Categories for Cognition

Sex DIfferences Essay

Sex DIfferences Essay

This experiment performed by the males and females in the Tuesday 4pm psychology lab, was done as a replication of the Halari et al experiment in London in 2005. The hypothesis in the original experiment was that women will, on average, gain a higher verbal fluency score than men and men will, on average, perform more accurately than women on mental rotation. The results obtained from Halari et al’s (2005) clearly prove this hypothesis correct. The results also rejected the null hypothesis which says that men and women will not differ with respect to verbal and spatial performance.

Our replication experiment also proved the hypothesis of Halari et al’s (2005) experiment correct and rejected the null experiment.

Our experiment followed a certain methodology. In the mental rotation task, each participant was to answer 50 questions which contained the stimuli; each of which showed 2 shapes rotated and the participants were to judge whether they are identical or not. As expected males had a higher accuracy level in this this task compared to females.

In the verbal fluency task, the participants were given 3 categories; fruits, vegetables and animals. They had the instruction to write down as many items from the relevant categories as possible. As expected females had a higher accuracy level than the males in this task.

In the methodology used in our experiment did contain some weaknesses that may have influenced the results. Our experiment was as free from bias as possible in order to make the results accurate and reliable. For the mental rotation task, every participant received a different set of stimuli, so that the participants could not copy each other. This produced reliable results. However this methodlogy contains a debility. The stimuli ranged from sets of easily distinguishable shapes to much harder ones. Since the stimuli was randomly chosen for each participant it is possible that one participant may have received all the hard ones (females) and another may have received all the easily recognisable ones (males). Another debility in this methodology was that the set of stimuli varied in difficulty as discussed earlier.

Also their rotation patterns varied. So some sets were just rotated once while other sets were rotated to an extent where some of the faces were indistinguishable hence breaking the pattern we perceive causing our minds to get muddled in recognising the stimuli correctly. This is clear in the categories used in the verbal fluency task which have no form of gender bias whatsoever. The categories chosen are generic and known well to both males and females. An example of a gender bias category would be something like computers which is more biased towards males than females. While a catergory more

bias towards females would be make up. However despite having no gender difference there was a weakness present in this method; english as a second language. Our group of participants contained people of different ethnicities and nationalities. Which meant that not all have english as their first language. This in turn proves to be

a weakness to our expeirment as those people who possess english as a second language, wont be able to think of english words as fast as in their own language, (all words written had to be in english). This would have posed a problem for such participants as they would have had to think of a word in their own language and then translate it into english. This could have decreased some of the participants performance as time span was limited to one minute.

Overall, the results obtained from this experiment clearly suggest that men and women specialise in different cognitive abilities in relation to spatial capacity and verbal competency. These results solidify that boys and girls-and men and women-are programmed by evolution to behave differently from one another is now widely accepted, (The Economist, 2006). These results indicate the theory posed by Harvard president, Larry Summers to be true. He pointed out the detail that the number of women in professions which require a spatial understanding such as mathematics, engineering are few, (The Economist, 2006). This however does not state that women have no spatial capability, it only suggests that in comparison to men women are weaker in spatial understanding. Nevertheless this does not say that these abilities are completely innate. These cognitive abilties can be trained, so a woman with a PHD in engineering will definietly have a higher spatial capability than a man working at Countddown.

According to our results men and women vary in terms of cognitive abilities. Men appear to be better at spatial tasks while females at verbal fluency. This variation is deemed as occuring due to the common battle; nature vs nurture. It is said that the social upbringing plays a big part in understanding the reasons for this variation. When a child is born depending on the gender, parents tend to choose either blue or pink for that child. This stereotype created by society may unwillingly fit young boys and girls into their stereotypical roles. According to, The Economist (2006) it was believed that boys and girls prefer different toys.

Where boys prefer cars, trucks and guns, girls prefer dolls and tea sets. However this was disapproved and it was found that girls and boys are already different when they are born due to the hormone, testosterone. When a child is born, it experiences two surges of testosterone- one during gestation and one shortly after birth, (The Economist, 2006). The production of testosterone is higher in males than in females hence creating the ‘boy-like’ behaviour we all talk about. This testosterone is said to be the reason for why boys tend to look at mobile phones longer than people’s faces, the way females do. But the basic theory is that the high levels of testosterone in males produces the rough play.

