Categories for Childhood

Children or adults that are not listening through general disrespect Essay

Children or adults that are not listening through general disrespect Essay

If you make eye contact with the adult or child you can draw their attention towards you. Calling out a child’s name will make them turn to face you so that you can talk to them. If you lower the tone of your voice and talking in a quiet calm manner, the adult or child would have to concentrate more to try to hear what you are saying and will also help calm an active child down enough to listen to you attentively.

It’s also an affective method to calm an angry parent who is shouting and doesn’t want to hear what you are saying. You could also hold a child’s hands so they know it’s them that you are talking to.

You could adapt the surroundings, like taking a parent or child into an office to talk to them. If an adult is angry and is not listening to what you are saying, you could also let them have their say first so that once they have voiced their opinion they will be ready to hear what you have to say.

Hearing impairment and speech impediments Using sign language and speaking clearly helps us to communicate with hearing impaired people, they can understand what we are saying through lip reading and the sign language will help emphasis that.

If people have speech impediments it is important to allow them plenty of time to speak, rushing them can make them nervous and make the impediment worse or stop them from communicating at all. Using flash cards is also another way of communicating, with children and adults that have hearing and speech problems. (see attachment) Behavioural problems and learning difficulties If a person you are communicating with has behavioural problems or learning difficulties it is important that you are patient with them.

Using simple language with people with learning difficulties help them to understand what you are saying. By identifying the problem then trying to understand it, you can find ways in which to adapt your approach to a way that they will understand you. If a child is hyperactive, trying to get them to sit down and hold a conversation will be difficult, but doing it through play is a way to hold their concentration. English not being the first language (ESOL) Using simple vocabulary will improve understanding and using body language and hand gestures help by emphasis what is being said.

A good way of communicating with parents/carers that don’t use English as a first language is by compiling a multilingual newsletter, where you can put across any information and not have miscommunication. You can also set up a buddy system with adults or children, where there maybe another child who is bilingual that can help translate. Shy or timid people Interacting with adults and children on a one on one basis helps to communicate with introvert people.

With adults this could be in the form of a meeting, and with children this can be through play. Circle time is another way of helping shy children talk, asking individuals questions or singing songs. Not getting on with colleagues or dealing with two faced people Holding staff meetings with a unbiased coordinator gives staff a chance to air their grievances and find a possible resolution to them. Team building exercises can also help people get along, through play with children to colleagues being put on a project together.

With children you can also reinforce club rules, and with colleagues you can reinforce policies. You can also used role play and read stories, giving children a different view on what they are doing wrong and see how treating their peers bad affects them.  Not making time or effort to communicate Arranging meetings with staff or parents/carers will give enough notice for them to make time for a meeting. With children you can use circle time as an opportunity to have class discussions.

Beauty Pageants and Our Children Essay

Beauty Pageants and Our Children Essay

Alost 3 million children, most of them girls, from the ages of 6 months and 17 years compete in beauty pageants annually in America. Competition can be local and national and they compete in categories such as swimwear, talent, costume of your choice, and eveningwear. This is an industry where mothers give her daughter energy drinks for a boost before pageants, 3-year-olds don fake fingernails, and parents regularly spend five thousand dollars on a child’s pageant outfit (O’Neill 1). Beauty pageants have negative consequences on America’s youth contestants through the pressure to be “perfect,” media influences, and child sexualization, which results in exhaustion, eating disorders, and body image issues in their future.

In recent years, the child beauty pageant industry has exponentially grown in size and popularity. This growth is mainly due to television shows, such as Toddlers & Tiaras and Here Comes Honey Boo Boo that may be entertaining but exploit little girls in the process. These reality shows expose the behind-the-scenes horrors of beauty pageants that most people were oblivious too before.

These shows have also revealed the use of energy supplements to improve the contestants performance, age-inappropriate costumes, intense and painful beauty regimens.

Alana Thompson, featured on TLC’s Toddlers & Tiaras, is a seven-year-old beauty queen, nicknamed Honey Boo Boo, whose mother frequently gives her the infamous “Go-Go Juice”, a mix of Red Bull and Mountain Dew, before pageants. It is common knowledge that energy drinks are bad for one’s health, but every nutritionist in the world would agree that Red Bull for a seven-year-old is tremendously dangerous. Alana now has her own reality television show Here Comes Honey Boo Boo.

Parents are not only harming their children’s health but also their moral. On one Toddlers & Tiaras episode, Paisley, merely 3-years-old, sported a costume based on the prostitute in Pretty Woman. In a 2011 episode, Madiysyn “Mady” Verst‘s mother filled out the then-4-year-old’s chest with fake breasts and an impossibly round behind for a Dolly Parton routine. Experts in child development argue the difference between playing dress-up and making a profession out of it. “Little girls are supposed to play with dolls, not be dolls,” says Mark Sichel, a New York-based licensed clinical social worker, who calls the extreme grooming common at pageants “a form of child abuse.” Playing dress-up “is normal and healthy, but when it’s demanded, it leaves the child not knowing what they want,” he says. Accentuating their appearance with such accoutrements as fake hair, teeth, spray tans and breast padding “causes the children tremendous confusion, wondering why they are not okay without those things” (Triggs 1).

