Categories for Communication

Personal Communication: Texting and Driving Essay

Personal Communication: Texting and Driving Essay

More than 1 trillion text messages were sent worldwide last year. Texting while driving has become more common in today’s society than it has ever been. As a community, we have been bombarded with new technologies, such as iPhone’s, cell phones, tablets, etc. According to the National Safety Council it is estimated that 11 teen deaths happen per day, at least 1. 6 million car accidents, 6,000 deaths and half a million injuries occur each year all in result of texting while driving.

Texting and driving should be completely banned and made illegal because it is distracting, harmful and deadly in most situations.

As the years progress the constant expansion of technology has facilitated society to move forward. These constant growths have allowed us to communicate faster and more efficiently. Walking can often be tedious and time consuming; driving has allowed us to reach our destination a lot faster. Texting became a more efficient way of communication because in comparison to phone calls it speeds up the communication process.

People who use cell phones on a daily basis attempt to combine texting and driving to make their communication with work, friends and family even faster put themselves in harmful situations. Texting and driving is a very contentious issue in today’s society. It is not out of the ordinary to see someone while driving glancing down at his or her cell phone, which in conclusion causes the driver to not have full attention on the road at all. When first taught to drive you learn to keep your hands on the wheel and eyes on the road. These simple rules are being disobeyed on a daily basis.

According to the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) distracted driving is a growing public safety hazard. Specifically, the dramatic rise in texting volumes since 2005 appeared to be contributing to an alarming rise in distracted driving fatalities (Fernando 1). In 2011 alone statistics showed that over 6,000 deaths and over a half a million injuries occurred solely due to distracted driving. Studies have shown that approximately 1 in 6 fatal vehicle collisions resulted from a driver being distracted while driving (Fernando 1).

These types of tragedies should not just become overlooked; people should be severely punished for texting and driving or doing any type of distracted driving at all. When someone takes on the act of distracted driving they are not only putting their own lives in danger, they are also putting the life of a completely innocent stranger in a large amount of danger as well. When driving it is not hard to lose focus of what is happening on the road in front of you. Someone who is texting while driving takes his or her eyes off the road for at least five seconds.

Driving for five seconds is enough time to cover over 100 yards. Just imagine the remarkable destruction that could be done driving across that amount of road with unopened eyes. That is the danger that you put yourself in by just sending one text message. It should be illegal for people to take on the act of any type of distracted driving. For someone to respond to a message their eyes have to be looking down at their phone, completely off the road. When texting and driving you are missing one of the main components that it takes to drive and that is vision.

Without vision, it is impossible to have a safe ride. Texting while driving will take that completely away. No matter how good of a driver you claim to be, without vision anything could happen at any given time. No matter how quick you think you are at texting, there is always that slim chance that when you look down you could be the number one cause of a serious car accident and cause not only cause harm to yourself but you could also cause serious harm to others as well.

Eyes are key factor when it comes to driving a motor vehicle and when they are not on the road that can cause many dangerous and harmful situations to become created. Even if you think you can send a text message without looking at your phone, do not even try it because it is not safe what so ever. Focus is also a main component in driving as well. When on the road the driver needs to be fully aware of his or her surroundings, they need to be able to see the road and hear what is going on around them.

Anything could happen at any point in time and having complete focus is crucial. When a text message is being written the drivers attention is solely focused on what message is being relayed in that text, not on what is happening on the road in front of them. Without complete focus, it is impossible to have a safe ride. Being a teenager, I come face to face with the urge to text and drive on a daily basis. Focusing on the road alone is already hard enough as it is, I could not even imagine the immense distraction that using my phone while driving would cause.

No status update or text message is worth my life or one of the passengers in my cars life so I completely refrain from doing it. Texting while driving has always made me feel uncomfortable when being a passenger in someone’s car. No matter what anyone says, the distraction that has been brought forth by using any type of electronic device while in control of a motor vehicle is tremendous. Texting and driving is not the only type of distracted driving that is prevalent in today’s fast growing society. Another leading cause of accidents and dangerous driving extends far beyond texting.

Accessing the internet while on a cell phone while driving increased from 29% in 2009 to 43% in 2011 (Professional Safety). Using the internet while in control of a vehicle can be far more distracting and complex then just sending a text message. Reading social media networks while driving increased from 21% in 2009 to 37% in 2011. Updating social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram increased from 20% in 2009 to 33% in 2011 (Professional Safety). These “simple tasks” becomes a lot more risky when put in the mix of operating a motor vehicle.

On January 12th 2012 Taylor Sauer’s made a fatal mistake. While making a four-hour drive from her college Utah State University she was messaging a friend on Facebook very frequently discussing the Denver Broncos Football Team. Moments later, Sauer going more than 80 mph crashed into a tanker truck. She was killed instantly, investigators saw no signs that she applied brakes before the fatal crash occurred. After checking her cell phone records it was clear to authority that she was posting on the web every 90 seconds during her drive.

The parents of Taylor are still grieving over their 18-year old daughter’s death and urge state legislators to pass a ban on texting and driving in Idaho (Inbar). Just several days ago, the city of Beaufort banned texting and driving and distracted driving in general. The city claimed that studies have shown that minors utilizing a cell phone while operating a motor vehicle pose a special danger to other vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians on the roadway and whereas, City Council finds that it is in the best interest of the citizens and residents of Beaufort to prohibit the use of cell phones by minors operating a motor vehicle in the city.

The order also prohibits the use of a cell phone by anyone under the age of 18 while driving. If caught the operator of the vehicle will be fined between $50 and $150 dollars (Hawkins). Hopefully this will cause a significant cut in the distracted driving that takes place in our home town and make our road ways a safer place for us to travel. Distracted driving is a very serious crime and should not be disregarded. An 18 year old boy by the name of Aaron Deveau, was just recently found guilty of motor vehicle homicide by texting.

Aaron was the first resident of Massachusetts to be convicted of these chargers. ABC News claimed that on February 20th 2011 while Deveau was in the process of sending a text message his truck swerved across the center line of Haverhill, Massachusetts and crashed head on into Daniel Bowley. This crash caused the death of Bowley who was a 55 year old resident of New Hampshire and the father of three children. On June 6, 2012 Deveau was sentenced to a year in prison and also the loss of his license for 15 years for causing a fatal crash by distracted driving (Davis 1).

Unless a complete emergency has been brought upon you, there is not excuse for using an electronic device while operating a motor vehicle. This habit is completely un-acceptable and needs to be brought to an end. Distracted driving causes serious accidents, major injuries and deaths. No text is worth your, or somebody else’s life no matter what. Death and injuries are devastating and can cause immense pain to your friends and family. So next time before you go to send that text while driving just think to yourself, is it worth it?

Global Communication Worksheet Essay

Global Communication Worksheet Essay

Your supervisor wants to send a brief e-mail message, welcoming employees recently transferred to your department from different regions across the company, which are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Create a clear and concise welcome message that would be appropriate for these groups of employees.

Research the communication style of each of the following countries:


Transcribe the following welcome message for the employees from each country:

I wanted to welcome you ASAP to our little family here in the States.

It’s high time we shook hands in person and not just across the sea. I’m pleased as punch about getting to know you all, and I for one will do my level best to sell you on America.

