Categories for Company

Company Introduction, Market Segmentation, and Product Positioning Essay

Company Introduction, Market Segmentation, and Product Positioning Essay

The key to successful product implementation in today’s national enterprise system is the effective marketing of a new product with the company’s line of existing products. As stated by Lacobucci (2012), marketing is defined as an exchange between a company and its customers. The customer wants something from the company or firm and vice versa. In previous times, a company would manufacture a product they thought the customer would want or need. The customer purchased that product because of a pending need, which basically meant that marketing used to be product oriented.

However, marketing today is more that an advertisement for goods and services in an attempt to attract new business. We live in a customer orientated and empowered marketing environment. We realize the importance and ramifications of having an exchange with our customers and developing a relationship with them. It is this exchange of information between our company and our existing as well as future customers that secures our position in our target market.

Our company is a regional tool distributor located in the northeastern section of the United States.

Our customer base consists of several major retailers, nationally known in the retail and wholesale tool industry. We used the brand label Blue Steel Tools for marketing and distribution of our products to discuss the implementation of an effective plan to market a new product line, the Illuminated Power Wrench. This paper will analyze market, identify our market segment for sales distribution and discuss the reasoning for the segment. Discussing the target market and why the targeted customers were specifically selected.

We will do the SWOT analysis; describe the unique market position and the expected service provided in meeting the needs of the target audience. 1. Identify the marketing segment for the product and provide a rationale for this segment. The definition of a market segment as stated by Lacobucci (2012) is a group of customers that shares similar inclinations towards our brand. To define market segment further for our needs, it is an identifiable group of individuals, professionals or organizations that share one or more characteristics or needs in an otherwise homogenous market.

In our case, our product will have a very wide market of consumers and small business owners and employees. Therefore we will need to reduce the market segments to larger chunks. Market segments generally respond in a predictable manner to a marketing or promotion offer. The market segment for the new product will vary widely due to the versatility of our product usage. Our main segment approach will focus on the wholesale distribution to retail repair supply stores who carry lines of tools for resale to the private and business consumer.

These market segments will include businesses such as Lowes and Home Depot, retail tool distributors such as Harbor Freight Tools, automobile parts stores such as Advance Auto Parts and tool catalogue companies such as great Northern to name a few. As we analyze this segment we ask the question if this segment is viable and can we profit from using it. Other considerations are accessibility and measurability. This segment is small enough to manage our sales and distribution, but large enough to reach the ultimate user of our product.

This market segment possesses the potential and versatility to sell and distribute our product to the target consumer market with a widely diversified audience in the retail industry. The bases for this segmentation include similar demographics, geographical locations, and psychological make-up of customers and behaviors of users/purchasers. In other words, the customer base for our segments meets the desired user of our end product. Anyone who builds or repairs something whether they are a novice or professional is a potential customer.

Therefore, by using this method of market segmentation for product distribution, we will successfully sub-divide a large homogenous market into clear identifiable and manageable segments that have similar needs, wants or demand characteristics indicated by Lacobucci (2012). 2. Discuss the target market and provide rationale for this target market. The target market defined is the particular market segment at which a marketing campaign is focused. As stated earlier, this product has been designed for the retail tool industry.

We have targeted segments in the industry that will be the most successful in reaching the consumer and generating a demand for our product through steady sales. Lacobucci stated the first perspective in assessing segments target is to have a view of the segments themselves and the primary concern is the segment be profitable. This in turn will become a profitability issue for our company as we continue to hold a place in the small tool market and generate profits with continued sales.

The second perspective examined was if the market or segment fit with who we are. In this case the answer is yes. The ultimate target for this product is the consumer. The greater exposure we have, the higher propensity for sales growth. The illuminated ratchet screw driver is a quality tool for use by not only the novice home self repair person; it will also meet the needs of the professional repair person, no matter what the industry.

The illumination system in the handle of the wrench will appeal to the vehicle mechanic working in the close quarters of an engine compartment, the electrician repairing the circuit breaker box, the computer repair technician working in between electronic circuitry as well as to the basic consumer performing handy maintenance projects. This tool will come with the standard wrench lugs and have availability to accessories such as wrench tips to enhance its versatility to meet the needs of a wider target audience.

The wider target audience is customers of our targeted market segments. Therefore the target market is our pathway to the ultimate user of the product is consumer sales. The strategic sales objective of these retail establishments coincides with our strategic vision of reaching the ultimate user of our products, satisfying their needs and increasing the likelihood of additional product sales. 3. Perform a SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities and treats) for the company.

As we move forward in the marketing of our product, we need to our own corporate strengths. Lacobucci (2012) suggests the use of a SWOT analysis in identifying our strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The strengths and weaknesses characterize our company in relation to competitors where the opportunities and threats characterize the broader environment such as the tool industry, suppliers, the government and etc. Our strengths are in our track record in t he tool industry. We have provided quality products at competitive prices.

Another perceived strength is in the management of our company. The senior management of Steel City Tools has provided a strategic vision with clearly defined attainable goals for market position and sales. However a perceived threat is in the foreign market. A number of tool company’s efforts have been over shadowed with a cheaper duplication of products from foreign markets. The US has been plagued with a reduction in the manufacturing industry due to globalized markets, elimination of trade barriers and outsourcing.

The end result is our market segment (distributor) could purchase a similar product cheaper and increase their gross margin and not purchase our product for resale. Another threat we are not prepared to react to is loss of a major distributing customer. With more and more businesses merging, we could lose a distribution source with no warning. One of our weaknesses is we have focused on sales east of the Mississippi, thus limiting market expansion. However, this could be turned around as a future opportunity for market expansion.

An easy way to expand our market is to establish a retail division and use infomercials through the cable television network to accept mail order/telephone order select product sales such as our new illuminated power wrench. However, a marketing effort of this nature would require careful consideration must be given to the geographical area so as not to alienate our primary segment customers. A move of this nature would require additional capital investment and careful analysis of this type of expansion would be necessary to minimize risk of project failure.

The SWOT is useful in clarifying our marketing questions. The key is to address our shortcomings so as not to give the competition an upper hand and not raise concerns with our customers and capitalize on our strengths for continued success. 4. Create the market position for your product and service. Explain your rationale. Product positioning, according to the Encyclopedia of Business, involves the tailoring the entire marketing program to include product features, distribution, price, quality and service to meet the needs of the consumer within the specific market segment.