All of this confusion and body image problems is instilled in child beauty pageant contestants at a very young age. Ultimately, this leads to eating disorders, psychological issues, and relationship problems in the contestants’ later years. A study conducted at the University of Minnesota by Anna Wonderlich, Diann Ackard, and Judith Henderson showed the correlation between childhood beauty pageants and adult disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, and self-esteem (Wonderlich 1). The results of this scientific experiment proved that for all the tests that assessed characteristics of anorexia and bulimia nervosa scores for those who had participated in beauty pageants were higher than scores for those who had not participated (Wonderlich 5).

These results indicate a significant association between childhood beauty pageant participation and increased body dissatisfaction, difficulty trusting interpersonal relationships, and greater impulsive behaviors, and indicate a trend toward increased feelings of ineffectiveness (Wonderlich 6). Another example of the destructive effects of childhood beauty pageant is Brooke Breedwell, now nineteen, who was a child pageant contestant and a star of the television documentary, “Painted Babies.” “As a girl, [Breedwell] suffered from stress and anxiety while striving for an unrealistic standard of perfection. [In various interviews], she explains that her mother’s ambition, coupled with her own obsessive drive to win, resulted in severe social and psychological consequences” (Ahrens 86).

Another negative consequence of childhood beauty pageants is the disturbing sexualization of young girls that steals away their treasured innocence–as if eating disorders and body image problems were not enough. Former child beauty queen Nicole Hunter confirms this theory by explaining that “dressing and acting like a woman at a young age compelled her to prematurely confront her sexuality, which in turn lowered her self-esteem” (Liberman 741). The child pageant circuit concentrates on the ideals of perfection and beauty, with an accompanying focus on sexuality. Innocent girls dressed in skimpy costumes parade and dance, remove pieces of their outfits and wink at judges. Basically, young beauty queens are taught to flirt and manipulate their early sexuality in order to win.

Though frequently condemned for such eccentric and damaging practices, the child pageant industry has been gaining success and extensive popularity (Liberman 745). Additionally, reporter Richard Goldstein investigated the JonBenet Ramsey, a child beauty queen, murder case and brought to the surface both our horror at how effectively a child can be constructed as a sexual being and our guilt at the please we take in such a sight (Giroux 50). Her dynamic role in pageants was vastly examined by media after the murder. After JonBenet’s highly publicized murder, the problems of child beauty pageants, especially the degradation of young girls, are first brought to society’s attention.

Although many pageant parents argue that the press unfairly focused on the connection of beauty pageants to Jon Benet’s murder, these defenders rarely address the concerns of robbing a child of her virtue by depicting young girls as “sexualized nymphets.” They have little to say about what adolescents actually gain in pageants. Those in favor of the pageants overlook how a child might see herself and her ability to form relationships with society when her feelings of self-worth is defined solely through a belief that beauty is one-dimensional and patronizing (Giroux 54-55).

No five-year-old child enjoys getting her hair ripped out and teased, spending hours each day practicing exhausting dance routines, or devoting every weekend traveling to pageants rather than playing with friends. It is the beauty pageant contestant’s mother who forces them to endure these strenuous and sometimes painful rituals in order to achieve their own satisfaction. When feminist writer-performer, StaceyAnn Chin first saw Toddlers & Tiaras she was “flabbergasted by the parents who were so invested in these contests they got angry if their girls showed any signs of flagging.” In regards to the infamous pageant moms, Chin states that, ” the pageant reminded me a little of dog shows–tiny, powerless competitors trained to do as they are told, with trainers who exploit their charges to gain fame and fortune and live out some archaic dream they once had for themselves” (Chin 1).

The vast majority of pageant moms deny the harmful effects beauty pageants have own their child. Pageant mothers often “neutralize” their deviant behavior of enrolling their daughter in pageants by claiming pageants help their daughter rather than hurt. Also, mothers deny their own responsibility as the accountable parent by claiming that her daughter chooses to participate in beauty pageants (Pannell 68). Every single pageant mom asked in a study about childhood beauty pageants talked about competitors winning prize money, crowns, trophies and gifts in child beauty pageants (Mosel-Talavera 81).

Some mothers deceptively sign their children up for pageants to exploit their daughters financially. One pageant mother says that there is a very infamous pageant child that always wins a large sum of money, ‘There is one little girl down South – she’s the daughter of one of the biggest known photographers. In six weeks’ time she went from pageant to pageant and won like $40,000.’ In the summer of 2005, there was another child, whose mother also owns a pageant business, who won three cars at pageants (Levey 204-205). These examples clearly reveal the evils of parents exploiting their children in pageants for their own selfish rewards.