Complete the table below with your transcribed welcome messages. Also indicate whether each of the countries are more individualistic or relationship focused, and whether they are direct or indirect in their communication.

Transcribe Welcome Message
Relationship or Individualistic?
Direct or Indirect?

Telecommunications sector Essay

Telecommunications sector Essay

Belize Telemedia Limited is the new name of Belize Telecommunications Limited in Belize which was instituted in 1972 as the telecommunication authority. The Belizean telecom market was formally and authoritatively reformed and became less strict in January 2003; however Belize Telecommunications still has the control in the telecommunication market (Mansell 56, 2007). With limited rivalry and unproductive regulatory control, it has fixed very expensive charges for its services. VoIP is the case study which reveals a controversy in the Belize telecommunication industry.

Although the government and the regulatory body collaboratively confirmed to promote competition in the telecom sector, in reality BTL was successful in conspiring against VoIP to remove competition.

However, BTL has to face competition in the mobile sector where SpeedNet has successfully covered 18 percent of the market. At present, BTL prides on 335000 fixed landlines, 130000 cellular consumers and 8000 internet customers. BTL has more than 475 expert and capable workers with 15 branch offices spread countrywide (Mansell 56, 2007).

The aims and objectives of BTL is to develop, engineer and install high tech network and technologies and to offer best communication services and facilities.

The company is dedicated to increase its existing wire line, mobile and internet services by getting on-stream a broad range of matchless, unsurpassed services and facilities to the consumers. Additionally, its dynamic, quick and efficient network provides its consumers consistent, efficient, trusty and finest service accessed in the vicinity, all over the country, regionally and globally.

BTL headquarters are in Belize City. It has 15 customer service centers installed countrywide. Telemedia is concentrated on increasing further than the national boundaries so that there is increase in investor value, development and promotion of new opportunities for workers and assistance in the economic development, progress and increase of the nation of Belize. Telemedia offers HomeFone Service which is a fixed telephone line service. It provides three latest and reasonably priced plans to residential customers.

These plans offer distinctive alternatives which includes limitless night and weekend minutes, unlimited, unrestrained monthly usage, etc. Each package offer services such as caller id, voicemail, 24 hours contact to Operator, telephone directory, etc. Telemedia’s wireless service offers its consumers the basic telephone service (Calabrese 225, 2007). The consumer can avail other suitable features that will improve communication requirement for residential or commercial purpose. It offers the users to receive calls locally, countrywide and globally.

Econo-Phone is another service which gives full access to Telemedia Prepaid telephone service at affordable rates. The user can keep an eye on the amount of time he or she spends on the phone and can make calls all over the world. Econo-Phone works as a prepaid cellular phone. The user can also enjoy facilities such as voice mail notifications, caller id, internet services, etc. DigiCell is cellular service that uses GSM. It is operational at GSM 1900 and offers advanced, improved superiority, improved voice clearness and wide-ranging safety measures (Calabrese 225, 2007).

It is considered to be Belize’s most highly developed and ground-breaking mobile service. It offers increased collection of voice and multimedia services. DigiCell encrypts all voice and data, thus making it more secure. DigiCell also offers innovative solutions for business and residential consumers by means of DigiCell Prepaid services. It offers short message service, data and international roaming service, call hold, call waiting, caller id, voicemail, etc. Telemedia’s Once Card can be used to avail all the Prepaid Services that are offered.

When the consumer buys a Prepaid card, e-PIN or Fone TopUp, he or she is no longer requires to select between regular or DigiCell prepaid card. Further, this card can be used as a recharge or calling card. Fone TopUp is electronic recharge arrangement that permits representatives and distributors to supply electronic pins or immediately top up a prepaid number with any value. Belize Telemedia Limited has successfully increased its wireless coverage nationwide, covering most of the rural communities in Belize by deploying Nortel wireless technology (Cronin 29, 2007).

This technology has completely replaced the old Belize Telemedia existing GSM structure given by Nortel competitor; as well deploy a new CDMA 450 MHz network to hold up Telemedia’s emergent subscriber demand in Belize and the requirement for more superior, high-tech products and facilities countrywide. .Telemedia’s existing wireless setup has been improved and enhanced to Nortel GSM GPRS/EDGE 850/1900 MHz wireless network which offers superior network coverage and connectivity for the consumers.

In addition, the operator has launched a completely new network laid on Nortel CDMA xRTT and 1xEV-DO technologies in the 450 MHz range, to expand services and assist to seal the means of communication space in rural society (Cronin 29, 2007). According to Dean Boyce who is the chairperson of the executive committee at Belize Telemedia, the Nortel technologies has successfully enhanced the reputation of Belize Telemedia and also given wide-ranging services which has strengthen Telemedia’s network.

The execution of CDMA/EVDO platform and the utilization of 450 MHz frequency have successfully provided voice and high speed internet services to consumers present in rural areas which has accelerated Belize economy. Belize Telemedia’s network substitute and improvement also includes Nortel all-IP products such as Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture, Mobile Switching Center and Home Location Register, allowing operators to back up numerous services and applications on the unchanged, consistent platform.

The Belize government welcomed the 2004 sale of the nationwide telephone corporate to a U.S-Caribbean organization as a moment of guarantee and affiliation. The main highlight was the $90 million deal (Fox 103, 2007). However, the agreement was tattered and became a story of officially permitted and oral clash.

The clash started when Musa management took full authority of Belize Telecommunication Ltd from Prosser and his company after the failure to pay $57 million to the government for the phone company. Prosser filed a case in which he demanded the court to give out a command that would invalidate the boardroom occupation and put him back in charge.

Prosser’s attorney was Lanny Davis who criticized the Belize government by calling it lawless after the assembly approved a law allowing the occupation of specified telephone company shares after Prosser’s non-payment. In the initial stages of the case, U. S District Judge Ursula Ungaro-Benages instructed Belize to invalidate its conflict against ICC, and then hit the government with a disrespect, scorn allegation for refusal to comply, signifying that Belize authorities gave the impression to want “to be hit over the head by a 2-by-4.

UngaroBenages passed the verdict which favored the Belize government. The liberalization of the telecommunication market at various phases, from Guatemala to Costa Rica remains government owned. Costa Rica’s fixed-line tele-density is the highest in South America while that in Guatemala is 40 percent less than the complete South American average, which shows that fixed line privatization and competition are no assurance of the development there. The study reveals that low fixed line tele-density causes leapfrogged unswervingly into mobile communications.

Mobile competition is intense and diffusion is far away that would be anticipated bearing in mind their other macroeconomic pointers (Fox 103, 2007). Belize is the only exemption since it has national owned mobile company. Broadband services also vary greatly among these seven countries. Efforts are being made to liberalize Belize’s telecommunication market. Belize stands out from its neighboring countries as a financial leader, having already commenced the internet trend that would hit its neighbors in the entire South American Region.

The interests of foreign companies to chase the liberalization of the Belize telecommunication market set up in the country and use that country as a launch pad to launch its rising information technology business throughout the area. The initiation of foreign competitors in the Belize telecommunication market needs a legitimate alteration and adjustment to suspend the current government utility company’s domination in the market.

Communication an organisations Essay

Communication an organisations Essay

This assessment is to demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the topics taught in leading and motivating a team effectively module of the ILM Level 3 Course in Leadership and Management. The document will be split into two main sections, the first section will focus on how to communicate an organisations vision and strategy to the team as well as provide an analysis on its importance. The second section will look at the role motivation in the development of a team.