While the low levels in females generate the nurturing tendency in them hence causing them to prefer dolls and tea sets, (The Economist, 2006). Unlike the Halari et al, (2005), the experiments conducted to prove this theory did not contain hormone tests. Hence we cannot conclude hormone levels being the main factor responsible for the variance in cognitive abilities. It is more commonly believed though that the interlacing of both social upbringing and hormone levels is what causes these differences. Although women have that low level of testosterone, by nature they are constructed to be the

nurturers. Therefore females tend to prefer the dolls to play with as it is an indication towards their future role as a mother where it is needed that they speak and interact more often with their children. Women on average speak 20000 words a day, 13000 more than men, (Mail Online, 2013). This confirms the findings in our experiment where females were found to have a
higher verbal competency. At the same time by

nature males are constructed to be the strong protectors. Therefore males tend to prefer the cars or guns to play with indicating towards warrior-like behaviour. This point is also argued by The Economist, (2006). They believe these differences are genetically there via hormone levels and the social stereotyping solidifies the roles that they are genetically made for.

This experiment was carried out to distinguish the differences between males and females on a cognitive level. The mental rotation task which tested for spatial ability exhibitied an inclination towards the males as their accuracy levels were higher than the females. However, the verbal fluency task exhibited an inclination towards the females as their accuracy levels were higher than the males. The results obatined from these two independent tests were straight forward, though both can be bettered.

The spatial task deduced that males possessed a higher spatial ability than females however the task was not closely related to real life. A true test would have been one that would have provided us with examples of real life where these abilities would have needed to be used. For example, giving the participants a set location to reach and allowing them to guide themselves there. This task would have displayed spatial ability in real life conditions. The verbal fluency task concluded that females possessed a higher vocabulary level however this task lacks in fairness in terms of language. Not every participant had english as their first language causing them difficulty within the one minute time limit. To better this limitation, perhaps next time all participants could be of same background with english as their first language.

Also since we replicated the Halari et al (2005) experiment perhaps a better imitation would have been to also carry out the hormone tests. With the tasks we performed the results suggested that men were better at spatial tasks and females at verbal fluency however we cannot generalise this statement. Thus the hormone tests may help us solidify this conclusion. This theory is proved by our experiment as well. Although our experiment did not contain hormone testing like the Halari et al, (2005) our results concluded that males have a higher spatial capacity. This ability is an indication at the warrior-like protector behaviour. Females were
concluded to have a higher verbal competency. The results we obtained from our replication of the Halari et al, (2005) helped us conclude the difference between the cognitive abilities in males and females hence proving our hypothesis correct.

Week 4 discussion questions Essay

Week 4 discussion questions Essay

Describe a time when your assumption about a situation was incorrect. What do you think led to your incorrect assumption? How did your assumption interfere with your ability to think critically about the situation? A: When I first became a student at the University of Phoenix I assumed that I would take class in the morning once a week. What lead me to believe this assumption was that I thought it would be like any other normal college. This assumption affected my ability to think because I originally set my mind to morning mode, when class was night.

Use your favorite Internet search engine to locate three automobile commercials. Identify a fallacy used in each commercial. How are these fallacies used in the commercials? Why do you think they were included? A in the first commercial Toyota Camery, they focus more on the acting scene then promoting the Camary. They make it seem like those situations happen.

The second commercial was a mustang commercial.

the fallacy is that they make people believe that by having that care it makes you look cool that way people can go out and buy it. The third was a fiat commercial, they say that the interest and payments are low and no credit check, but once your in the dealer none of what the commercial promoted is applied. They do this type of advertisement to try an get the consumer to buy and to make the commercial interesting and so the audience is engaged.