In childhood beauty pageants, the pressure from parents, influence from the media, and the desire to win all lead to disastrous consequences for the participants, which will stay with them for the rest of their life. Eating disorders, body image issues, and an early loss of innocence are just a few of the consequences these precious girls will have to deal with in their lifetime. No child should have to struggle with these problems at such a young age. Although little girls dressed up in frilly dresses and tiaras may be cute, there is a fine line between a fun beauty pageant and ruining a young girls life.

Difficult Relationships Between Adults And Children Essay

Difficult Relationships Between Adults And Children Essay

In many of the stories, the writers describe difficult relationships between adults and children. Compare the relationships that the writers present to the reader in two stories and explore the ways the relationships between the adults and children change as the stories develop.

In this essay, I will be exploring the relationships between adults and children in “Flight” and “Your Shoes”. It seems to me that both stories have children and adults that are in similar positions. The content and style of the stories are similar in some ways and different in other ways.

For example, the main problem in both stories is the daughter leaving home for the first time. Another example of a difference is “Flight” is written in third-person whereas “Your Shoes” is not.

“Your Shoes” is a story told from the perspective of a mother who has suffered a great loss, as her daughter has run away. She seems to be forced to realise that she is very upset with aspects of her life.

The mother is writing a letter to her daughter describing all the unhappy things that have happened to her. For example, her childhood and details of her marriage. All this seems to stem from the fact that her mother has recently died.

“Flight” is a story about leaving home and becoming independent. The story tells of an old man who keeps birds and seems to be very protective of his last granddaughter. He has seen his other granddaughters leave home, marry, and grow up. He seems to be slightly jealous of Steven who is Alice’s boyfriend. In the story, the birds seem to symbolise the granddaughter. This also could be interpreted as the birds symbolising how the grandfather would like the granddaughter to be like. In the end, the grandfather lets the granddaughter go and this is symbolised in the release of his favourite pigeon.

It seems to me that the relationship in “Flight” between Alice and her grandfather is quite close. I think this because both seem to have a mutual understanding of each other. One example of this would be Steven giving a pigeon to the grandfather. I think this is the case, as I don’t think Steven would have given a bird to the granddad on his own accord. Therefore, this would mean Alice thoughtfully made Steven give the bird to show the granddad that he could look after the bird instead of her.

“Your shoes” is quite different. The author of “Your shoes” has developed the mothers character in such a way the reader can get a real good insight in what the mother is thinking. This gives us much more detail then anything we got from the Grandfather in “Flight”. The mother seems to the reader frustrated that people don’t act in the “proper” way. In the end the mother is left holding her daughters shoes as if they were her substitute. This is quite an extreme from the reaction the grandfather took as he was able to let her daughter take “flight”.

During both stories, the relationships between the adults and the children all seem to mature for better or worse. In “flight” the relationship between Alice and her Granddad all changes when Steven presents a pigeon to the granddad. The Granddad seems get a revelation and changes his view on the relationship between Steven and Alice. He accepts the fact that his little granddaughter has grown up. This is symbolised in him releasing his favourite pigeon.

In “Your Shoes” we can not see the relationship at first hand but from the detailed insights from the mother we can assume a lot of things. I think that the relationship between mother and daughter was never very strong. Firstly, the daughter who was very fond of her grandmother had died. The mother detested her own mother and we assume that it must have hurt that her daughter preferred her Grandmother to herself. Then finally the daughter running away seems to symbolise there whole relationship. This is quite somewhat different from “Flight” as mother in “Your Shoes” seems to go mad, in the end sucking on her daughters shoelaces.

In conclusion, both stories seem to have similar relationships at the starting of the story as the children want to grow up. Then both relationships shoot off in different directions, as the mother in “Your shoes” was unable to let go while the Grandfather in “Flight” let his granddaughter free.

Children Being Tried as Adults Essay

Children Being Tried as Adults Essay

Some juveniles think that because they are minors, they can’t be severely punished just like adults. Using this thinking, many minors commit crimes thinking of little to no consequences at all. With this thinking, the “double standard” comes into place. Female juveniles think because of their gender, they can really get away with crimes.

For the average american, the term “juvenile delinquent” is likely to conjure up the image of a teen-age male. The one-sided image is fed by media stories that all but ignore the existence of young offenders who are female.

Most of the professional literature on juvenile delinquency is similarly slanted.

Should minors who commit crimes be prosecuted as adults? That is indeed a topic you have to really think about twice. All crimes committed by juveniles should and must be treated in the same regard as adults. These kids go to juvenile court and get shortened sentences because of their age, thats not right. They commit big boy crimes, they have to do big boy time.