Section 1: How to communicate an organisations vision and strategy to the team

One of the definitions of the word team (in its verb form) is, come together to achieve a common goal (Oxford University Press, 2014).

It is this common goal or purpose that turns a group of individuals into a team without a common purpose or goal to strive toward a team cannot function effectively. For example in a football team each player needs to know their place and role in the team, but also the strategy and vision for wider team, is the team an attacking team, a defensive team, do they attack via the wings etc.

without knowing the common goal of the team the players will look to their own role and not know how to support the wider team and therefore are less likely to achieve their common goal.

The same holds true within an organisation not just at an individual person level but at a departmental level, if teams do not know the wider vision or strategy of the organisation they can become siloed and retreat upon themselves and just focus on delivering the “day job” rather than support the organisation in a more holistic role. With the above in mind, it’s clear to see that for a team to perform it needs clarity in its purpose, and from a business point of view this should be given by the vision and strategy of the organisation.

The vision tells us what the organisation wants to be, it doesn’t focus on the how that is the role of the strategy, the vision is a simple statement of what it wants to achieve. Below is an example vision statement from Amazon. “Our vision is to be earth’s most customer-centric company where customers can find and discover anything they might want to buy online… at the lowest possible prices.” It’s a fairly short statement but allows staff and managers to know that the focus of Amazon is on three things

•Being Customer Focused
•Providing Online Services
•Cost effectiveness (for Amazon and the customer)

With the vision clearly stated it helps teams understand the direction in which the organisation wants to go, the next step is to explain how team fits in this vision and will help deliver it.

Once the vision of an organisation is understood, it’s important about going about explaining how it will achieve this and this is referred to as the strategy. The strategy should be a series of plans that detail how elements of the vision will be achieved; for example Amazon’s vision could be split into two strategies; being customer centric and providing online services with cost effectiveness being a theme that runs across both strategies. These plans would then be broken down into more tactical detail such as action plans and SMART objectives to be carried out an operational level. For example a call centre team will have several objectives/KPI such as Calls answered in less than 5 seconds in a given month or First Time Call Resolution 95% (Year to Date), which without much explanation simply look like tools to ensure staff are doing their jobs when in fact they are SMART objectives that relate to the customer focused strategy of Amazon’s vision and how effectively that strategy is working.

It is the performance of these objectives that dictate future strategy, poor performance may result in a change of strategy (i.e. outsourcing) where as good performance could result in the current strategy being maintained or even expanded (i.e. expansion to provide alternative services) and as such it is vital that staff are informed not only of their objectives and targets but how and why they exist, and what their overall effect on the business is. As we can see the role the vision and strategy plays in the performance of a team or individual is huge but it can be a two edged sword if the vision and strategy are either poorly communicated, misunderstood or simply unknown. As such communication is key, to ensure that the common sense and purpose that the vision and strategy provides is embedded and understood.

There are many methods of communication available within an organisation in aid of establishing a common purpose, but the first method is that the vision statement should be one that staff and customers can relate too and understand, if the vision doesn’t make sense the job to communicate it to staff will be twice as hard. A good basis for ensuring good communication is using the seven principles of communication; to ensure the message is clear, concise, concrete, correct, coherent, complete and naturally courteous. Once the message has been developed, it’s a matter of choosing the medium in which it is delivered; there are various methods such as email, telephone, meetings, seminars, presentation, 1-2-1s, newsletters all of which to be effective must be used at the right time and place.

As the vision is a supposed to provide a common purpose and understanding of what the company wants to be, it suggests that the best way to communicate this message is via more group/communal methods such as Team meetings, Away days or newsletters where the same message can be relayed to multiple staff at a time and avoids confusion or contamination of the key messages trying to be delivered, that can occur in mores personal communications such as 1-2-1 meetings. For example a team meeting where a contact centre manager for Amazon relays the vision of the company and how the team’s work fits in and helps deliver it to their 10 staff, is likely to be more effective than having 10 1-2-1 sessions in which they deliver they try to deliver the same message which is likely to alter between sessions due to personal relationships coming into play, more two way conversation disrupting the flow of the message, the recipient choosing to understand the message how they see it rather than how it was said and then finally the confusion that can occur when team members compare conversations.

This is not to say that group communication is always the best method to use as it does also have its downsides such as; it’s less likely people will ask questions in team/group meetings and could result in misunderstandings/confusion, if the person delivering the message is not clear and does not understand the message being delivered it will have a negative impact on the recipients, they can become side tracked by issues that arise during the meeting and people forget the message being delivered. My own skills actually lend themselves to small groups or 1-2-1 sessions as I struggle to manage wider groups at times, especially when the meeting goes off topic or several conversations start within the meeting.

However as I only manage two staff at the moment this hasn’t hampered my ability to communicate a common sense of purpose to my staff as I have my own concepts on what our role is in the business, however as highlighted in our learner session in July we did struggle as a group to find the group’s vision and strategy, which in itself is a failing in that without knowing the true vision and strategy of the business how can I communicate that to my staff and could potentially be providing them with a purpose that is counter to the organisations own goals. In reflection this had led me to book in some time to read the new business plan, and in readiness I’ve booked a team meeting together with my staff to go over it and highlight were we as a team fit in it. I’ve also took some time recently to review our action plans and KPI’s on Covalent, which is a software we use to link action plans and KPI’s together to strategies to see how our objectives are linked to the wider organisation and through that hopefully provide better clarity and coherent information to my staff.

Hopefully my management of meetings will improve through this course, as one of the modules in on managing meetings effectively. In conclusion I use to think my communication skills were quite good, however through this exercise I’ve noted that while my method of delivery and communication style may be good it doesn’t mean much if you don’t truly know the message you are trying to convey which until I’m up to speed on the business plan and our place in it I can’t say I know what that message should be without retreating into the “day job” which as mentioned at the beginning is a symptom of a team who doesn’t know the organisations vision or strategy.

Section 2: Know how to motivate and develop the team

Section 2.1: Describe the main motivational factors in a work context and how these may apply to different situations, teams and individuals. There are multiple models and theories for motivation such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Acquired Needs Theory by McClellan and Two Factor Theory by Hezberg to name a few and while most can be used to explain motivational factors in a work context some such as Maslow’s and Alderfer’s theory require more adaption or to make it fit as such I’ll be using Hezberg’s Two factor theory to describe the main motivational factors in the work context. According to Herzberg, two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways: Hygiene factors: These are factors that are taken for granted and can be seen as having no positive satisfaction by themselves, however if they were taken away would cause a dramatic down turn in morale and motivation.

An example is a policy of free tea and coffee for staff by itself unlikely to motivate staff but if it was removed would have a negative impact. Motivator factors: These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. An example would be recognition at work for a job well done, achieving a promotion. Looking at the above it would seem that simply applying the motivator factors would cause an increase in motivation and simply ensuring the hygiene factors stayed in place is the sure fire way to succeed in motivating your staff, however the below example shows how by applying one rule to an individual can affect the team as a whole.

Person A is doing a good job and as such you wish to increase motivation by recognising their work, which you do by offering a promotion/raise or bonus, this however can impact on the rest of the team as Pay and Benefits also come under Hygiene factors and as such by rewarding one and not everyone in the team this can cause a demotivation or job dissatisfaction.