In this manner, the product positioning is part of the overall market segmentation. Product position takes place in our distributors store, or target market segment and tells us how we can strive most effectively in that market segment against our competition which are also present on display. The key is to understand the consumer perceptions of the product and the marketing behind it. Quality, reliability, affordability, unique features, benefits to the customer is just a few attributes of product positioning.

According to Lacobucci (2012) positioning is often about modifying the four P’s of marketing (position, price, place and promotion). In the case of our company, our reputation is a reflection of the position to provide a quality product at a competitive price while leading the market in innovation. Our company performance is attributed to the quality of our employment staff. Our employees are at the core to our success. We have established core values for our company’s work force by creating a positive work culture with recognition of the whole person concept.

The strategic leadership from the top on down to the employee fosters productivity with reward and recognition to enhance their performance in support of the company operations to include our marketing efforts. Thus the positive and proactive personality of our company in meeting its marketing objectives is a direct reflection of the quality of every member of the Blue Steel Tool Team. As we continue to grow and develop products for sale, we position our products at a distribution sales point or market segment with the greatest customer exposure for maximum market penetration.

We will service our product to the satisfaction and benefit of the customer so as not to jeopardize customer confidence as well as the business relationship with our market segment. The product we create and the service we provide are a direct reflection of not only our company, but that of our distributors. Our products are designed to meet the working needs of our professional as well as consumer clientele with a level of quality that meet or exceed expectations at the best value. References Lacobucci, D. (2012) Marketing Management: 2012 custom edition.

Mason OH Market Segment Defined Retrieved from http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/market-segment. html Morley R. (2006), Trumpet Print Edition: The Death of American Manufacturing, February 2006 Retrieved from http://www. thetrumpet. com/index. php? page=article&id=1955 Reference for Business Product Positioning: Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. Retrieved from http://www. referenceforbusiness. com/small/Op-Qu/Product-Positioning. html Target Market Defined retrieved from http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/target-market. html

Harley Davidson Five Forces Analysis Essay

Harley Davidson Five Forces Analysis Essay

In our present competitive world in the business where customer preferences are continuously changing, prices of raw materials and cost of labour are increasing and global economy is becoming unstable, it is always been a difficult task for companies to stay and perform business. And these barriers have been a familiar scene in the global business. That is why for most companies in order to overcome such of these difficult challenges, innovativeness and the desire to be very critical and most anticipative of the changes in the industry and the whole global economy is highly necessary.

Just like for Harley Davidson as the main focus of this study, even though the company currently established itself for being the highly rated motorcycle brand in the world, it is still not enough for the company to be relaxed and feel that they can be profitable and enticing to the market as years goes on. That is why in this paper it will directly focus on how do Harley Davidson’s competitors are doing at the present, what are some of the strategies that they do to compete.

With this information about the competitors, how does this information be used by the company in terms of opportunities for them to use it as a strategy against them?

Also, making use of this information to handle future threats as well, this is in order for them to anticipate and provide some immediate actions. In the second part of this paper, it will focus on how the company can apply Porter’s five forces tool in order to continually achieve competitive advantage over its competitors. Also at the second part of this study it will discuss on how motorcycle companies like Harley Davidson, can still earn above average return even though the company falls at the high-end market with more on the luxurious and recreation side and not as necessity for customers.

Also, with that, what are the actors or contributors that will lead to that conclusion or will help attain that goal? Study of Harley Davidson’s Major Competitors As the pioneer and one of the oldest known brands in the motorcycle industry in the world, Harley Owners Group has been in the industry since 1983 and due to its growing influence worldwide, it already has over 1,000 chapters and over a million members worldwide. But, not all of its members own a bike; it is only the prestige and respect about the Harley machines that made them decide to be a member.

As one of the strength of the company, it has been continually establish its brand as the number one brand in the world, with over 5 billion USD annual revenue annually. In terms of its competitors, the company’s main competitors, most specially in terms of design are the following: BMW, Victory, Honda, Suzuki and Yamaha, but among these lists, Honda has become the closest and toughest competitor of Harley Davidson’s motorcycles. (Harley Davidson Motorcycle, n. d. ).

With the company’s main focus on design, quality and most specially durability, it continuously has been in the forefront of the high-end and luxurious motorcycle business in the world. That is also why 80% of the total revenue of the company comes from motorcycle sales. With regards to the company’s competitor, even though the company clearly dominates the American market as its origin, which has registered in the 2006 market share, the company has eaten up half of the market or 50% while far second and third are Honda and Suzuki with 15. 1% and 12. 9% respectively.

But the question now is not just the American market but instead what this paper is focusing is what the competitors are doing in the global scene. Which is actually smaller, like for Canadian market, it drops to 38. 4% still relatively high, but what is more alarming and needs to be focus on by the company is on the European market which is only 10. 2%, but still the company has a noticeably high market share globally as it generates at an average of 33%. And this is more alarming because it will also follows that the company’s net revenue growth also shows very small in other major regions in the world.

With this event, it is necessary for the company that it needs to strengthen its presence in these main regional markets, because in the long run, it will be a problem that the company needs to focus on. The two main reasons why these competitors starting to entice substantial number of customers are: (1) they have greater financial resources, like Honda and Suzuki, with their global presence, they have enough financial support in every region that they operate.

Meaning to say these companies knows that they know how to make use of their money in enticing potential customers and retaining current customers as well and they can even compete with price and that will soon be a serious problem with Harley Davidson, since the competition is on how to innovate with technologically funded studies that will still provide quality as well as make the product still not that so expensive.

Lastly, (2) these companies, like Honda and Suzuki are obviously more diverse than Harley Davidson; they sell a lot of products with a lot of brands and choices that customers can choose, from cars, to simple scooters up to high-end luxurious brands of motorbikes and not only that with wide variety of choices to choose from. This is another serious problem by the company in the long run, since these competitors knows how they can be well-trusted by the customers and if you made such products with quality in all of it, it will be a positive sign for these companies and that will create problem for the company.

With these two main reasons, Harley Davidson needs to formulate a strategy that will address these problems in order not to further add problem in the future and also not to wait until the company’s edge in the global market be removed or at least be reduced. Also, based on this study, the company must also look forward in addressing these issues while they are still room to operate due to its continuing edge in the global market. (Harley Davidson (HOG), n. d. ). In the second part of this paper, the main focus is on how the company can effectively apply Porter’s fiver forces model in attaining competitive advantage.

