number of crimes divided by so many people in that area. So as you can see even though they are out to achieve the same thing they just do it in different ways. It is hard to tell if the public’s perception of crime has changed over time.
American’s perception of crime may be influenced by their assessments of how things are going in the country today. They also perceive it to be on how the country is economically. If America has a higher amount of jobs the crime rate may go down. When jobs are low and there is no work the crime rate may go up. Looking at the amount of crimes committed each year can also determine the public’s perception from one year to another. If they see more crimes in the last two years then they did in the previous years they are going to see that crime is on the high.
I think that the future of crime depends on the economy. It also depends on how much crime is reported, and how people relate the experience of their crimes. If crimes are not being reported it is hard to figure out what types of crimes are being committed. It is hard for me to predict the future of crime because each criminal and each crime is different. If there were more people in America that would work as a whole to keep their community as safe as possible, I don’t think that crime would be big in that particular community.
Also there are crimes today that are being committed due to lack of jobs. Most people will do what they have to, to make sure that their families are being taken care. A lot of problems today in my opinion depend on job security. If more people could have jobs then I don’t think that there would be as many crimes being committed. The American crime rate in my opinion just depends on the economy and the people in the economy. If you want to make a difference you will. If you don’t then you will be part of the problem not the solution.
Crime Is a Social Construct Essay
Crime is a social construct Discuss. This composition will look at crime and its different criminological interpretations. Crime is an umbrella word which covers a diverse range of issues and is dependant upon the theoretical stand point of the writer. Although the wordings of the explanations differ, the implications are consistent (Newburn, 2007. Doherty, 2005). Mclaughlin et al (2006) seems the most relevant for the purpose. They separate crime into three key constituent parts. These are harm, social agreement and the official societal reaction.
There are different theoretical interpretations of crime. The product of culturally-bounded social interaction is crime; which is the violation of the social contract (Newburn, 2007. Young, 1995). Societal responses are different dependant upon the society. Theft in the UK may result in caution or non-custodial sentence for a first offence; whereas in Saudi Arabia the offender would lose a hand. Deviance can be perceived as being actions or behaviour which although may not be criminal in nature are at odds with the social norms of the society.
Promiscuity is legal, though is perceived as deviant (particularly in females due to patriarchal societal values). Homosexual behaviour, which was previously illegal, has undergone a shift in the moral attitudes of society. The moral’s of society regarding certain activities is not set in stone and it alters over time. This is the view rule-relativists have of crime, as what is appropriate to the society at any given moment in time and may change due to alterations in societal values. Social constructs are the institutions, agencies, judicial bodies and any other mechanisms that are produced to implement social order.
These social constructs are not natural phenomena; they are created by the hegemony. Behaviour or activities that offend the social codes & practices of a particular community. These codes and practices may be different due to cultural differences. Legal and social codes are not always identical. Laws are the mortar that binds societies and implement its norms. A Muslim man may marry more than one wife in certain countries. In the USA a Mormon may also marry more than one wife. He may bring both wives into this country with both having legal rights as his wife.
However even though his culture would allow him to marry another wife, in this country he wouldn’t be allowed to. A man in the UK would not be allowed more than one wife. If he did marry a second wife he would be charged with bigamy. This crime doesn’t harm anyone; however it is classed as being against the social norms of British society. A number of crimes are made due to the state acting as a moral guardian to its community. At the present in Indonesia it is illegal to chew chewing gum, conversely in the UK this would not be seen as a reasonable criminal offence.
Governments are not beyond contravening their own statutes, as in the case of prisoners that have been transferred to Guantanamo bay and the acknowledgement that water boarding (a form of torture) had been used upon a few of these prisoners. As well as the state justice there are systems which provide social control, such as private security etc. “They comprise the numerous forms of social control of crime and deviance that are part of group life” (Henry, 1994). There are informal modes of social control from local communities, such as being “sent to Coventry! The legal standpoint is simply what is enacted by society as criminal. On the issue of harm Lord Denning’s ruling in Donoghue v Stevenson holds “what would the man on the Clapham omnibus think”. Legally in addition to the criminal act there has to be a guilty mind, mens rea as well as the criminal act, actus reus. There has to be a legal capacity to commit crime, Doli incapax means that those less than eleven years of age and those suffering from mental illness are seen as not being capable of committing crimes.
There are also mitigating circumstances; reasons why a criminal act may be seen as reasonable. This can be observed as being the contextual component; evidence of this can be seen in the case of the mignonette (Morrison, 2005). The classicist classification of crime is activities which have a negative impact upon the individuals and upon their property of the state’s electorate. Classicists do not take into account that there might be other factions with conflicting aims or moral codes. This can be perceived prior to the break up of the former Yugoslavia, where each faction had separate societal views.
The conservative view of crime is that anything that threatens the social order should be criminal. This follows the classicist view insofar as that but they also include crimes which damage the integrity and morals of society. Those dealing with new deviance theory assert that there needs to be two separate parties. One party behaves or commits certain actions that another party who has differing morality categorizes that party as deviant. The factions in society with greater power impose their moral codes (Young, 1995).
With new deviance theory the faction with the most power controls the morals; this doesn’t necessarily translate to being the majority of society. The Marxist viewpoint on crime is from of class and the intensification of social control of society. This viewpoint perceives capitalist societies as being breeding grounds for criminal activities. Theorists believe that only socialist societies can have any expectation of being without crime. Sheptycki (2006) states that “the roots of crime lie in the social structural inequalities of wealth and power. Capitalist societies promote individual interests over social welfare. The radical left criminological theory is that the nature of an advanced industrial society with its class system and its natural patriarchy is the cause of the prevalence of crime. They furthermore view crime as being more of a predicament for the poor. The way laws have been created can be shown in the disparity in sentencing for property theft when compared to white-collar crime. Positivist criminology views crime and criminal activity as explainable through the natural sciences.
Positivist criminologists look for specific causes for crime through scientific methodology. Whether this is because of biological, psychological and sociological disciplines to be able to quantify criminal behaviour. Positivists deem that there is a “consensus of value in society that can be scientifically ascertained” (Young, 1995). To bring to a close crime is a social construct. Crime is in addition a component of the larger issue of deviance. It is a consequence of social norms which the government has enacted into laws. The state has the infrastructure to enforce the society’s behavioural codes.
By means of these criminological schools all of any given states laws can be identified. Having observed these, the new deviance theory was the most rational, building as it does on previous schools of thought. This holds that the faction with the greater societal power holding the reins to society’s moral codes. At the present time this looks to be direction in which western societies are on the face of it is heading. The Iraq war was implemented by the powerful elite of society.