Section 2.2: Explain the importance of a leader being able to motivate teams and individuals and gain their commitment to objectives.

Section 2.3: Explain the role that the leader plays in supporting and developing the team and its members and give practical examples of when this will be necessary

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Blogs and communication Essay

Blogs and communication Essay

Corporate blogging is a new method of communication in which employees of different firms and corporations are allowed to express themselves in the current trend in media communications. Several studies suggest that corporate blogs should be limited to only conveying of information beneficial for the company or firm, and thus there is the need to create a strategic management scheme for blogging. As a form of communication, blogs can certainly evolve into a more powerful means of communication.

This power entailed in written texts of blogs shall be seen as a tool in encompassing more productive results of the business sector.

According to Business Week Online issued in 2006, “A Weblog (or blog) can be a powerful marketing tool, but it can also expose a business to a legal minefield” as reported by Jacqueline Klosek. “Blogs can be used to market a company’s products and services, facilitate communications with clients, and even counter negative publicity. ” (Klosek, 2006).

From the research, many benefits of corporate blogging have been found: it is a tool for search engine marketing, an aide in building the company’s reputation as a thought leader, a good support in crisis management, tool for building relationships with customers, used as a human voice to a company, illustrates transparency, immediate customer service and feedback, acts as differentiator, and tool to find out what others think about you and your company.

Presently, corporations are now much more concerned about their reputations.

The vigilant companies realize that knowledge is power in cyberspace. They are trolling chat rooms, discussion boards, online news media and Web sites run by their competitors and critics to detect rumblings that could end up making headlines if a reporter or financial analyst discovers them first (Alsop 2004, 21). The existence of cyberspace, wherein the transfer of information is relatively faster than it was ten years ago has just become a threat to the reputations of corporations which are forced to enter cyberspace for more exposure.

Corporate blogging is one dependable medium which corporations may pursue in order to protect their reputations and cut of their costs in terms of crises scenarios which could have been avoided. Although, the most of the companies set up corporate blogs for the purpose of promoting their services, building their good image or gaining any other befits. There is however a limitation in blogging, since legal problems may arise in the process. “Careless statements posted on a company-sanctioned blog can come back to haunt the company through litigation and other avenues” Klosek stresses.

Blogs can cause violations on intellectual-property rights since most corporate blogs do not have specific rules that can be followed by the employees. Trade secrets may be revealed accidentally risking the protected status of company information. Disclosure of trade secrets can jeopardize the blogger’s career since this problem may cause his suspension or termination from his position. From many studies and articles written about corporate blogs, the question has been raised on insufficient management. The integrity rules for protection and management of blogs are expected to be established immediately.

This research proposal aims to determine that how does corporate blog as a kind of new innovation be widely adopted and used by the both of the individual blogger and various organizations? What are the benefits of the corporate blogs bring to the organizations? How the public perceives corporate blogging as a kind of new innovation? What are the perceived relative advantages of corporate blogging according to the bloggers? Why is it to be welcome and popular as a successful new innovation? Is corporate blogging compatible with the existing values and practices of the bloggers?

1. 2 Overview of the Structure This proposal is structured into several sections. This section provides the audience with the motivations, objectives and a brief introduction to the research proposal. In the following sections, it includes the Literature review concerning blogging phenomenon and the process of this successful innovation, the benefits and limitation will be critically reviewed to provide a background for the research theme. In order to further understand real world practices, a theoretical framework is introduced.

In section 3, known as Diffusion of innovation theory will be applied in the analysis part. The DIO theory is also used in combination with literature review to analyze and illuminate primary data, which will be used to answer the research question and the respective supporting the arguments. Section 4 describes the research methodology and various techniques which the author used to collate empirical data. In this section, the case research has been choosing to track and understand the history of the perception and adoption of blogs as a new innovation by the successful corporation in the business industry.

An interview will also be carried out in the research process. The interview will help to find out the relationship between the employer and internal blogger, and further testify, discover and summarize the effects and benefits of the corporate blog as a new innovation. Finally, the discussion and the conclusion sections will be given to summarize of the expectation of findings, contributions, limitations of the research and points in which the research could further be improved or developed. 2 Literature review 2. 1 Understanding of blogs

A weblog or blog is a form of an online journal. Schiano, Nardi, Gumbrecht, and Swartz (2004) defined blogs as “frequently updated web pages with a series of archived posts, typically in reverse chronological order”. According to Gordon (2006), blogs use “straightforward content management tool, allowing web pages and entries to be created and updated easily, without the need to worry about design or architecture issues” (Gordon, 2006). Although blog posts are primarily textual, authors may also include photos or other multimedia content in their posts.

The blog is the fourth biggest communication tool after the e-mail, BBS and ICQ. According to Cooke (2005), about 70 million blogs exist and over 75,000 blogs are being created each day. Blogs is indeed increasingly becoming popular. Sprague (2007) traced the growth and evolution of blogs. He also discussed how businesses use blogs to communicate with customers. There are different kinds of blogs present today at cyberspace. The most popular ones are personal blogs, service, and corporate blogs (Geerts and Kim 2005, 12).

Personal Blogs provide information about the thoughts, interests and activities of different people whether they are individuals or are blogging by groups or affiliations. Service blogs are often topic oriented and they are context specific and much informative than personal blogs. Some groups use service blogs to introduce new technologies and recent development regarding the corresponding technologies which they present. Finally, the corporate blog which is created and maintained by a business entity, and is used to provide information about the company’s products and services and to interact with clients and customers.

(Geers and Kim 2005, 12). Since most scholars who work in the area of life writing have chosen to see blogs as a development of the handwritten diary (Rak 2005, 166) more and more people engage in writing in blogspots or blogsites. There are both threats and advantages which corporate blogging gives to the corporations. At some point, corporate blogging has strengthened the transparency and corporate communications. Since at present, Corporate communication channels include not only printed materials but also information posted on a company’s Web sites and blogs (Argenti 2006, 358).

However, some corporations fail to further improve their corporate communications because they limit their corporation’s blogspots only to their employees and their advertisers. It is highly doubtful whether they have fully utilized the capabilities of new two-way communication tools because more corporate home pages have been primarily used as a platform to push mundane advertising messages (Liu et al. , 1997; Salam et. al. 1998; Young and Benamati, 2000). Another point presents the fact that, there might be leaks in confidential corporate information which might be given out through the engagement to blogs of employees.

Cases of such has led to the termination of employees active in Web blogs, which gives a corporate disadvantage as it losses some of its quality workforce due to the lack of policies and rules which apply to blogs. A good example would be the Delta Air Lines flight attendant who lost her job after she posted photos of herself in uniform on her blog. Delta stated that those photos, in which she is wearing Delta uniform with the blouse partly unbuttoned, were “inappropriate and unauthorized use of Delta branding” (USA Today, 2005).

Web blogs is a critical accessory in information dissemination, yet at the same time, it might cause some corporate failures, as although the Internet allows companies to present their viewpoints directly to key constituents, control over information dissemination is lost (Ihator 2001). There are several studies that investigate the nature of blogs and bloggers. Schiano et. al. (2004) interviewed 23 bloggers between the ages 19 and 60. The interviews included questions about the participant’s blogs, blogging habits, thoughts on blogging, and use of other communication media such as e-mails, instant messaging, phone, and web pages.