The five forces of Porter’s method that are popularly applied by companies are: (1) Potential entrants, (2) Buyers, (3) Substitutes, (4) Suppliers, and (5) Industry competitors. In each of these five forces, there is an important factor that contributes to the success or failure of each forces and this will be discussed separately as to how the company can effectively apply it. In the entry barrier, where it mainly focus on the potential entry of new products or brands, the company must continue to be very pro-active in this part as the competitors are becoming very aggressive in this area.

What Harley Davidson should do is to increase the customer awareness of their motorcycle brand in some of the regions that they are starting to have a very low market share like in the European and Asian market. Studying cost advantage and relatively access to distribution are two of the most important focus that the company should do. Also, can be added to that is to have an in-dept study on the Government policies which might be the effect of low market share, because the territories that the company operates must also need to be well represented and not just putting up a business.

In the rivalry determinants, which mainly focus on both the industry competitors and new entrant forces, the company should be mainly focus as usual on how they can have advantage over its competitors by not only anticipating future challenges and innovation that their competitors may bring but also be able to establish a well defined marketing and research and development study that will help the company confident enough in dealing with the market. particularly, the factors that it needs to focus are: industry growth, always look on the potentials in the business and be first in formulating it to the market, product differences, at this point, which is already been the strength of the company, but still needs to do more and that is innovativeness where it also been the main focus of its competitors. The company must look on how they can provide its clients new and very attractive designs, but it should also have to look on the cost side as well.

And lastly, is switching costs, for any company there should also be some intelligent cost study on how the company can still be appreciated by the customers and these can either come from service and parts and of course these should be well accompanied with excellent service and availability of parts which is also a big factor during actual competition. In the side of threat, what the company should look closely on how the innovative trend and pricing strategy trend that competitors is doing.

Most of the time these is what is being target to Harley Davidson, since it has been recognized as a very expensive brand and at the same time more on respecting traditional design, competitors compete through these factors. So, what the company needs is that they have to anticipate these by introducing new and innovative styles and at the same time study some possibilities of offering some not so high cost brands which may also give additional leverage for the company.

Another important study and important advantage of Porter’s Five Forces is supplier power, in this side it is also important for the company not only to look for the most efficient supplier but also study closely in terms of cost. Harley Davidson must be careful in forming up agreement with suppliers. Like they can have global partnership with some suppliers, most specially if some of these suppliers are proven that they serve the company well. This reduces the cost by having different suppliers in the different regions.

That is why there are two ways that the company may apply: (1) the company must carefully look into suppliers that are effectively performing for the company, if there is, Harley Davidson must look into how they can formulate a global partnership in order to lessen the cost. And lastly (2) the company must also re-visit some suppliers that are not performing well and be able to replace it or make some better arrangement on how the company as well as the partner can have a more favourable output. Lastly, in terms of buyer concern, where two of the important force involved, buyers and competitors.

At this point these are the greatest challenges that the company must look at since the competitors are very aggressive in this area, most specially in the price sensitivity and not much on the bargaining leverage. Price is always a problem with the company, since it continuously in the high-end brands. What the company should do is on how they can study on introducing brands that may target other markets which will still not compromise quality and cost. In the bargaining leverage, the company must look on how they can provide some better offers for some big markets, like in terms of wholesalers.

Lastly, with regards to the question how can motorcycle companies like Harley Davidson, where its business falls more on luxurious and recreation brand of products which also targets high-end markets, which the question is on how they can continue to earn above average returns. It is obvious that for company like Harley Davidson, they have to focus more on how to deal with innovations is one aspect that they need to do. By strengthening its research and development and the usual attention to customer needs and preference is the key to continually achieve above average returns.

Most specially the latter where still it is considered as the most important factor in the business. The main actors or contributors that needs to work on this one in order for it to materialize are the following: (1) Company’s human resources, which means that it should continually strengthen the technical expertise of the company, and lastly, (2) is to build partnership with some of the global and most recognized industries or companies which is what is lacking with Harley Davidson.

People expertise and partnership through reliable and very influential companies are very important to the success of company’s these days. That is why with the help of the management team and its top executives, they need to recognized it as the main key to continually have a better return in the business. Conclusion In this study, it shows that for any company to survive in this very competitive world of business, company’s needs to be sensitive enough in understanding the competition and on how they can overcome it.

In this paper it shows that even company like Harley Davidson, who still has substantial edge in the market, it still needs to be aggressive and continue to study on how they can attain competitive advantage. Like what resulted in this study that even though the company seems to have control in the American market, competitors are however starting to focus on targeting on market outside the American region, which shows that the company starting to slow down and competitors like Honda and Suzuki are rising up.

This also resulted that due to financial capabilities and diverse status of these competitors which starting to give problem to Harley Davidson. That is why the company must look on these growing advantages and be able to formulate a strategy that can offset it. In the second part of this paper, it also shows that in order for the company to be aggressive and effectively achieve competitiveness, Porter’s five forces has been presented and for each forces, there are important discussions on how the company can apply it effectively and efficiently.

Agora Company Essay

Agora Company Essay

Bangladesh entered the supermarket era on August 24, 2001 with Rahim afrooz Superstores Ltd. launching Agora, a retail chain superstore in Bangladesh, introducing a new way to shop. The company has already opened four outlets Rifles Square, Gulshan Avenue, Maghbazar and Mirpur Zoo Road in Dhaka and many more are in progress in Chittagong and other cities of the country. The superstores are open from 9 am to 8 pm every day. Rush of customers is experienced in the morning and evening. Most of the employees of Agora are young and well-educated, some with Masters and MBA degrees.

Agora superstores are currently focused in food retailing, ranging from a wide variety of fresh vegetable, fruits, meat and fish to grocery, bakery, dairy, personal and household products. Agora provides its customers with guaranteed quality and freshness. It carries more than 30,000 varieties of products and has plans to expand its product portfolio to carry other ranges of consumer products in the coming years.

It aims at building a chain of more than 40 superstores by year 2010.

Other supermarket brands have since emerged but Agora continues to be the leader and trendsetter. Agora has been the venue of launching of Thai products, which have by now become commonplace. Californian apples were launched here as have been Agora buys products direct from the growers, which benefits the latter as well as the customers. The products are procured under the direct supervision of its officials who maintain strict procurement and marketing standards. Products on the shelves are regularly monitored for expiry dates. Australia‘s red apples, and crystal products from France were unveiled here. Unilever chose to launch L‘Oreal range of cosmetics at Agora superstores. The big-sized ‘Boroi’ so common in the market was launched here. Recently the scientist behind the cultivation of Strawberry in Bangladesh launched the delicious fruit at Agora.