How might you use critical thinking to help someone who is struggling with low self-esteem and a low sense of self-worth to see beyond the media messages they receive on a daily basis? A: The best thing that I can do to help someone is by giving them my self knowledge and what I know about it. that no one is perfect and there is no need to follow what celebertys do because its all show. We can then discuss this particular topic, then research about it and show what the consequences and lead to.

In his inaugural speech, President Kennedy used means of persuasion to win over his supporters and those who were possibly dissatisfied with his election. Suppose you opposed President Kennedy’s ideas and wanted to find fault with his speech. What steps would you take to evaluate his arguments? A: I would carefully listen to what the speech is about and carefully go over it and find simple cons and consequences to a particular topic that he addresses or want s to make happen.

Reading, re-reading, looking for main points, researching, questioning, and finding information that is opposed to what he thinks he can make happen. How do you think being open to criticism might help you solve problems in your daily life? Being open to criticsm can help in my daily life because I can simply take that criticsm and use it in a positive way to improve myself in any situation.

What types of questions would you use as you talk with her to help her make a decision based on critical thinking rather than emotion? Why are questions such a valuable aspect of critical thinking? A: I would help her focus more on the facts and details rather than the emotional part on how she feels. After focusing on the facts she can develop feelings towards it that are positive. Asking questions are important because once they are answered they can change a persons perspective on a certain topic.

Texting and driving Essay

Texting and driving Essay

I think texting and driving is dangerous and whether or not it has affected you as of now, statistics show it could in the future. Did you know that texting while driving is now one of the most common distractions that take a driver’s eyes off the road today? Imagine if someone in your family, your mom, dad, or sibling were killed by a driver who was texting, how would you feel? Would you think, was that text really worth losing a life over? I am going to show you that texting while driving is never a good idea and can have dangerous and deadly consequences’ for that individual.

Problem: Texting while driving kill’s people on a daily basis. Recent statistics from 2009 show that 5,474 people in the United States were killed due to texting. This was a significant increase from 2007 when 3,210 people were killed in accidents where drivers were texting.(http://www.stoptextsstopwrecks.org/#facts)

Teenagers are the most experienced drivers and when they read or write a text it compounds their likely hood of having a fatal accident.

Statistics bears this out with this age group when texting and driving 45% of their accidents resulted in death. The Allstate Foundation’s recent survey showed that 82% of teens report texting while driving, while only 23% admit to drinking and driving which shows how common this practice is for this age group. ??? According to data collected by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety on (http://www.textndrive.com/, more teenagers die on May 20 than any other day of the year. Over the past five years, May 20 claimed 63% more lives than any average day because of prom and other end of the school year celebrations

II. Cause:

Driving and texting is considered a multi-tasked skill that increases the output of the driver’s brain causing distractions to our cognitive functions, memory, visual fields, and manually. The first way that texting interferes with drivers is through the brain’s cognitive functions that allow for multi-tasking. Driver’s attention span is split between what’s going on in the road and what’s happening on their cell phone, and this lack of focus makes them a liability for other drivers. Most people do not have the cognitive skills to manage two different multi-tasked processes at once. This causes individuals brains to process too much mentally, making the information that is received unclear and hard for them to react quickly to events happening in their surroundings. Second way that texting interferes with driving is through memory. a. Memory is when the brain engages in a constant process that sends.

III. Solution:

There are many solutions to this problem and I will list a few: Unless you are on a long road trip, put your phone away until you arrive at your destination, if you have to text just pull over for a few minutes. There are apps for most phones that you can use to prevent if you are tempted to text while you are driving called anti-texting apps that can be utilized. If you are on a trip with more than yourself, designate a person that will be the texter, if you are driving have your passenger text for you so you can concentrate on the road. Silence your phone if you are one who has to look at your phone for every noise it makes. I have just taken you through the problems with texting and driving.

Provided you with the statistics and presented you with possible dangers of texting and driving. I have given you alternatives to not only keep you safe but to also keep others safe too. Laws are being enacted due to the public outcry and most states are on board with legislation punishing drivers that text. But that would be a drop in the bucket should you be distracted and injure or kill someone when it could have been avoided. I hope that I have convinced you to join me in educating people to change their driving habits… Silence can saves lives.