They found out that blogging is becoming increasingly popular because it serves as an easy-to-use personal journal in which he can express his thoughts and opinions. Nardi, Schiano and Gumbrecht (2004) describe blogs as a social activity. They interviewed the same population and questions as with their study entitled “Blogging by the Rest of Us”. After the interviews, the authors continued to read their participants’ blogs and communicate with some of them through email. The participants reported the reasons they started blogging, the reasons they continue blogging, and the changes in their blogging habits as time pass by.

A variety or reasons emerge: readers inform bloggers they need the new posts; the friends influence their friend to blog. Due to these responses, Nardi et. al. (2004) conclude that blogs are “a form of social communication in which blogger and audience are intimately related through the writing, posting and commenting of blogs” . (Nardi, 2004) These studies give us an idea on the perceptions of bloggers about blogs in general. 2. 2 Corporate blogs and applications in the real world Different types of blogs have been posted in the internet ever since the adoption of different corporations in the late 1990’s.

Corporate blogs however have different types in which each is branded according to the specific user or blogger. Dearstyne (2005) cites five different types of corporate blogs as: employee blog, group blog, executive blog, promotional blog, and newsletter blog. Employee blogs are blogs which are much like personal blogs and are maintained by a single rank-and-file employee. They vary in their content and are sometimes managed by different hosts which the corporations recognize. Although, often times, corporations gather all the blogs their employees post.

Majority of employee blogs are still hosted independently of the Web site, employee blogs are increasingly being hosted independently of the company Web sit, employee blogs are increasingly being hosted on company-owned domains as more and more companies are officially sponsoring employee blogging. (Lee et. al. 2006, 319). Group Blogs are blogs which are written by several people or groups. Employees collaborate and write on a specific topic or different topics pertaining to a certain theme; they are made by those who are experts on the certain topics.

Group blogs are sometimes made through the initiatives of employees themselves and self-hosted. Though, many group blogs are driven by strategic plans crafted by management and hosted by companies own Web sites (Lee et. al. 2006, 320). Executive Blogs, coming from the name itself, executive blogs are blogs which are written by various corporations’ executives. Corporations and consumers have been keener on what position blog writers are on as awareness about corporate standing is widespread.

People have become more interested in top executives who run companies than in individual companies (Gaines-Ross 2000). Promotional blogs are those which primary purpose is to create a buzz about products and events of corporations. This blog however sparks controversy as most of the blogs which are promotional blogs are often times computer generated and is largely called as fake by some bloggers who remain critical about using blogspots as advertising media. The blogging community severely criticized this strategy as deceptive and bloggers even proposed product boycotts (Gallagher 2003).

This case suggests that, marketing in the blogsphere is often times discouraged due to the lack of human voice in the ads which are placed in the blogsphere. Some corporations have moved from the traditional type of blog with a domain, and instead created a newsletter type of blog wherein opinions, thoughts, and positions of different corporate or organizational members are voiced out. They carry different information about the corporation, the people inside the corporation, and the corporation’s products which are widely discussed by members of the organization through the electronic newsletter.

Sprague (2007) further explains the influence of blogs to the American society. There is an increasing number of both bloggers and blog readers each day. At present, the blog has already extended its influence to the business society. Blogs are reported to influence what people think, do and buy. By the summer 2005, it is estimated that there are nearly 5,000 corporate blogs. Nowadays, there are a number of companies who have already set up their own corporate blogs.

Aside from the influx of bloggers, talking about anything and practically everything under the sun, in some countries wherein political turmoil is prominent and shouting against a regime could practically lose you your head. Blogspheres are considered as sanctuaries wherein anyone could voice off their thoughts. In Iran, the Blogsphere is one of the major mediums wherein the populace could voice out their political positions freely with minimal risk of persecution. Any foreigner who visits Iran is struck by the gap between the image projected by the regime to the outside world and the reality of Iranian society.

The blogs quoted here vividly convey the bitter disillusionment many Iranians feel not just towards the hard-line mullahs, but toward the failed reformist project and its erstwhile leader (Berkeley 2006, 73). The safeness and freedom of the blogosphere from any political and other accusations which may arise from its use due to the arbitrariness of the policies governing the blogosphere may be seen as an advantage of corporate personalities in advertising and the diffusion of their advocacy especially in corporate social responsibility.

Global Communications Essay

Global Communications Essay

While thanking you for the opportunity provided to research on Toyota company, there are several issues that neither be possible explained in detail in this letter nor directly in conversation. It is an agreeable fact that, Toyota is marginally successful in these global trade times in spite of stiff competition. A great strength of the company exists in its innovative and exchange of technology. There are several internal problems for the company in production process, workforce and even in marketing of cars.

Toyota company is a middle class and commercial automobile company, which is meeting a great requirement of migrant workers and small businesses which are developing each new day especially in U. S, which is being cashed in by Toyota company. However there are major concerns of global crude oil price which has reached $100. 00 per barrel and a concern of global warming and emission of greenhouse gases, CO2, vehicle pollution are some of the major threats that Toyota has to work with in order to sustain in the market.

Enclosing herewith a synopsis for your perusal and information. Sincerely, Paulbright

Synopsis on Toyota Toyota company is a multinational company in manufacture of automobiles. There are millions of customers who are using Toyota cars on a daily basis for office going and for other commercial purposes. Especially in U. S. Toyota cars are extremely in use and even in the recent years, Toyota company has posted a rapid growth by its successful brand Prius Hybrid vehicle. Many experts in automobiles are of the opinion that Toyota has established “green image” in automobile market. Toyota company mark as a monopoly did not leave the company without problems in spite of its remarkable success.

The problems are in various measures such as internal and external which the company’s management has to deal with. Although Toyota company is performing fairly well as compared with competitors there are problems of defective engines, designs and production problems which reflect in fall of sales. Particularly with regard to safety defects in Toyota vehicles is of a major concern to the company. Toyota company has a great experience in adoption of new technologies, innovation of technology and exchange of technology.

However, with the emerge of globalisation, there is a stiff competition in the market, which brings in new kind of marketing problems, employment problems and other management problems to the company, whereas it is an agreeable fact that when there are problems, solution exists within the problem whether it is in production, workforce or marketing and these require proper identification of sources of problem, analysis and strategies to counter-attack the problem in order to keep the growth of the company.

Especially with global fuel price rise in oil market, bringing a new major concern to Toyota company, which discourages customers to purchase petrol or diesel driven automobiles with the fact that fuel filling is quite expensive. Therefore Toyota company has launched Toyota FCHW which runs with Hydrogen have also entered consumer market as substitute vehicles for petrol and diesel. These hydrogen vehicles also help in less emission of CO2 into the atmosphere.

In spite of the acute measure of problems, Toyota company has been endeavoring constantly pursuing comfort with technology aid and in introducing more outperforming and outstanding vehicles into the cars market. Running head: GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS 202, Chenoy Avenue St. Joseph’s street Las Vegas – 232 001 (xxx) (xxx xxx) [email protected] com February 3, 2008 Mr. Noel Park Automobile Consultant 222, Business Trade center California – 452 005 Dear Mr. Park, Thanks indeed for the good opportunity to research on General Motors.