Over 8 million have purchased products at Agora since the opening of Agora‘s fist superstore, with 2,000 customers using the Agoras every day on an average. Rifles Square and Gulshan’s upper markets pull more crowd than the other two. Customers prefer using both cash and credit cards. Agora constantly launches attractive promotions like Bazimat, Value Week or Super Value Offer or Diamond Ring Offer. The promoter of the Agora project, Rahim afrooz, is one of the most respected companies in Bangladesh manufacturing and marketing stored power systems for the automotive industry. All of Rahimafrooz‘s activities are in the service sector, focusing on consumers, an official of Agora‘s operating company Rahim afrooz Superstores Ltd., said. The Agora project was a ground-breaking project that underlines the potential for harnessing the latent market in Bangladesh, said an executive of a leading corporate house adding, they have produced a service offering of international standard

Agora is the largest retail superstore in Bangladesh.

Agora‘s interior is similar to most supermarkets in design and layout due to trends in marketing. It produce tends to be near the entrance of the store. Various kinds of products and services are sold (at least 2500 products and services). Milk, bread, and other essential items are located in the rear and other out of the way places. This is purposely done to ensure maximum time spent in the store, strolling past other items and capitalizing on impulse buying. The front of the store or Front-End is where one might find point of sale machines or cash registers.

Agora has plans to implement self-checkout devices in their stores in an attempt to reduce labor costs as well as bringing complete customer satisfaction. Understanding the historical context from which some of today’s organizational structures have developed helps to explain why some structures is the way they are but Agora using a structured which is more horizontally capitalizing on the innovativeness of their employees. Part of the reason, as this section discusses, is that organizational structure of Agora that has a certain inertia — the idea borrowedfrom physics and chemistry that something in motion tends to continue on that same path.Because of this unique management process they have become the leading superstore in theBangladesh.

The managers of Agora have to make decisions as they develop an organizational structure,although they may not be explicitly aware of these decisions. Agora is synonymous with marketat low prices and name brand quality products. The company basis of success and foundationscannot be credited to the current management. Agora formula for success simply put is theirrelationship with customers, employees, and technology that assists in forming relationships withtheir suppliers; places Agora as the top discount retailer, history-development, and Growth SamAgora to become the top discount retailer

Competitive Advantage of Agora:

Agora marks a turning point in the concept of retailing in Bangladesh. From the very beginning of its operation since 2001, the super-market chain store has put the convenience of its target consumers the middle and higher middle class, foremost in devising its marketing strategies. Agora attempts to maintain an image and atmosphere that is consistent with its pledge for quality and customer satisfaction. The stores occupy very large premises at expensive areas of the city and offer a wide assortment of food stuffs, daily house hold items and durables that would mostly appeal to its target population, Unlike, many such large stores, Agora tries to remain ahead of its competitors by sponsoring innovation of local innovations.

Agora advertises through newspapers and billboards a very selective approach as it does not target the mass but mostly those living in close proximity to the store. The logo “Agora”- in English-points to the importance of the image factor, which is important to their promotional strategy adequate car parking space for congestion free shopping Air-conditioning and child’s play area and other amenities, are provided to increase the comfort of shopping. Although Agora is at a very early stage in its life, the management is at present following a very cautious marketing strategy. The overall 10% annual sales growth offer a reflection to the potential of Agora to attain its long term objectives of becoming the market leader in the retail industry. Near future sustainability of the competitive advantage:

Agora is currently charging maximum retail price that is given to it by its suppliers. The prices are congruent with that of the rest of the market. However, the management has plans to offer prices lower than the ones offered by the competitors in the market.

Business Redesign for Healthlite Yogurt Company Essay

Business Redesign for Healthlite Yogurt Company Essay

Business Structure Healthlite’s corporate headquarters is located in Danbury, Connecticut. All production takes place in processing plants that are located in New Jersey, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Illinois, Colorado, Washington, and California. Healthlite Yogurt Company has 20 sales regions, each with approximately 30 sales representatives. Healthlite has a 12 person in marketing division at corporate headquarters. Products Yogurt and related health products and new yogurt based products which would include frozen desserts and low-fat salad dressings.

Major Business Processes for Sales The following are the way Healthlite conducts business in a day-to-day basis: · Sales persons must write up hard-copy tickets to place orders through the mail or by fax.

· Each salesperson stores and retrieves data for assigned customer accounts using the minicomputer system in the regional office. Higher client satisfaction due to value-added customer service is one positive result. Decision-making can be improved because the information systems used are more efficient and can provide them accurate and updated data in real time.

Improvement in control of resources (materials, labor and products) and organizational planning.

Increased job satisfaction for employees’ particularly regional sales people whose jobs are now greatly facilitated with the aid of the new system. Major Business Process Changes The following major changes are required for the business redesigning plan. Eliminate the need for hard-copy tickets to place orders. Enter sales orders directly into enterprise-wide system instead of using around 20 workers at corporate headquarters to sort and to enter order tickets which could reached up to 500,000 order tickets per week.

This also allows all systems users to have access to this data for analysis purposes. Do without the need of using snail mail and fax machines for taking orders. The new business system allows orders to be placed directly through the web site. No longer need to mail printed reports for individual salespeople and sales offices. Salespeople can access the system for needed information at anytime. Sales representatives no longer need to write and mail monthly reports to regional headquarters. Sales information can be accessed from the system.

Managers can access up-to-date sales data in the new system anytime they need them. They no longer need to call subordinates and piece information together to update their reports. Announcements, promotional campaigns and pricing discounts can be quickly disseminated though the enterprise-wide system. Thus, helps in improving communication processes between sales managers and sales representatives. Customer Relationship Management tools are available to help with ordering. Customer history management, complaints, and real-time tracking service are also available for use.

Reduce the time involved to process orders since faxing and mailing will no longer be required in order to place orders. As a result, this would enable shipments to be delivered on time. Thus, promoting customer satisfaction. Major New Technology Components of the Plan Upon analysis of Healthlite’s needs to implement technology to support the new business processes, an enterprise system comes highly recommended. This is so because an enterprise can best meet the demands and requirements. An enterprise system could link enterprise-wide information processes in turn improving the overall business efficiency.