References:

BIBLIOGRAPHY * MERGEFORMAT Stop the Texys Stop the Wrecks. (2014). From Stoptextsstopwrecks: www.stoptextstopwrecks.org www.stoptextstopwrecks.org. (2014). From www.stoptextstopwrecks.org www.textndrive.com. (2014). From www.textndrive.com: www.textndrive.com/wordpress/2010/05/may-20-is-deadliest-day-for-american-teen-drivers/ Here is the link to my Persuasive speech: http://youtu.be/dgCanjzytFs

Summer Farm by Norman MacCaig Essay

Summer Farm by Norman MacCaig Essay

Summer Farm by Norman MacCaig characterizes the comparison of nature and human life. The poet uses the language to describe the environment while relating it to the narrator. The poet also uses different language technuiques to describe and streghten his message in the poem

The poem starts with the description of the narrators surroundings. The “tame lightnings” shows us that things that seem wild and dangerous can be controlled like how situations in our lives that are out of proportion can be handled.

Moreover, the lightnings “hang zigzags” on hedges. The zig zags could represent the shape of lightning or how nature is very random unlike our lives where we have regular routines. However “nine ducks go wobbling by in two straight lines” shows that even nature can be set in course, thought the word “wobbling” denotes the sense of order.

The second stanza is about animals in the barn. It conveys the animals that would typically be found at a barn and uses their behavior to show a point in his message.

For example “A hen stares at nothing with one eye” However a hen has to be looking at something, but the use of words “one eye” is odd, random almost. Nevertheless it could mean show the world in a animals point of view and ours is entirely different. Then it goes “Out of an empty sky a swallow falls.” I believe that this use of metaphor is describing his mind.

The “empty sky” is his empty mind, and the swallow is a train of thought. “Dives up again into the dizzying blue.” The swallow (thought) was brought into the barn but, the impact from falling surely would have caused injures. Perhaps the thought is of somewhat importance. Then the swallow “dives into the dizzying blue.” The world dizzy could mean confusion, maybe the thought was a bit confusing? And then the swallow disappears back into a empty sky.

The third stanza represents the narrators thoughts and the movements of its mind. It starts “I lie, not thinking ” the word I shows that indeed the narrator is talking about himself. He lies in the “cool soft grass” where he could be searching for comfort or relaxation. Then he compares himself with a grasshopper “with plated face unfolds his legs and finds himself in space.” It is clearly shown that the grasshopper is reflecting the same movements and thoughts. They both have came to relax and find themselves in space.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Essay

Bloom’s Taxonomy Essay

Bloom believes that there are six cognitive levels that classifies thinking in cognitive levels, with each level being more complex than the previous one. Which means that the human brain has the capacity to do more than acquire and understand factual knowledge. Below are the six cognitive levels.

1. Creating Putting elements together to form a coherent, or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating. planning or producing.

2. Evaluating Making judgments based on a criteria and stands through checking and critiquing.

3. Analyzing Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to overall structure or purpose threw the differentialine organizing, and attributing.

4. Applying carrying out or using a procedure through implementing, understanding/ constructing manage from oral, written, and graphic message through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.

5. Understanding constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying,classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.

6. Remembering retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long – term memory.

I believe that this is the basic process that most people use to remember and learn a new concept. As almost all projects start with an idea which is where you would create your outline/ idea then you would normally evaluate and analyze that outline/ idea. If you feel that steps one – three were going to work you would then apply your idea. Once the idea has been applied it will help you to understand the concept. Which will make remembering it much easier.

Candidate Conundrum Summary Essay

Candidate Conundrum Summary Essay

The company personnel Robert (Manager) and Paul (Project leader) are interviewing two potential candidates Sonya and Jacqueline for a new position at the company. After interviewing both candidates Paul feels Sonya is the one they should hire while Robert believes they should hire Jacqueline. Paul’s reasoning is that he feels he’d work better with Sonya both being Caucasian while Robert thinks Paul may have personal feelings for his choice. Robert believes having Jacqueline hired will provide more diversity to the company, but Paul feels he is hiring her solely because of her race since it is stated that both candidates have the same qualifications.