When you think of the word “Juvenile” what’s the first thing you think about? The first thing that comes to my mind is crime simply because when i hear the word juvenile, its usually followed by delinquent. Until the early 19th century in the United States, children as young as 7 years old could be tried in criminal court and, if found guilty, sentenced to prison or even to death. Children under the age of 7 were thought to be unable to commit criminal acts and were therefore exempt from punishment. Reformers believed that treating children and adolescents as adult criminals was unnecessarily harsh and resulted in their corruption.

A 1991 study by Virginia’s Department of Youth and Family Services, entitled “Young Women in the Juvenile System,” concluded that girls serve more time in training schools than their male counterparts, and for less serious offenses. The same pattern prevails in most other jurisdictions. (Anderson)

Between 1994 and 2010, violent crime arrest rates decreased for all age groups, but more for juveniles than for adults. More specifically, the rates dropped an average of 54 percent for teenagers 15 to 17, compared to 38 percent for those between 18 and 39. And while arrest rates for violent crimes were higher in 2010 than in 1980 for all ages over 24, the rates for juveniles ages 15 to 17 were down from 1980. (Brown)

Not everyone agrees that tougher crime laws for juveniles are fair or will cut down on youth crime. Many opponents of penalizing kids as adults believe that young criminals, unlike adult offenders, are still developing personal values and character. Juveniles, they say, can be more easily reformed, or rehabilitated, to turn their lives around and lead productive lives. For example, in a documentary i recently watched, all of the adults had been to jail and had a bad childhood but had changed their lives for the best. Many people have shown their disagreement with the statement above in many ways creating controversy.

“Lock ‘Em Up” says one civilian/pedestrian in a street interview . “Let ‘Em off, they’re just babies” says another civilian. These two statements/opinions stirred up lots of controversy and debates on live television. In one argument a tv reporter said that “It doesn’t mean adolescents can’t make rational decisions or appreciate the difference between right and wrong. But it does mean that, particularly when confronted with stressful or emotional circumstances, they are more likely to act impulsively, on instinct, without fully understanding or considering the consequences of their actions.”

Some controversy comes in with the parents thinking that their children don’t deserve to be tried as adults in their situation. For example, Paul Henry Gingerich, a 14 year old murder suspect is believed to be the youngest person in Indiana ever sentenced to prison as an adult.

He was still 12 years old when he arrived here at the Pendleton Juvenile Correctional Facility, the state’s maximum security prison for children. His mother could not do much due to the severity of the situation. Over 200,000 children are charged as adults every year says a researcher at Temple University.

At the age of 16, Cameron Williams lives a life far removed from the world of other teenagers. Williams, who celebrated his sixteenth birthday in jail, faces up to 110 years behind bars for second-degree attempted murder and use of a weapon to commit a felony. In November, Williams shot at a police officer in Omaha, Nebraska as he was being chased after being pulled over in a car with two other men. He’s also charged with robbery and assault in another county. Even though he is a minor.

Many people are affected/involved in these juvenile cases. In many cases, the juveniles themselves are the ones who are greatly affected because they are the ones who have messed up their future. The parents are also majorly affected by children being charged as adults because they still look at their children as innocent and as babies. In a recent california case, a 15 year old boy was sentenced to 20 years on a murder charged in a maximum security facility and was beaten to death. This made the state and even parts of the nation rethink this whole “age doesn’t matter thing” when it comes to juvenile sentencing.

To decrease juvenile crimes there are several prevention programs. There is a program called D.A.R.E which stands for Drug, Abuse, Resistance, Education. The program is for kids as old as 18 and as young as 11. There are also programs like after school matters which teaches children the importance of staying in school and staying on the right path, and finally P A.C.E. is “Programming for Young Women in the Juvenile Justice System, which also helps to rehabilitate juveniles after they are released from jail. (Anderson, George M.)

Another possible solution could be for parents to teach their children right from wrong early in their lives and for older children, spend more time with them and show them that you care about them/love them, and most of all be there for them throughout their lives. Statistics show that children who grow up in a single-parent household are nine times more likely to go to prison, eight times more likely to commit violent crimes, and ten times more likely to get hooked on drugs than in a two-parent home. After some long research I concluded that teens today don’t fear the law because they don’t think they will get caught. And if they do, they know they have a good chance of getting off because they are tried as teens and not adults. We have to get tougher on crime. There should be a law that everyone over eleven years old will be tried as adults. That way more teens would be discouraged from committing crimes. They would know that murder would get them a very long sentence instead of staying in juvenile hall until they are eighteen. If we want to cut down on teen crime, we have to have tougher laws.

C1: white an introduction which explains why it is important to plan to meet the care and learning needs of all children Essay

C1: white an introduction which explains why it is important to plan to meet the care and learning needs of all children Essay

In this research task I will be explaining the importance of meeting the care and learning needs of all children and referring to various legislation and a theoretical perspective which supports this research and legislation Planning to meet the care and learning needs of all children is crucial to their wellbeing, growth and development. Early years practitioners must always follow and understand the standard care needs of children which are set out by the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). These guidelines help support and allow practitioners to know how to meet and plan for children’s learning and care needs to give them the best possible start in life.