When the entire company is able to use a single software system, all departments can share information readily and freely. Enterprise systems enable the company to avail of a wide-ranging information system technology platform. This technology platform provides a single data warehouse or a databank that can be accessed by different departments to input and to obtain enterprise-wide information. Also, the new system enables data storage in one data warehouse, which will prevent inaccuracy in extracted information. The data should be grouped according to processing sites, but can be accessed by all users.

This data storage process will allow differentiation among processing sites at the same time allowing enterprise-wide search capability. It is easy to see then the enterprise system is essential element in propelling Healthlite’s success as it moves into the future. An enterprise system into the Healthlite business will enable the managers to support business processes that will make the company more efficient. The enterprise system will allow for centralized data collection and entry. This centralized entry system will reduce or eliminate paper passing throughout the company.

This system will also enable employees to view reports on-line which no longer requires printing of documents or doing paperwork manually unless necessary. This additional feature will help managers and market analysts in accurate sales planning, decision-making, and marketing strategy development by providing them with the ability to collect more accurate information to assist them. Healthlite must also improve the telecommunications infrastructure for the whole enterprise. E-mail capabilities will be needed throughout the company in order to eliminate the ineffective communication using snail mails and fax within the company.

Email will enable speedy communication companywide. There is no need to do additional paper works by writing or typing requests. Also, the time and effort necessary to mail or fax the message will be greatly reduced through email. The message sent is received by the person addressed to in real time. If there are problems or requests required, the recipient on the email can quickly act on it. Intranet is another option the company could use. Intranet is a private computer network that can be accessed by authorized persons only.

These will ensure that secret company information will not fall on the wrong hands. Adding Intranet and Internet service will definitely improve the company’s day-to-day operations. Recommendations To help facilitate the transition and to make better use of the technology or new system, the following recommendations are given: · Healthlite should install an entire enterprise system and not limit itself to the customer relationship management component, or better known as CRM, of the system. In order to be effective, Healthlite could introduce the changes phase by phase. This approach in implementing the enterprise software will enable users to adapt to the system well, starting with the order and sales process and advancing to the most difficult part slowly. · The systems development team must focus the development process of the new system on eliminating the existing business inefficiencies in manual reporting, hand order-tickets, and mail and fax order taking. Additionally, the development team needs to follow the systems development lifecycle to establish its new customer relationship management (CRM) system. All users must be ably represented. This means that representatives in each company division must be involved in developing the system. They should be allowed to make suggestions at the same time provide necessary information in formulating the system. And all users need to have adequate information on the upcoming changes introduced to the system. · Healthlite should implement e-mail and Intranet use to improve its internal communications and productivity throughout the entire business. This could help do without the need for paperwork, snail mail and fax. The company should provide value-added customer service by including the customers during the design process of the business system. This is accomplished by soliciting feedback from customers in the form of questionnaires on a regular basis. · Due to the low shelf life of the products they sell, Healthlite needs to ensure product freshness by improving the efficiency of its distribution of products and services to customers. With the new automated business system, orders are received and delivered immediately.

The timely delivery of the products would ensure their freshness. · Management needs to address the accounting discrepancies incurred annually. The accounting problem should be identified and resolved in the design phase to make sure that the new business system they come up with is free of these errors and accounting discrepancies will not occur in the future. · Management also needs to ensure that the changes implemented in the business are done step by step especially that the company is in the midst of recent and rapid growth. Management needs to change its views regarding changes and adapt to the new business process accordingly. They should also lead the development process. · Managers need to wait until the new business process has materialized and the benefits of the new system are realized before implementing the headcount reduction in order to ensure a smooth cutover. Conclusions Despite its current business process problems, Healthlite has managed to attain success in its operations. This means that Healthlite has a lot of room for improvement in the future.

And this could be easily attained through redesigning business processes. Currently, the organization uses little or almost non existing technology for their daily company activities. Due to the decentralization, many people are doing the same activities over and over again and doing paperworks manually which are time-consuming and could be transmitted electronically. The rapid growth of the company requires that Healthlite should quickly implement systems changes to improve its business processes and to get the product and services to the customer in a promptly and efficiently.

Healthlite’s management also posed some problems due to their very conservative views regarding technology. They need guidance in determining a proven system in which they will be comfortable. The management’s support in the new business process is essential in implementing the changes effectively and leads the company into the future as well as to guarantee its competitive advantage. The company needs to know the importance of using the systems development lifecycle. This process is vital in creating a new business system that will be useful for the company.

Also, this phase is important to establish efficient procedures when developing programs that will best fit Healthlite’s needs. An enterprise system will be necessary to advance Healthlite into the future. At the present the company may only focus on redesigning the ordering, sales, and marketing processes. But later on, Healthlite management needs to realize that the CRM system is going to need to be scalable. Healthlite’s business growth despite the difficulties it encountered could mean that the company has a lot of growth potentials in the future.

Healthlite therefore needs to accommodate future changes and bigger adjustments. And the new business process they are about to install must be able to handle these changes and need for additional data. The company needs to identify and get rid of the sources of the accounting discrepancies annually between headquarters and the sales force. Management needs the accounting information to make decisions necessary for the company’s growth. The accounting report helps them to address potential problems and see possibilities for future expansion.

The discrepancies in their accounting records due to the errors incurred are thus potentially making business decision on bad data. Before the implementation, management needs to address these problems to ensure that they will not arise in the future using the new system. Management needs to take time in implementing the headcount reductions. A successful implementation requires that all employees will be there during its implementation phase. The installation and use of the new system requires the support of all employees.

Huggies Mamy Poko Company Backgorund Essay

Huggies Mamy Poko Company Backgorund Essay

Kimberly Clark is founded in 1872 at Neenah, Wisconsin and is headquartered in Dallas, Texas. It is passionate about providing people with essentials for a better life by adding convenience to daily routines with some of the world’s most recognized products. Kimberly Clark has approximately 58,000 employees worldwide and operations in 36 countries. Its sales have increased to $21.1 billion in 2012. Kimberly Clark has many global brands and one of them is Huggies.

Huggies diapers were first introduced by Kimberly Clark in 1978, and they’ve been improved nearly every year since.

Refastenable diapers, breathable diapers and stretchy diapers are all Huggies firsts. At the controls of the Huggies innovation engine are everyday consumers. The art of understanding and anticipating consumer needs – sometimes before consumers do themselves – has led not only to product advances but the creation of whole new categories, businesses that didn’t exist before.