The issue is that both have valid reasons for wanting his choice for the job position. What did/didn’t the manager do well: Robert handled the situation relatively well.

He listened to Paul’s reasoning for his choice, but was quite set with his decision to choose Jacqueline already. Due to his opinion he didn’t appear to consider Paul’s point of view.

Robert shouldn’t have made up his mind on his decision prior to meeting with Paul at the end. This prevented him from having an open mind about Paul’s choice. What would you have done differently: If we were in Robert’s situation we would have tried to keep our minds open to consider Sonya as an option and take Paul’s reasoning into consideration. We probably would have still picked Jacqueline as well because we thought Robert’s reasons were completely valid. In the end Robert had a good case to not hire Sonya and choose Jacqueline for the position.

The Relationship between Head Circumference and Recall of a List Words Essay

The Relationship between Head Circumference and Recall of a List Words Essay

  • ABSTRACT

This laboratory experiment and report aims on identifying whether head circumference has a significant relationship with the recall of list of words. In this experiment, the researcher has asked 80 (68 females and 12 males) students to participate in the experiment and each were given a chance to memorise the 30 words provided by the researcher. Because of the incomplete response of some participants and extreme values, the researcher opted to use only 61 females and 7 males (68 participants) in the data analysis. Through the use of the SPSS, the study has found that there is a weak positive correlation between the two given variables.

This means that the recalling skills of the participants are significantly relevant with their head circumference or head size.

  • INTRODUCTION

Cognitive psychology is the study of how the brain processes information. In more everyday terms, it is about the mental processes involved in acquiring and making use of knowledge and experience gained from our senses (Esgate, 2004). The main processes involved in cognition are perception, learning, memory storage, retrieval and thinking, all of which are terms that are used in everyday speech and therefore already familiar to most people.

In some research studies, there has been evidence among elderly people with larger head size function better on tests of cognitive function (Reynolds et al, 1999).  As noted by psychologists, an adult head size or circumference is considered to give an appropriate estimate for maximal attained brain circumference (Wickett et al., 2000), such findings have been inferred as a supporting evidence of the theory which optimal neurological development in early phases of life can provide barrier against pathological activities that can influence cognitive performance as they reached their old age (Stern, 2002).

However, as the size of the head is relevant to intelligence test scores among young adults, psychologists have noted some possible relations which have been found between head circumference and the cognitive function in elderly people (Deary et al., 2000).

In psychological process, some psychologists are trying to determine the relationship between head circumference and recall of a list words.   In a study conducted by Gale, Walton and Matyn (2003) which investigated the cognitive function of elderly people and head circumferences, they have concluded that there is no relationship between cognitive function (memory recall) and head circumference.

However, the study have also shown that people with larger head circumference as an adult gained relatively higher scores n the intelligence test on both testing events and were less likely to develop a decline in memory performance over the follow-up period in the study. One other hand, in a cross-sectional study conducted among 818 health older individuals, the researchers have found out that the head circumference is related to performance on global cognitive functioning, tests measuring intelligence and speed of information processing. However, this study has revealed that head circumference or size has not been significantly related with memory functions (Tisserand et al, 2001).

In this regard, the main goal of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the relationship of head circumference and recall of a list words.  Thus, this study will work on the following hypothesis:

      “There is a significant relationship between the head circumference and recall of a list words”.

  • METHOD

This study was conducted in order to assess the relationship of head circumference and recall of list words among students. In order to achieve the objective of the study and to the hypothesis, the descriptive method of research was utilized. The purpose of employing the descriptive method is to describe the nature of a condition, as it takes place during the time of the study and to explore the cause or causes of a particular condition.

The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire to acquire first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to Creswell (1994), the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.   In terms of approach, the study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The quantitative approach focused on obtaining numerical findings was used with the laboratory experiments.