Care needs have been researched by theorists like John Bowlby and Maslow; they have both shown that to achieve and develop in life it is important to have confidence and positive self-esteem.

See more: how to write an introduction paragraph

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explains human behaviour and shows the important in terms of basic requirements.

Other theorists like Brunner, Piaget and Vygotsky look at the way children learn. Appropriate provision is important for children as this covers all aspects from stage of development, age and special learning needs that might be in the setting. Ensuring that practitioners take into account any learning needs is very important. Practitioners provision will be allowing for any children with additional needs e.g. hearing impairment, physical needs, eye problems, speech impairment are given the required help and support which will suit that child’s individual needs to help them learn and develop. If a child wasn’t given support when needed they can become very behind and won’t be able to learn the way they have the right to learn.

Children can become very reclusive and lack confidence if they are singled out or excluded, so giving them the right support they need will benefit them and help them progress. In practice there was a girl who couldn’t walk unaided, she had a walker for mobility. The girl hasn’t as yet been diagnosed with anything but every in the nursery were accepting and supportive. If she need to sit down we would help her, if she wanted to go outside we would make sure she was able to do it herself. When we had a standing activity we made sure there was a chair close in case she needed to sit down, we had tables that were longer so she could stand up if she wanted to and have her walker behind her for support. We never excluded her from an activity and we changed activity plans to suit her needs.

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Children and adults alike enjoy fairy Essay

Children and adults alike enjoy fairy Essay

Children and adults alike enjoy fairy tales because, to a certain extent, there are universal themes which make the stories predictable. Three of these themes are parental abandonment, victimization, and the all-important happy ending. Fairy tales provide an escape for the reader and a way to vicariously experience a different kind of life in which anything is possible.

The idea of parental abandonment seems an anathema in a children’s story. Nevertheless, Little Red Riding Hood ventures alone into the forest to walk to her grandmother’s house, in spite of the danger presented by the wolf.

Snow White and Cinderella’s parents die and leave them with cruel stepmothers. In “Beauty and the Beast”, Belle is without a mother and her father is a bit of a kook who can’t look after her properly.

All of the characters are placed in situations in which they become victims. The three little pigs must protect their homes from a wolf; Little Red Riding Hood must outsmart a wolf who has eaten her grandmother and disguised himself.

Cinderella and Snow White, on the other hand, must outsmart their cruel stepmothers in order to find true love.

The most common theme in fairy tales (except, of course, for the Grimm versions) is that they have a happy ending. Cinderella and Snow White defeat their stepmothers and marry the prince, Little Red Riding Hood and the three little pigs outsmart the wolves and save themselves from certain death. A fairy tale just isn’t a fairy tale without a happy ending; after all, the story of Cinderella would be less compelling if she had missed the ball and one of her ugly stepsisters had married the prince. “Beauty and the Beast” would have been less of a fairy tale if Belle’s love hadn’t transformed the Beast.

Ethical Impacts of the Internet on Children and Teenagers Essay

Ethical Impacts of the Internet on Children and Teenagers Essay

As the use of internet dominates every activity in the global market, its use in homes and schools has exponentially grown raising concern on its ethical effect on children and teenagers. The nature of the youngsters’ use of internet has generated heat and anxiety among the general public as the society calls for ethical and moral guidelines that would protect children and teenagers from negative effect of the internet.

This paper proposes a research that will identify the effect of internet use among the young people as the academic and policy importance concerning the opportunities and dangers of internet use continue to be raised.

The paper identifies these opportunities and dangers as it proposes the methodology and limitations for the research paper. 2. 0 Introduction 2. 1 Background

Internet which slowly started as a network for military officers in the cold war eventually became an important tool in the academic corridors and today the former “Arpanet” has greatly grown to become the primary platform for communication and interaction for different communities around the world.

As the Internet traffic hit millions of users each day the communication technology continue to grow to allow for infinite information access and instant interaction by users, a fact that has brought about a social paradigm shift in the way societies used to live in the earlier days.

This technology has particularly been embraced by children and teenagers as a way of learning, socializing and leisure. In the developed countries and many other regions around the word, internet access has ceased to being a trademark for the privileged members of the society as its use in the workplace, education institutions and leisure places continue to grow exponentially. As the use of computers and internet become more and more entrenched in our day to day routine practices, it has become a basic feature not only in the offices but also at our homes.

The presence of internet at our homes has opened up a “super highway” to children and teenagers who are being referred to as the “digital generation” that incidentally predisposes them to overwhelming information and social sites that may contribute heavily in shaping their behavioural patterns. Whereas internet offers a perfect educational platform for the young people, it is also seen largely as a risk factor that could expose them to adult sites, make them more addicted and dependant on the internet and eventually instil anti-social behaviour in some of them.