In 1985, Huggies took leadership of the category for the first time, and has been the number one selling diaper in America since 1993.

Today, Huggies brand introduces a demonstrably better product every year, and the imperative to innovate extends far beyond the Huggies diaper franchise. It’s no accident that Kimberly Clark offers consumers the number one or number two brand in 80 countries. Unicharm Corporation, MamyPoko

Unicharm Corporation is a Japan-based company mainly engaged in the manufactured and sale of baby care products, feminine care products and pet care products. Unicharm is established on February 10, 1961. The company operates in three business segments. The personal care segment provides baby care related products, such paper diapers; feminine care related products, such as sanitary items, as well as healthcare related products, including incontinence articles for adults and powder puffs. The pet care segment provides pet food products and pet toiletry products. The others segment is engaged in the gravure printing, processing and sales business, as well as financial business. As of March 31, 2012, the company owned 40 consolidated subsidiaries and two associated companies.

MamyPoko is a brand of the company Unicharm that focuses on pant-style diapers for babies. MamyPoko started manufacturing baby diapers since 1981. MamyPoko pants at present are sold in 14 Asian countries. MamyPoko pants come with a core that has maximum absorbent and moisture-locking capacity. MamyPoko diapers come in the following 3 types, MamyPoko tape diapers, extra soft fit and easy fit pants. Apart from manufacturing diapers, the brand also produces baby wipes, both in fragrant and non-fragrant varieties.

The title of the book I read was 1491 Essay

The title of the book I read was 1491 Essay

New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. It was written by Charles C. Mann. Other books by this author include Noah’s Choice: The Future of Endangered Species and The Second Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Twentieth-Century Physics. 1491 is based around Native Americans and how they really lived before European settlers came to the Americas. This is a very interesting, as well as extremely informative book that gives unbiased and well-thought-out information about on the peoples about which that the author writes.

about. I personally found this book to be a very good read.

Charles Mann is a fantastic writer, and he makes everything about this book interesting. He knows how to put things so that he really grabs the reader’s attention and keeps you interested to learn more. He is very descriptive and words things in a way that is understandable for me, the reader. He also has a very extensive vocabulary, which makes the reading even more interesting.

Mann also uses tons of information that he has gathered. He makes very good points to his topics, as well, and he makes these points very clear. Because of this, I did not find anything that I really disagreed with him on.

The book mostly speaks of how much false information is widely believed in the world today about early Americans before Columbus and the Europeans settled in the New World. Many scholars in the past have made false assumptions on about the Native Americans because of their own ethnocentric opinions. For example, today most people view the early Americans as being very nature-oriented, but not very intelligent people who live in small, isolated tribes scattered across the country, who also never did anything to change their environment. However, these assumptions are not true.

The Indians actually had a huge impact on their land, mostly for the better. They cleared land to plant more nut and fruit trees, they grew tons of crops, they even created maize. One group in particular, the Beni, was exceptional in the area of purposing land for their its benefit. They built huge mounds in an area that was constantly being flooded. By doing so, this allowed them to grow crops and trees on the mounds. They even made traps below the mounds to trap fish when the area did flood. Overall, I found the book to be very memorable.

I really enjoyed reading this book and I will remember a lot of the information that it has taught me for a long time. I can’t think of anything that I disagree with the author on, since Charles Mann does make very good points, and he is impressively convincing. I think that the information given in 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus will open the eyes of many people and teach a lot of people more about the history of the Native Americans. This is a very good and informative book that gives unbiased and trustworthy information about the early Americans before and after Europeans settled in the Americas.

Boston Beer Company Essay

Boston Beer Company Essay

1. Evaluate the attractiveness of the craft beer segment relative to the market space occupied by the traditional “Big Three”. (tip: use the Five Forces framework). a. High Threat of new competition: over 600 of specialty beer companies were founded over the past five years, approximately 40% growth each years. In addition, the existence of contract brewing companies lead to low entry cost. b. High substitution: The attractiveness of craft brewing industry are majorly based on unique styles and flavors of beer. there are many different brands and styles of beer so the actual threat of substitutes is high.

c. The intensity of competitive rivalry is also high: while there is a major growth of new entry, the market size shows little growth. This creates tremendous competitive pressures among the industry. d. Bargaining power of buyers: Switching cost for buyers are low, as there are many different substitution and options. companies has to consistently maintain high quality in order to retain customers. e. Bargaining power of suppliers: switching cost for suppliers are high for the traditional Big Three, as their supplies are tied to their own brewies.

Craft brewing companies has the option of switch breweries in a relatively low cost, as the suppliers know they have options to supply other breweries. This allows them to charge higher prices than the big three. 2. Evaluate Boston Beer’s business model relative to Redhook and Pete’s, comparing their business models with respect to specific activities such as procurement, brewing, distribution, and marketing. BBC’s strategy of producing the highest quality of products, the company pursued four initiatives: high quality standards, contract brewing, intensive sales and marketing, and product line innovations.

Unlike BBC and Pete’s, redhook relies on its own breweries. Redhook also established a strategic alliance with Anheuser-Busch whereby Redhook products were sold through the nation-wide network of 700 distributorships in exchange for a 25% equity stake in the company. Similar to BBC, Pete’s operates on a contract brewing basis and stress heavily on marketing. In retrospect, BBC intended to remain a contract brewer exclusively, capitalizing on lower overhead and transportation costs while continuing to invest heavily in its branded products.

Redhook believed that its long-term growth and profitability were best served by assembling the largest company-owned production capacity of any domestic craft brewer, guaranteeing production capacity in more than one geographic region of the United States. Redhook also made a substantial investment in distribution, gaining access to Anheuser Busch’s nation-wide network of resellers. Pete’s, on the other hand, appeared to be following a combination of these two strategies by producing its products at both company-owned and third-party breweries. 3. How realistic analysts’ long-term growth forecasts (25% to 40% for the craft-brewing segment)?

Based on the porter five forces analysis, the craft brewing segment has many advantages over the traditional big three, which explains the 40% growth rate. However the large number of new entries companies has already created a tremendous amount of competitions among its own, which retard the long term growth in my opinion and makes the forecasts of 25% to 40% seem unrealistic. 4. What do you recommend to Boston Beer? a. While the US market size remains somewhat stable. By exporting globally, will introduce BBC to new markets and additional sales b. Forming strategic alliance will help combat the increasing competition among industries.