The correlation research refers to studies in which the purpose is to discover relationships between variables through the use of correlation statistics (r). The square of a correlation coefficient yields the explained variance (r-squared). A correlational relationship between two variables is occasionally the result of an outside source, so we have to be careful and remember that correlation does not necessarily tell us about cause and effect. If a strong relationship is found between two variables, using an experimental approach can test causality.

To assess the strength of relationship between variables, it is important to get the correlation coefficient, which can take on any value between -1 and +1, since this will tell the strength of the relationship between two ranked or quantifiable variables (Saunders et al, 2003, p. 363).

Accordingly, a value of +1 represents a perfect positive correlation, which means that the two variables are exactly related, where, as the values of one variable increase, values of the other variable will increase. Conversely, a value of -1 shows a perfect negative correlation, which also means that the two variables are exactly related, only this time, as the values of one variable increase, that of the other decreases. Finally, correlation coefficients between +1 and -1 stand for weaker positive and negative correlations, and a value of 0 means that the variables are completely independent from each other.

Table 1: Values of Correlation

To assist the researcher in the statistical analysis of the gathered data, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. SPSS is one of the most widely available and powerful statistical software packages that covers a broad range of statistical procedures, which allows a researcher to summarise data (e.g., compute means and standard deviations), determine whether there are significant differences between groups (e.g., t-tests, analysis of variance), examine relationships among variables (e.g., correlation, multiple regression), and graph results (e.g., bar charts, line graphs) (Einstein and Abernethy, 2000).

  • PARTICIPANTS

To gather pertinent information, the students were chosen as the respondents or participants for this laboratory study. The participants of this study composed of 68 females and 12 males. However, only 61 female students and seven males were considered to be analysed due to incomplete responses and extreme values.

  • MATERIALS

For this study, the experiment has used 30 words which has been shown among the chosen students. Note that the words used ranges from 3-letter words to 4-letter words and have one and two syllables. The data gathered using these words, will determine whether there is a significant relationship between head size or circumference and recall of list words.

 

  • PROCEDURE

To achieve the objective of the study, the head circumference or size of the students were measured. The measurement of head circumference ranges from 53-62. In this study, the students/participants were asked to read or memorize 30 words which have been given above.  After which the students have asked to mention what words did they recall and the researcher lists the number of words mentioned by the respondents. The scores of the students and the measure of their circumference were used for the analysis of the correlation.

  • RESULT

Significant Relations of Head Circumference and Recall

            Using SPSS, the descriptive statistics and correlation of the variables were analysed. The result of the analysis were shown in tables and diagrams below.

 

Descriptive Statistics

Table 2

  Mean Std. Deviation N
Head Circumference 57.015 2.06 68
Recalled List of Words 16.87 3.54  

Correlations

Table 3

  Head Circumference Recalled List of Words
Head Circumference Pearson Correlation

Sign (2-Tailed )

N

The Handsomest Drowned Man Essay

The Handsomest Drowned Man Essay

” That was how they came to hold the most splendid funeral they could ever conceive of for an abandoned drowned man.” Thesis The author uses magical realism such as everyone worshiping a stranger this helps the reader understand reality because sometimes we treat the dead better than we do the living. The people of the town pampered him, treated him like a god and adjusted there lives around him even though he was dead.

Conclusion

The people of the town pampered the strange good looking dead man, treated him like a god and adjusted there lives around him even though he was dead. They treated the mysterious drowned man like royalty even though he was a stranger. Magical Realism

” They secretly compared him to their own men, thinking that for all their lives theirs were incapable of doing what he could do in one night, and they ended up dismissing them deep in their hearts as the weakest, meanest and most useless creatures on earth.

The reader gains a better understanding about reality because it shows that sometime we base too much off looks The magical realism reveals the authors argument by showing more bluntly how we think better of the living than of the dead “Later, when they covered his face with a handkerchief so that the light would not bother him, he looked so forever dead, so defenseless, so much like their men that the first furrows of tears opened in their hearts.”

This quote helps readers gain a better understanding of reality because they started thinking badly of the ones who were living. The author supports his argument because it shows how much the people care for this strange myth like man. It gains a better perspective of reality because they have treated him better than there own family and sometimes we dont appreciate our family The author argued in this quote because they held the best funeral they have ever held for a dead man they had only just come across!