It was a knowledgeable experience in finding some key facts about the company. General Motors is truly facing a halted position in U. S market and is doing very well outside U. S. However, retaining a proportionate share of domestic market is considered to be good at all times with the fact that “one does not lose battle on one’s own ground” . Have stated some of the alternative measures of strategies General Motors has to undertake with immediate effect and mode of change in operational methods. Enclosing herewith synopsis of General Motors for your perusal and for further necessary action.

Sincerely, Paulbright Synopsis on General Motors Another multinational company General Motors with huge and massive successful track of business for several decades, has come to a stage of halt in U. S market as its competitors Toyota, Honda,Hyundai and Nissan have built a proportionate consumer market in U. S. It is an acceptable fact that, General Motors brands of cars are extremely of efficient functioning and due to changing times of global trade entering domestic market, GM has lost sales in an uneven field. This gives out another fact that losing U.

S market does not mean that GM has lost consumer market in other countries viz. , Canada, Europe, Asia and many other parts of the world. GM luxury cars Chevrolet, Saturn, Pontiac, GMC, Saab, Hummer and several other models of car have to be made available in market with super special features of advanced technology with cost effective pricing. As a matter of fact, although middle class consumer market is extensive and wide, luxury cars have always retained a unique identity in the market such as in Benz cars, BMW and Lexus.

In other words, General Motors must work on innovative manufacturing and marketing strategies in order to maintain its yester years reputation and to keep the sale of cars in high numbers even in losing ground of U. S. market. GM must also work to evolve new methods of marketing to prevent loss of consumer market in North America with the fact that North America has a huge market even if it is for luxury cars. Therefore, General Motors while pursuing other export market, a part of its concentration must also be ventured in North America consumer market.

With an apparent fact of severe battle with competitors, General Motors has also been confronted with workforce problems by cutting 30,000 jobs and closure of a dozen plants due to company’s record of loss which posted nearly to $4 billion in 2005. “GM sought to destroy small dealers through their so-called secret Project 2000, which GM defined as the systematic elimination of small dealerships by the year 2000, and was designed to consolidate car sales at large auto malls,” (Horvath). Running head: GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS 202, Chenoy Avenue St. Joseph’s street Las Vegas – 232 001 (xxx) (xxx xxx)

[email protected] com February 3, 2008 Mr. Noel Park Automobile Consultant 222, Business Trade center California – 452 005 Dear Mr. Park, With regard to the synopsis of Toyota and General Motors, the following are some of the key findings. (a) The scenario of Toyota and General Motors is fair and competitive. Both the companies have internal, external and operational method problems. General Motors is partly facing a financial crunch due to its fall in sales and this can be prevented on undertaking of new marketing strategies in U. S as well in other parts of the world where GM branded cars are mostly in want.

(b) Problems of production, workforce, management are plenty in Toyota whereas General Motors has slashed jobs and have closed plants in many countries as a precautionary measure. It can always be presumed that these plants would be restored to production as and when the company regains its market. (c) No company can meet every demand of a customer whereas every model of car has a particular design and technicality and with this fact, it can be concluded that branded cars always retain its reputation even though new entries are available in the market at low cost.

The trend in market is never constant and it keeps changing and General Motors has an opportunity to watch this trend of consumer market and must restore its marketing strategies.

References Michael Kowalski (2007), Rapid Growth has lead to problems for Toyota Accessed February 3, 2008 http://www. glgroup. com/News/Rapid-Growth-has-lead-to-problems-for-Toyota-18827. html Should President Bush be focused on moving forward with Hydrogen? Accessed February 3, 2008 http://hydrogendiscoveries. wordpress. com/ Books

Cornelius Herstatt (2005) Management of Technology And Innovation in Japan Accessed February 3, 2008 http://books. google. com/books? id=KC7zgDeAnc8C&pg=PR22&lpg=PR19&dq=toyota+company+problems+and+solutions&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html&sig=7ATxnpTUENdyS6Dd22CkmAh24ko General Motors GM: Solutions for effective change Accessed February 3, 2008 http://ezinearticles. com/? GM:-Solutions-For-Effective-Change&id=152642 General Motors problems are no secret, but few know why they exist: Insider provides answer in New Book ‘Project 2000’

Communication Process Paper Essay

Communication Process Paper Essay

Communication process is a very important aspect with the help of which people send messages verbal including sentences, words, and messages nonverbal including physical setting, facial expression, and behavior. Communication patterns have changed because of changing nature of interaction between people. Communication allows business to coordinate and unify common goals. An open communication policy in business where the employees may come to the supervisors and voice his or her likes as well as dislikes. The business will have a workable environment for everyone.

As the message passes through this medium, there is noise and which changes the message into something different from what was sent. These are otherwise known as the barriers to effective communication. Noise can be static or anything that distracts from the intended massage. Example, if there a meeting going on in the workplace and two employees are talking in the background. An individual will become distracted of what the meeting is about.

Communication process Paper

The climates in most workplace are cool if it is an inside job.

So individual may be comfortable communicating with one and another. Some people believe the environment tan make a difference with the way an individual communicate. Communication is vital in the workplace and it the primary means to convey the proper message. Most jobs have shift work and needs to communicate from one shift to another. This may be done by verbal or written in paper. A business climate most likely creates within levels of management and spreads from there. The strength and weakness of any organization are only good or bad as the individuals who work there. If there an open policy where employees can communication with his or her supervisors as they please. This procedure will make the workplace environment workable for everyone.

Every employee in the workplace should voice his or her opinion toward the supervisor without been afraid of the outcome. Everyone has some weaknesses and strengths in communication as a result of psychological and personal peculiarities, and every day communication patterns. Verbal written communication is my strength. My weakness is nonverbal communication because in some situations I am not sure what behavior patterns I should follow, for instance, speaking with strangers, or the police. Sometimes I believe cultural or social barriers communicating with others, I have strong verbal communication skills because I spend much time communicating with my friends on the Internet.

This way I can communicate with several people at the same time, and save time on phone calls or visiting them. This form of communication is very popular because it transmits information to the individuals and receives reply rapidly. I have good written skills and can clearly express opinion in several sentences. This strength is logical, concise, and informative messages, which help the recipient to grasp the idea at once. Good written skills used in the criminal justice system and other business. Years ago the senior management committee of some business, there strategies for doing everything from changing policies to dealing with employees discussed behind closed doors.

Once those decisions made by management, the supervisors were asked to put those decisions into effect. The employees had little to no input on those matters. The employees did as they were told or had to find a new job. Today some management team members listen to what the employees have to say before making a decision on changing the policies. Most business in the present encourages employees to take an active part in their company. The employees who work on production line may know some ways to improve the lines.

Some manager may pass out certain type of rewards for his or her ideals. Communication process with employees can be a difficult task. It may take knowing what an individual have to say to communicate in a way to receive desired result. Communications to employees come from several areas within the organization, the director, human resources, the program manager, and other management team. Every employee need to know what is happening within the company. The company will not achieve if the employees are not contribute what expected of him or her. That why a well-organized internal communication strategy required to create the ideal mindset within the company.