While this issue demands a critical stance given the consequences it has on the future generation, very little independent researches has been conducted to inform the policy makers and end the growing public anxiety. In most of the researches conducted in the recent past only a few have focused on the social consequences of the internet among the children and teenagers. The households with children or/and teenagers that have access to the internet is however more common than those without (Wigley and Clacke, 2000). 2. 2 Research Objectives

The main objective of the proposed research project is to explore the impact of the internet on children and teenagers based on the expected social, cognitive and behavioural patterns in the society. The research project will aim at identifying issues that deviate from the laid down expectations both at school, home and in the society which find their root from the internet. 2. 3 Research Question The proposed paper will focus on answering the following primary question; • What are the ethical impact on the use of internet among the children and teenagers?

To effectively explore the primary research question the following secondary questions will be analyzed? • What are the children/teenagers perceptions towards internet? • What are the perceptions of the parents whose children are using internet at home or/and school? • What are the important contrasts in internet activities from what is expected to what is actually practised? • What are the possible impacts of these struggles between the theoretical and practical internet activities on children/teenagers’ social development? 2. 4 Research Significance

A study conducted in the UK by Wigley and Clacke (2000), revealed that among the young people aged between 7 and 16 years, 75% of them have used the internet as compared to only 38% from the adult population. This explains that in the contemporary society the young are actually the pioneers of the internet culture. For a long time children and teenagers have also been regarded as a special homogenous object in other studies a fact that has made this category of population marginalised and often left out in researches on the internet.

Even in the midst of growing researches on e-commerce and e-democracy very little efforts are focusing on the expanding online market driven by the young people. For these reasons children and teenagers are often left out in technological advancement as the market analysis is evaluated. As the social effects of internet on the young people become obvious in most societies it is becoming more difficult to ignore the subject and therefore many empirical projects on children and teenagers use of the internet are coming up.

This makes it appropriate moment in which the research agenda on this category of population must be given priority. 3. 0 Literature Review 3. 1 Nature of Internet Usage Recent surveys reveal that children and teenagers attach high value to the usage of internet to gather information, entertainment leisure and as a medium of communication. According to Valkenburg and Soeters (2001), 73% of the children and teenagers use internet as an education tool, 59% use it for E-mails, 38% to play games, 32% for chatting with friends and 31% use internet as a hobby and an area of interest.

The internet has already revolutionized the social patterns of our younger population drastically changing the earlier forms of communication and interaction among the peers. A research conducted by Valkenburg and Soeters (2001), indicates that among most households internet has continued to elicit mixed reaction between the parents and their young ones as it is considered to easily lead the young toward the wrong direction if mismanaged or taken for granted.

While the parents praise the internet for its role in availing most of the information that their children would need in pursuit of their education, the children consider the opportunity more as a source of entertainment that gives them a break from the other “old fashioned” entertainment sources. The tug of war between the parents and children demonstrates an obvious digital generation gap in which children and teenagers who normally acquire and understand new internet skills faster than their parents get transformed into “family tutors”.

The expertise in computer and internet skills among the children gives them a symbolic advantage over their parents that can easily be mis-used in pushing their interests that could not necessarily be approved by their parents. The current researches on the social context in which internet is focusing more in identifying ways and means in which children and teenagers are changing their homes into centres for content production, entertainment and leisure.

This fact has in essence brought about new approaches in children’s activities as questions linger on whether learning has become more fun, playing is turning more and more educational and whether online chatting is part of civic participation or a way of withdrawal from the general society. This kind of researches therefore calls for the need to analyse the online content that is most preferred by children and teenagers. This raises a challenge given the large volume of online contents from which one can choose from and the fact that the hypertext content can be actualized by the user.

This has in effect discouraged most of the researchers carrying out studies on the impact of internet on children and teenagers. Most of the researches today are however guided by the policy issues that are endeavouring in trying to balance the benefits that the internet offers to the young population against the harm that may be associated with some of the sites. Therefore the key agenda is on how the society in general should ethically conceptualize and balance the benefits and the dangers of the internet on the children and teenagers within there spheres of influence.

Children after the separation Essay

Children after the separation Essay

Further his studies of the effects of war on children who were separated from their mothers at an early age was considered to be research done in a crisis situation. Critics argue under these circumstances it would be impossible to conclude how the same children would have reacted out of a war time environment. It was also argued that Bowlby failed to take account in his studies what had happened to the children after the separation.

Bowlby was influenced greatly by James Robertson’s research on the effects of separation on mother and child through hospitalisation.

Robertson’s studied children between six months and three years of age who were separated from their mothers due to hospitalisation. Robertson claimed to have established a sequence of behaviour that all children would pass through. This sequence consisted of distress, were children behaved in a disturbed manner. Despair whereby the child seems to lose hope of finding there lost parent. Lastly, the child display detachment type behaviour, refusing anyone to become involved with them.