The Summary of Bhopal Disaster Essay

The Summary of Bhopal Disaster Essay

The Union Carbide plant was established in Bhopal in 1969 and it began to produce the insecticide Carbaryl. methyl isocanyte is an ingredient of carbaryl, and on the morning of December 3, 1984, a holding tank containing 43 tons of methyl isocyanate overheated and released the toxic gas. Because methyl isocyanate is heavier than air, it traveled over the ground through the Bhopal city center. The transportation system collapsed, and many people were trampled to death in a mad rush to flee the visible gases.

In total, 15,000 people died and 150,000-600,000 people were injured. The contamination and deaths were a result of numerous factors: * Recent documents obtained through discovery in the course of a lawsuit against Union Carbide for environmental contamination (before a New York Federal District Court) revealed that Carbide had exported “untested, unproven technology” to the Indian plant. Unlike Union Carbide plants in the USA, its Indian subsidiary plants were not prepared for problems. No action plans had been established to cope with incidents of this magnitude.

This included not informing local authorities of the dangers of chemicals used and manufactured at Bhopal. * Reports issued months before the incident by scientists within the Union Carbide corporation warned of the possibility of an accident almost identical to that which occurred in Bhopal. The reports were ignored outright and never made it to senior staff. Due to falling sales, staff had been laid off and safety checks became less and less frequent. * Slip-blind plates that would have prevented water from pipes being cleaned from leaking into the MIC tanks via faulty valves were not installed.

Their installation had been omitted from the cleaning checklist. * At the time of the event, the MIC tank refrigeration unit was disabled to save money, and some of its coolant was being used elsewhere. A simple press of a button in the control room would have activated it to at least use the remaining coolant, but this was overlooked by staff. * The gas scrubber was placed on standby, and therefore did not attempt to clean escaping gases with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), which may have brought the concentration down to a safe level. The water curtain that may have reduced the concentration of the gas was only set to ~13 m and did not reach the gas; it was not designed to contain a leak of such magnitude. Though the audible external alarm was activated to warn the residents of Bhopal, it was quickly silenced to avoid causing panic among the residents. Thus, many continued to sleep, unaware of the unfolding drama, and those that had woken assumed any problem had been sorted out. The flare tower used to burn off gases before they are allowed to escape into the air was inoperational pending repairs. * Doctors and hospitals were not informed of proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation. They were told to simply give cough medicine and eyedrops to their patients. Union Carbide agreed to pay $470 million to the residents of Bhopal. That amount is lower than in the lawsuit and substantially lower than similar Asbestos cases Union Carbide was settling concurrently in the United States.

By the end of October 2003, according to the Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department, compensation had been awarded to 554,895 people for injuries received and 15,310 survivors of those killed. The average amount to families of the dead was $2,200. Union Carbide also attempted to distance itself from the tragedy by blaming its subsidiary in India and even fabricated stories about a Sikh extremist group and disgruntled former employees bent on sabotaging the plant. Health Effects Summary for MIC

Immediate Health Effects  (0-6 months) * Ocular: Chemosis, redness, watering, ulcers, photophobia * Respiratory: Distress, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, pneumothorax * Gastrointestinal: Persistent diarrhea, anorexia, persistent abdominal pain * Genetic: Increased chromosomal abnormalities * Psychological: Neuroses, anxiety states, adjustment reactions * Neurobehavioral: Impaired audio and visual memory, impaired vigilance attention and response time, Impaired reasoning and spatial ability, impaired psychomotor coordination

Long-term Health Effects * Ocular: Persistent watering, corneal opacities, chronic conjunctivitis * Respiratory: Obstructive and restrictive airway disease, decreased lung function * Reproductive: Increased pregnancy loss, increased infant mortality, decreased placental/fetal weight * Genetic: Increased chromosomal abnormalities * Neurobehavioral: Impaired associate learning, motor speed, and precision

Company Represantative Resume Example Essay

Company Represantative Resume Example Essay

This letter is to express my interest in bringing my expertise as an Educator and Counselor to your institution.  I possess strong communication skills and have a passion promoting a positive school environment.

As you can gather from my attached resume, I have contributed to the personal and academic growth of Elementary students while working for the New York Department of Education.  I earned my Masters Degree in English as a Second Language and am currently pursuing my Masters Degree in School Counseling.

  I believe in maintaining a professional demeanor and resolving conflicts in a diplomatic and courteous manner.  I am committed to helping students with disciplinary problems through utilizing effective classroom management techniques in cooperation with parents and school administrators.

In addition to the skills noted on my attached resume, I can also offer your organization:

  • An ability to analyze a complex problem and implement a practical solution.
  • Superior presentation and interpersonal communication skills with effective writing skills.
  • Self-motivated professional with experience in helping students attain their academic goals.

Vidsoft technologies Essay

Vidsoft technologies Essay

Vidsoft technologies was an Internet company in California and it developed enterprise software to solve the procurement needs for its clients such as Cisco systems, Johnson and Johnson and Telespain companies. Keith Nash who was the company’s chief executive officer of Vidsoft had instilled a culture in the organization where employees were free to speak their minds, work hard and deliver customer satisfaction because he believed that so long as the Vidsoft customers were success full, so would the company.

The organization also encouraged employees and it had several motivational activities for its employees which included football pingpong tables and social gathering during Fridays so that the employees can enjoy themselves and feel free to talk about the events of the week and what they felt about the company or any situation which may be there. Managers were promoted from within the organization and the company always looked for those who were better than the existing ones.

However as Internet need expanded, they few individuals remaining demanded high salaries therefore the criteria for hiring people relaxed where they chose to employ people then train them.

Babatunde was the senior technical support manager, Hsu was a technical support engineer who was a hard worker but was not a team player and wanted to climb the corporate ladder faster.

Babatunde promoted Li into management and although she was determined to fit, Hsu was not happy that Li was his boss and wanted to be transferred to another group because he did not respect Li, he joined Vidsoft because of Babatunde and therefore wanted him to remain his boss and that Li was not experienced for the job so there was nothing which he would learn from her. Although Babatunde tried to resolve the situation, Hsu did not want to be under Li and she did not want him to leave because she feared that others may have negative views of her.

In this case Babatunde can resolve this situation by making Hsu the manager of the group dealing with the other line of the product because it did not yet have a manager and he had necessary skills for the position. This would be a powerful motivator for Hsu and he would be able to learn to associate with others and also involve himself in the team work which was highly valued by the company.