Communicating Effectively with Employees Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from http://www. employee

Therapeutic Communication Essay

Therapeutic Communication Essay

The medical dictionary describes a therapeutic communication as “A process in which the nurse consciously influences a client or helps the client to a better understanding through verbal or nonverbal communication”. This communication summary will describe an event which occurred on a work placement in practise. A reflective frame work will be used to evaluate the interaction; Gibb’s reflective model will be used within the essay. hilst on placement with the district nurse we received a call from a patient informing us that her leg was not “quite right”, as she has problems with her eye sight she wasn’t able to give us a description on what state her leg was in.

I went out and discovered when observing that this patient had leg ulceration which was on both sides of her left leg. I questioned descriptively to see how long she was feeling uncomfortable, she reported that it was over two months; this enabled me to place the event in time and helped me to gain a visual picture of the circumstances.

I encouraged description of events by asking the patient how it went on noticed as she has carers visiting her twice a day to apply creams. It happened as a result in the carers having communication issues as they did not report changes on the breakdown of the patient’s skin. Whilst focusing on the wound I decided the appropriate form of intervention would be compression bandages. The patient was reluctant to have a bandage applied to her leg although I empathised with the patient by informing them what would happen if the appropriate bandage was not applied and that it was the only possible way of getting it to heal properly.

At the time I was thinking that the patient was not informing me properly and felt they were not telling me the full story of how the wound got to the stage it has. The fact that I got information from the patient was good as I was able to see how they felt and what appropriate measures had to be taken. The bad part of the experience was that the patient seemed reluctant to give me information as she didn’t want the wound to appear as bad and she was trying to avoid bandages being applied to her legs.

I realised that the situation was not managed well, and that if there was no communication issues between the carers and the district nurse the situation would have been avoided. I could have asked a lot more closed questions and kept open questions to a minimal to gather specific information. I also could have reassured the patient a lot more by telling them that the decision of using compression bandages and explained the purpose of using compression, and explained how this would make a huge different to the wound in a short period of time.

If the situation was to rise again I would approach it a lot more sensitively and I would try and gather more information by firstly gaining a better rapport with the patient, then asking open questions to gather a wider amount of information, then to gain specific information I would ask closed questions. This will allow me to get all the information I need and at the same time the patient will be more relaxed and comfortable with the decision and outcome.

Sample Persuasive Message Essay

Sample Persuasive Message Essay

Most people have ventured onto the world wide web. Some enter the online world to check email from family members far away. Other people enjoy the web to watch videos on YouTube of babies doing the weirdest thing. Some log online for social media websites that let them know what their friends, family and celebrities are doing that day. Most people who have ventured online have shopped on electronic retail sites like Amazon or Overstock.

Electronic retailing has become a big part of who we are today.

There are many sites that allow you to shop for everyday items, groceries, or furniture like Amazon, Overstock, Alice, or Newegg. You also have big box stores that have followed suit with e-commerce as they allow customers to purchase products online that can be shipped to their home or a local store. As new and existing retailers grow retailers are forced to stay competitive, retain current customers, find new customers, and keep fighting to be the best e-commerce retailer out there.

According to Turban, King, McKay, Marshall, Lee and Viehland (2008) “one of the keys to building effective customer relationships is an understanding of customer behavior online” (p. 157). So for businesses to be active and competitive online they need to understand the general online behaviors of the customer to stay in business. In this paper I will be discussing three behaviors natural to e-tailing that assist e-commerce companies understand customer behaviors online. I will be discussing the type of communication used when each behavior occurs and explain how each type of communication enables e-commerce.

Analyzing each behavior using the communication process will also be discussed ensuring to include descriptions of the purpose, sender, receiver, message, environment, technology, noise, and feedback in the communication process. Lastly, I will explore a sample persuasive message designed for a virtual audience. Behaviors in E-tailing I see myself as a savvy online customer. I have shopped for products for my home, family, and friends. I have shopped for services like insurance, dog sitting, or home maintenance.

The internet has a vast number of websites that help me pick and choose the products and services that work best for me and the general population. When shopping online customers are looking at the type of product or service (is it safe, recommended, green, easy to use, etc. ), how can they go about purchasing the product or service, and the reason customers choose one company over the other. Finding the Right Product or Service If you are shopping online you probably have a clear idea of what kind of product or service you are looking for.

If a customer is looking for a camera that is user friendly, can take pictures during important moments in their life, can take pictures in a flash, and is pocket sized they can essentially look on numerous websites. Best Buy, Target, Amazon, Newegg, the options are endless. With all the options finding the right camera could be difficult. Turban et al. (2008) explains that the product search is influenced by independent variables (p. 158-159). Independent variables include personal characteristics and environmental variables.

When searching for the right camera your personal characteristics – age, gender, education, lifestyle, values, personality, etc. – weigh in on finding the right camera. Environmental variables like a customer’s social influence and culture help to narrow down which camera the customer would likely purchase (Turban et al. , 2008, p. 158-159). Who a customer is and who they socialize with is not the only thing that influences them in purchasing a camera. In order for customers to know a little about a camera the manufacturer or retailer needs to be able to get the camera out there and communicate to the customers of the perks of the camera.

Like regular retailers, e-tailers use internet based advertisements on their website as well as sponsorship websites (i. e. Yahoo, Google, Bing) to advertise the product. When using sponsorship websites e-tailers are driving sales by driving customers toward that specific camera. As e-tailers advertise the camera they are using the communication process. The customer – or the sender – initiates the start of the communication process as he or she searches online for right camera. The customer finds an ad online (message) that matches their WINs (Wants, Interests, and Needs) of the product.

The advertisement helps to “comprises the target audience of a message transmitted by the sender” (p. 10) which according to Roebuck (2006) stands as the receiver in the communication process. The advertisement links the customer with the e-tailer which allows the e-tailer to provider further information and reviews for the camera. Purchasing product or service Once you find the right camera you go into the purchasing behavior. Turban et al. (2008) states “the two most-cited reasons for not making purchases are shipping charges (51 percent) and the difficulty in judging the quality of the product (44 percent) (p. 59). If the customer finds the perfect camera and it is available at Sony. com for $299 with a $19. 95 shipping charge and BestBuy. com for $307 with free shipping the customer would most times go through BestBuy. com because of the cost savings. Quality of a product is important. E-tailers who offer a “chat now” option that allows customers to ask experts questions on the quality and durability is a positive step towards purchase. E-tailers who have reviews of the product also assist customers in understanding the general consensus of the product.

Customers also weigh in on how secure the online payment is prior to purchasing a product. Customers are weary about unsecure online payments due to the coming age of hacking and identity theft. Having a certificate of security online gives the customer added security to make the purchase. The “Chat Now” option and a valid certificate showing a secure site for payment are forms of communication in the purchasing process. During this e-tailing behavior the e-tailer becomes the sender as it provides the customer (receiver) with how to purchase the product and general customer service.

By providing superior medium in customer service the e-tailer and customer build a relationship that heads toward loyalty. Company “The internet customer is very hard to predict and is different from the normal customer” (Prasad & Aryasri, 2009, p. 73) because of this the e-tailer’s online store must appeal to the buyer and find ways to encourage the customer to purchase the product with them instead of a similar product elsewhere. When the e-tailer paved the path towards customer loyalty during the purchase process they opened the door to complete e-loyalty.