Personality Impact Paper Essay

Personality Impact Paper Essay

In order for managers and employees to effectively get along in the workplace they must first learn how to understand and appreciate one another. The Journal of Adlerian Theory published an article discussing the various personalities’ styles in the workplace. The report states that being able to recognize characters from “in workers and managers is important for those who lead or manage as others as well as for those who consult or treat workers and leaders” (page 2). The purpose of this paper is to summarize Exhibit 2.

5, 2.6, and 2.7 assessments, it will also summarize my primary personality aspects, cognitive abilities that I can apply to my workplace, and mitigate any shortcomings.

Exhibit 2.5, 2.6, 2.7

Exhibit 2.5 is an assessment that measures the extraversion or positive affectivity of a person. According to the text a person, which is positively effective, is “predisposed to experience positive emotional states and feel good about themselves and the world around them” (page 43). People, who are extroverted, tend to be more sociable and affectionate towards others.

Exhibit 2.6 is to measure the neuroticism or negative affectivity. Negative affectivity in the textbook is defined as people tendencies to “experience negative emotional states, feel distressed, and view themselves and the world around them negatively” (page 44). This is the exact opposite at positive affectivity.

People, who have high neuroticism, are more likely to experience more stress over time and often have negative moods at work/ home. Exhibit 2.7 is a measure of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experiences. The textbook explains agreeableness as individuals “who get along well with other people and those who do not” (page 45). People, who are agreeable, are very likable, care for others, and tend to be affectionate. A person, who is conscientiousness, is “careful, scrupulous, and persevering” (page 45). People, who score high in the area, are found to be very tidy and organized, as well as self-disciplined. People, who are open to experiences, have “broad interests and are willing to take risks” (page 46).

Summary of My Testing Results

In Exhibit 2.5 I scored high on positive affectivity. and answered all of the questions with “true”. This result would show that I am a happy person and views my work and the world around myself positively.

My results of Exhibit 2.6 indicate a low level of negative affectivity. I means that sometimes he feels tense all day because of the challenges he has ahead of myself at work and also gets nervous from time to time. This would again reaffirm the results of Exhibit 2.5 which I have a positive outlook on life. The results of Exhibit 2.7 proved what I was already aware of. I tends to be an agreeable person who is open to experiences. I scored the lowest on conscientiousness, implying that is can be somewhat careless.

I have a strong personality and a lot of good characteristics to offer as a leader. I did very charismatic and pragmatic. As a leader, this would be necessary in times of boosting morale and encouraging others around myself. my view on things from a positive light as well and tends to be open-minded. Cognitively I am numerically conscious, is also able to use reasoning, deductive abilities, and is perceptual. I scored the lowest on conscientiousness, which as a leader could mean that he is willing to take more risks.

Conclusion

The purpose of this paper was to summarize Exhibit 2.5, 2.6, and 2.7 assessments, define My primary personality aspects, cognitive abilities that he can apply to the workplace, and mitigate any shortcomings. People all over the world tend to operate based on feelings and innate habits they learned from their surroundings. Having a clear understanding of these feelings and how it drives our individual personalities can create successful business relationships.

References

Jennifer M. George, Garth R. Jones (2012). Understanding and Managing Organized Behavior. 6th Edition. Published by Prentice Hall Sperry, Len (1995). Individual Psychology. Personality Styles in the Workplace, Volume 51 (Issue 4), pages 422.

Stages In The Decision Process Buyer Essay

Stages In The Decision Process Buyer Essay

There are two stimuli that can trigger needs, namely:
a. Internal stimuli, when one person’s normal needs-hunger, thirst, sex-occur at high enough levels.
b. External Rangasangan. For example, an advertisement or a discussion with a friend can make you think of buying a new car. At this stage, marketers should research consumers to find what kind of needs or problems that arise, what causes it, and how the problem could steer consumers in this particular product.

Look more: the consumer buying process begins when essay