Robertson concluded that separation from their mother was harmful.

In 1971 Klein and Stern studied why parents abuse their children. They found evidence in their studies that a high percentage of abused children had been born prematurely. Because these children were put into an incubator and separated from their parents an attachment was unable to develop, resulting in later abuse toward the children. The study concluded that there is a crucial period when attachments not formed adequately would not be able to be re-formed. This is of considerable importance to social work in relation to the modern day understanding of child abuse as further research has shown that many abusers were once abused themselves.

Klaus & Kennell (1976) two paediatricians put forward the theory that they too believed there was a critical period when attachment took place, this was immediately after birth, when the mother was physiologically pre-disposed to bond with her infant. It was during this time that the strength of the attachment was determined. The American National Center for Clinical Programs supports Bowlby’s notion of ‘motherlove’. They propose that a parent who realises they are going to have a long-term relationship with their child will put more into the caregiving and interaction, as opposed to a substitute care giver who may not be so motivated as they see many children come and go and therefore do not build up a caring relationship with children. This idea has implications for fostering as a consequence may be lack of care or favouritism towards other children in their care.

John & Elisabeth Newson (1986) point out that one function of a parent is to act as a memory store for the children to play back and compare experiences. Children in a care setting without a key adult with whom they have a close relationship with will be unable to build upon past experiences and this may have an impact on their emotional development. Many studies have looked at whether attachment is instinctive, as Bowlby had believed.

Konrad Lorenz (1935) agreed that attachment was instinctive when he put forward his imprinting theory. His observations revealed that newly hatched goslings follow the first thing they saw, this could be a human or other object and there was a brief critical period early in the goslings life when this would occur and was found to be irreversible. Lorenz’s believed this was biological, a factor of evolution that ensures the young of all species are able to attach to someone for survival, and was relevant to the way humans form attachments in relation to it being an instinctive behaviour. Critics of his theory (Sluckin 1961 and Bateson 1964) have shown that if a young bird is kept isolated it stays unimprinted beyond Lorenz’s ‘critical period’ and imprinting can take place after the critical period has passed. This casts doubt on Lorenz’s claim that imprinting processes are instinctive. Many researchers now believe that imprinting is actually a process of rapid learning (MacFarlane 1975)

In contrast to the theory that attachment is instinctive Colin Turnbull and Margaret Mead when studying families in various African tribes concluded that they saw no signs of instinctive love or affection between parents and children. It was quite normal for many children to be left to fend for themselves; many were even killed as they were thought of as burdens by their parents. The researchers came to believe attachment to be a learnt process that we internalise from observing our own mother’s behaviour, and if not learnt properly for example through illness or as in the tribes case through a different set of family norms and lifestyles, then no bonding or emotional attachment can occur.

In New York in 1943 Goldfarb conducted a study of orphans. Two groups of fifteen orphans were matched for age, sex and social background of their parents. The orphans of group A had been fostered before nine months old. The orphans in group B had spent at least their first three years in an orphanage before they were fostered. Goldfarb visited each child at ages three, six, eight and twelve years and measured their development with regard to intelligence, language skills, social maturity and their ability to form relationships. Goldfarb found that every child in group A did better than those in group B leading to the conclusion that a ‘normal’ family home is crucial to emotional and cognitive development. Critics of this study argue that the children may not have had the same intelligence to begin with and that the children in Group B did not have the stimulation of a family for as long a period as those children in Group A.

Harlow & Zimmerman conducted studies on a group of rhesus monkeys. Their studies consisted of isolating young monkeys for three months, six months or twelve months. The researchers concluded that the behaviour of the monkeys who had been isolated for twelve months was proportionately worse than those who had been isolated for three months. The behaviour of all the monkeys who had suffered isolation was seen to be disturbed.

The same researchers also placed monkeys in a cage with surrogate mothers, a doll made of wire with a feeding bottle and a doll made of wood and towelling without a feeding bottle. The monkeys spent equal amounts of time with each ‘surrogate mother’. The studies showed that the monkeys preferred to cling to the towelling doll even if it meant they did not have a feeding bottle. This led the researchers to believe that warm contact is of critical importance as a need for the monkeys and leads to affectionate responses. Critics of both these studies question the relevance of animal studies to human behaviour.

Bowlby’s influential theory managed to link together the evolutionary focus of adaptation with the psychodynamic and behavioural importance of social relationships during infancy and childhood. (Hollin 95) A measure of its influence can be gained from the action of the World Health Organisation in 1955 stating that “Permanent damage can be done to the emotional health of babies and children when put into nurseries or sent to child-minders.” The WHO report had many consequences and resulted in lots of practices regarding child care and children’s needs being changed. Women were encouraged to stay at home and were made to feel guilty and bad mothers if the went out to work. (Which suited the government at the time, as they needed these vacated jobs for men)

Family Allowance payments were also introduced as a further inducement to keep women from going out to work Maternity wards encouraged siblings to stay with their mother, whilst children’s wards encouraged mothers to stay. A main influence on social work practice was the idea that ‘ a bad home is better that the best institution’ which resulted in less fostering and removal of children from poor if not dangerous situations at home.