The internal promotion of Hsu would also generate loyalty through his recognition and it would increase his morale by fulfilling his need of increased status and his want to climb up the corporate ladder. This is because Hsu was an experienced person for the managerial job and with his degree in computer engineering, he would effectively manage the other group and bring good results to the customers and the company.

Due to Hsu attitude and his response to Li’s promotion, there was no surety that he would be comfortable with the other new manager who would be brought to manage the other group if he was to be shifted from Li’s team. This therefore means that if he was the manager, he would be directly under Babatunde which he always wanted and he would be comfortable in his position. Through this promotion also, others would not despise Li as they had already started to be influenced by Hsu’s attitude because there would be a good reason for removing Hsu under her management.

This situation could have been avoided initially by first talking to each and everyone in the group which was to be managed by Li about the decision of promoting her as their manager. Those not comfortable like Hsu would have then been given the chance to move to the other group initially therefore the problem would not have occurred. Other employees would have also been informed about the promotion so that whoever who might has been interested such as Hsu would have a chance to be taken as one of the candidates to fill the position.

In future, this problem can be avoided by talking to all the people concerned and the entire group which will be managed before making the move of promoting one of them so that they are all comfortable with the decision. Others should also be taught on how to accept others and their capabilities but not just think of themselves and how they can be able to move up the corporate ladder, they should be made to think of the company first and how it can be made to improve it and this will in future prevent such scenarios from reoccurring.

The employees should also be taught ti respect each other and be ready to work under the supervision of any of them who would be promoted for a more superior position. Vidsoft technologies and its management should also provide opportunities to the employees through a job-bidding procedure or during the performance evaluation of employees by the managers to declare any interest which any of them may have in a specific promotion opportunity in the organization.

The employees should be notified that they should identify higher positions which they may be interested in and they should not only use a general statement that they would someday want to have a better job but they should be clear and specific so that the management can be aware and therefore monitor such an employee for any possibilities of leadership or management skills. Performance evaluation should also be conducted on all the employees on basis of written specifications and all the standards which are related to the job and the appraisal should also be written so that they can be used in future.

Vidsoft managers should conduct meetings with individual employees so they their evaluations can be signed and also determine their abilities in management. A system should also be developed so that the employees can be alerted on when any promotional opportunity is available in the organization so that they can have a chance to express their interest in the positions given (Devon 2007).

Transactional leadership works in situations where clear structures are created and it is very clear of what is needed of the subordinates and the rewards they are meant to get when they follow orders given to them by their seniors. Although punishments are not mentioned, the subordinates understands them well and there are formal ways of instilling discipline in them which is put in place.

The early stage of transactional leadership is where the contract is negotiated, and the subordinates are given salaries and benefits and managers gets authority over the subordinates in the company. The work allocated to subordinates by the managers is considered his/her responsibility whether or not there are resources available to do the work and in case anything goes wrong during work, the subordinate is seen to be at fault and is given a punishment for the failure just the way they are rewarded if they succeed in their work.

The transactional leaders uses management by exception where they work on the principle that if something is operating to defined performance, then it does not need to be given any attention and that exceptions require praise for exceeding expectations and collective action is applied for performances which are below expectations. Transactional leadership is based on contingency where reward or punishment are contingent upon a persons performance.

It is still a popular approach for managers despite its limitations such as the assumption of the ‘rational man’ who is seen as a person who is mostly motivated by the money given to him/her or the simple rewards offered therefore their behaviors can be predicted. While the common transactional leadership relies on the assumptions about human beings, their motivators and how the organizations work, today these assumptions are seen as incorrect, false and inaccurate.

This kind of leadership is linked to behaviorist approach to human functioning which is incomplete and it focuses more on management not leadership. Transformational leadership Transformational leadership is the process which changes or transforms individuals where they are made to want change, to improve and to be led. They access employees motives, satisfy their needs and value them and they are likely to make the organizational more successful.

Transformational leadership begins with development of a vision which may emerge from different discussions and then the vision is sold where the transformational leaders convince others to contribute. The leaders seeks to transform the organization as well as the followers so that they can be good leaders. The major differences between transformational and transactional leadership is that while transformational leadership deals with building need and meaning in individuals, transactional leadership deals with building on the need to get the job done and make a living out of it.

Second is that transformational leadership is usually pre-occupied with purposes, values, morals and ethics while transactional leadership is pre occupied with power and position, perks and politics. Transformational leadership transcends daily affairs and is oriented towards the long term goals without compromising on the human values and principles while transactional leaders swamp daily affairs and look at short term goals.

The transformational leaders separates causes and symptoms and work to prevent and treat, and it focuses more on missions and strategies to achieve the goals, it makes the full use of the available resources such as human interactions, they design and redesign jobs so that they are meaningful and challenging and strive to work effectively within the human potential in the current systems of the organization and they align the internal structures and systems to reinforce the goals which have been set.

On the other hand, transactional leaders confuses the causes and the symptoms, they focus on the tactical issues, rely on human relations to oil, they follow and fulfill the expectations from their roles and they support structures which reinforce they organizations goals (Bass & Riggio 2005). Transformational leadership creation of a moral aspiration for followers and leaders alike Transformational leaders motivate their followers so that they can take action and do their work well by appealing to the shared goals and values and by satisfying the higher order needs of the people whom they are leading.

They satisfy the aspirations and expectations of the people whom they are leading and it becomes moral because it raises the level of human conduct as well as their level of ethical aspirations of both the transformational leader and the people whom they are leading and therefore it has a transforming effect on both the leader as well as the led. Transformational leaders fosters the appropriate changes by adding into and shaping the common goals, needs and wants between them and followers and they also develop and carry an evaluation of others in accordance to the set values in the organization.

There are four factors of transformational leadership which create a high level of moral inspiration to both the leaders and their followers, these are one, it has an idealized influence which describes managers who are exemplary role models for associates and therefore the followers like them because they believe that they will help them. Second is inspirational motivation which describes managers who motivates their followers to commit to the organization’s vision and they also encourage team spirit to reach the already set goals.

Third is intellectual stimulation which describes the managers who encourage innovation and creativity through challenging beliefs or views given by a group and the forth is individual consideration which describes managers who act as coaches and advisor’s to the associates or followers by encouraging them to reach goals so that they can help themselves as well as the organization (Sadler 2003).