Turban et al. 2008) advised that “customer acquisition and retention is a critical success factor in e-tailing” (p. 167). Providing a customer with loyalty programs, promotional emails, and discounts allows the customer to feel valued. Retaining customer information (name, address, credit card information) also assists in building customer loyalty as it makes for easier check out. Using the communication process, the sender is the e-tailer. The e-tailer can email or mail information regarding loyalty programs, promotional emails, and discounts to the customer who is the receiver.

Providing such information makes the customer feel valued and willing to return to the e-tail website. Sample Persuasive Messages A persuasive message helps to influence people in making a certain decision or action. Using the same camera sample we used in e-tailing behaviors we could create a persuasive camera message that helps to influence people to want to purchase the camera. Finding the right persuasive message for a camera boils down to understanding a customer’s WINs. Wants. Interests. Needs. The customer wants to purchase a camera that is user friendly because they do not use the camera for anything but recreation.

The customer is interested in a camera that can take pictures during important moments in their life like graduations, 1st birthdays, and family functions. The customer needs a camera that can take pictures in a flash and is pocket sized so they can take it out in a whim and put it back without fuss. Using this customer’s WINs a persuasive message aimed for the virtual audience can easily be made: Aim & snap precision for all of your unforgettable moments. A message does not have to be long with so much information. Instead, it can be short but still reach the audiences WINs.

Using persuasive messages allows e-tailers to acquire new business and persuade current customers in upgrading their current equipment. Conclusion E-tailers have to understand each customer to ensure that traffic goes in and out of their virtual store. Understanding the product and service search of a consumer, understanding what affects the customer’s purchasing decision, and creating a loyal customer base helps strengthen those traffic numbers. Using the communication process I was able to define how each behavior occurs and what type of communication was used to address each behavior. Creating a persuasive message that was short but covered the customer’s WINs demonstrated how a simple message can generate e-commerce.

Interpreting and Translation Essay

Interpreting and Translation Essay

The Similarity and Differences between Translation and Interpreting 1. Similarity • Both transferring the message from Source Language (SL) into Target Language (TL) • Both retaining the message • Both restructuring or reproducing • Both having SLT and TLT • Both having the target audience 2. Differences.

|Translation |Interpreting | |The medium is in written form |The medium is in oral form | |In reproducing the translation in the receptor language: |In reproducing the translation in the receptor language: | |not on the spot |on the spot | |can use dictionaries or thesaurus |direct translation (being able to translate in both directions, | |have more time to check and recheck the translation |without the use of any dictionaries) | | |have no time to check and recheck the translation) | |The doer : translator |The doer : Interpreter | The Theory.

Interpreting consists of presenting in the Receptor Language, the exact message of what is uttered in the Source Language either simultaneously or consecutively preserving the tone of the speaker, such as formal and informal expressions, emotions, feelings, the choice of words, high and low pitch or tone in uttering words, etc.

The Process of Interpreting There are 4 elements involve in the process of interpreting: • the speaker • the audience • the message • the interpreter The Process: (in TL) Messagesmessages… (in SL) (1) (2)(3) (4).

(1) Listening and understanding a spoken message of the Source Language ( (2) Storing/note-taking the message ( (3) Retrieving the message ( (4) Reproducing the message of the source language into the receptor language. Modes of Interpreting 1. Simultaneous Interpreting In simultaneous interpreting, the speaker and the interpreter speak almost at the same time. 2. Consecutive Interpreting In consecutive interpreting, the speaker speaks first, then after he/she finish his/her complete segment/speech, the interpreter takes the turn.

Generally, during consecutive interpreting the speaker stops every 3-5 minutes (usually at the end of every “paragraph” or a complete thought) and the interpreter then steps in to transfer what was said into the receptor language. Model of Communication Flow in Consecutive Interpreting INTERPRETER SPEAKERAUDIENCE : indirect communication : direct communication Qualifications of a Good Interpreter • An interpreter has to have knowledge of the general subject of the speeches that are to be interpreted.

• An interpreter has to have general erudition and intimate familiarity with both cultures. For example: when a speaker talks about American agriculture, then the interpreter has to know about American agriculture. • An interpreter has to have extensive vocabulary in both languages (SL and RL). • An interpreter has to have the ability to express thoughts clearly (easily to understand) and concisely (in brief) in both languages. • An interpreter has to have an excellent note taking technique for consecutive interpreting.

• An interpreter at least 2-3 years of booth experience for simultaneous interpreting. In addition, in note taking of a paragraph uttered by a speaker, an interpreter has to be able to grab the main idea/topic of that paragraph. Therefore, the interpreter will understand what the paragraph that the speaker talks about. The Competencies Required for an Interpreter • Language Competence A language competence is a good command of the source language and the receptor language which includes: ? Lexicon ? Grammatical structure ? Pronunciation • Transfer Competence?

Ability to reproduce a variety of synonymous or analogous expressions in both language; ? Ability to capture and reproduce register variations; ? Ability to recognize and reproduce domain-specific expressions in a form which will be regarded as ‘natural’ by the respective users; ? Ability to combine verbal and non-verbal communication cues from the SL and reproduce them in appropriate combinations in the RL; ? Ability to identify and exploit rhythm and tone patterns of languages in order to determine and utilize the ‘chunks’ of speech so as to maximize the efficiency of the interpreting; ?

Ability to speedily analyze the utterance in the context of the communication in order to anticipate the direction in which the argument is proceeding and the strategy being used in developing the argument. • Cultural Competence ? The possession of knowledge enabling the interpreter to comprehend the totality of the communicative intent of the speaker; ? Extra-linguistic knowledge about the world of the speaker and the audience; ? Social conventions, institutional practices, taboos, anthropologically and historically relevant elements of the cultures.

• Appropriate Technique ? Knowledge of the dynamic communication: < Control of the speed; < Control of the congruence of the tone of voice due to the emotional charge of the utterance and that of the interpretation of the utterance. ? Note-taking to avoid omission: < Interpreter’s notes are very different from those of, say, a stenographer, because writing down words in the source language makes the interpreter’s job harder when he has to translate the speech into the target language.

< Many professional interpreters develop their own “ideogramic” symbology, which allows them to take down not the words, but the thoughts of the speaker in a sort of language-independent form. Then the interpreter’s output is more idiomatic and less source-language bound. ? Ordering information output; ? Voice production (audible, clear, unambiguous); • Good Short Term Memory ? The comprehension ability to store information; ? The ability to recall with a high degree of accuracy what the speaker has said. • Professional Competence?

The ability to make independent judgments in terms of the linguistic, ethical, socio-cultural and effective issues which arise in an interpreted situation. The Skills Required for the Interpreter • Listening skill: being able to ‘get the message’; • Speaking skill: being able to ‘transmit the message’ (quality of voice, choice of idiom, vocabulary, phrasing, etc. ); Interpreting Ethics • Impartiality: to carry out professional duties to the best of his/her ability regardless of who the clients are in terms of race, social and economic status, ethnicity, etc. In other words, the interpreter has to be fair and not taking side.

• Conflict of interest means to act without regard to other interests such as personal or financial gain. Things that Have to be Prepared in Becoming an Interpreter • Be familiar with the subject of the conference and the subjects of speeches; • Try to speak with the speaker and find out the general contents of speech and the time s/he intends to dedicate to the speech; • Find copies of overhead transparencies, slides, or paper; • Prepare a glossary for the interpretation to gather all the vocabulary which you might need for the job (terms, nouns, verbs, abbreviations, etc. ). ***