Bowlby’s findings were influential but controversial and became the starting point for further studies. Some studies began to disagree with Bowlby, Fraiberg in 1974 argued that it was possible to strengthen an attachment; Parents of blind children who did not experience eye contact with their infant felt rejected and consequently were unable to develop a strong attachment to their children. When taught to interpret their child’s hand movements, it was found the bond could be strengthened. Interaction was thought to be the important element in developing the attachment.

How Play Benefits Autistic Children Essay

How Play Benefits Autistic Children Essay

Autism results in several deficiencies in children that affect their educational and social lives. Autistic children feel difficulty to interact with their peers and they even cannot play individually (Sherratt and Peter p. 34). Relevant behavioral deficiencies are also found in autistic children if they have deficiency to play either individually or in group (Wolfberg, p. 23) and they feel difficult to socialize (Williams, Reddy and Costell p. 67-77). Types of Play

There are different types of play in which children are engaged such as soico-dramatic play, symbolic play and functional play.

In symbolic play, children use their imaginations to use any object as any other object that is not present. The object used in this type of play does not possess the properties of the object that is imagined to be present in place of the actual object (Libby, Powell, Messer, & Jordan, p. 487-497). Children use common things in their symbolic play to represent specific things such as they use sticks and imagine that they are using swords.

Where as, in functional play, children do not use imaginary things, rather they use things that are really useful for their play (Libby et al. , p. 487-497). In such a play, children may cook pretend food by using toy kitchen objects such as cooking utensils that are made from plastic for playing purpose. Children play specific roles in socio-dramatic play. They use particular themes to represent specific roles. Most common socio-dramatic themes are playing school, playing hospital and playing house in which each child is given a specific role to perform.

Autistic children find it hard to engage in such type of play because they do not feel comfortable in playing roles that require specific social cues, nature of pretending and language. There are different levels of playing. The child does not require any other child to play with in an isolated play. In this type of play a child plays gets involved in a particular activity and plays with an object with out the need of other children (Sherratt and Peter p. 58-74). Children involve in this type of play only when they are engaged with their favorite toy or object.

Autistic children play with an object or a toy in a way that is not common to that object or toy (Wolfberg, p. 78). An autistic child with lacking playing skills does not play with a car in a way that normal children do rather that child would prefer to spin the wheels of the car and would not move the car as normal children do. There is another type of play known as common focus or dyadic play. This type of play requires a child to play with another child. This type of play cannot be played in isolation (Sherratt and Peter, p. 76-95).

Usually two children get involved in this type of play. When an autistic child gets involved in this type of play, he or she is more likely to be closer to another child while play but he or she will not interact with another child. Three or more children get involved in group play (Mittledorf, Hendricks and Landreth, p. 63-86). Children involved in group playing usually play board games, non-team games that can be played in a playground. An autistic child does not get involved in this type of play as it requires social cues and peer interaction

Another example of play is team play in which a common goal is set to achieved and two or more groups compete with each other to achieve their goal (Mittledorf, Hendricks and Landreth, , p. 63-86). This type of play is organized either on a playgroud or in-house such as team tag, baseball, kickball and basketball. This type of play requires social interaction, rules of play to be followed and high level of activity and thus autistic children usually find it difficult to get involved in this type of play.

Some Play Strategies to Help Autistic Children Learn More Efficiently Educational decisions should be based on the individual qualities, skills and needs of every child. Autistic children should be considered in the same way. There are several factors that determine which intervention should be implemented by a teacher to teach playing skills to a child. These factors are the determination of the developmental level of the child, the language level of the child and the determination of the type of the play to be taught.

Developmental Readiness It is very important to determine the developmental level of the child before considering which intervention will be implemented for the child. This type of determination is very important for the children that are passing through their early childhood phase. Lifter et al. (1993) found out that it is very important to know the developmental level of the autistic child in order to select a play to teach preschool autistic children.

When children are involved in play activities that are appropriate according to their developmental level, they get involved in those activities very quickly and they do not spend much time to learn those activities. Children learn developmentally appropriate activities more quickly as compared to activities that are appropriate according to their age because at the same age, different children have different developmental levels that are necessary to know (Lifter et al. , p. 139-159). Different developmental objects are used to identify which activity is developmentally appropriate for a child to learn (e. g. , Broomfield p. 732-745).

The present level of functioning of a child determines which developmentally appropriate activity should be chosen regarding of the age appropriateness because the developmental level of every child is different. Some children’s level is more advanced so the activities and skills selected for them are different from those whose developmental level is lower than their age. Same thing goes to the autistic children whose developmental levels differ from child to child. Language Development

Stahmer (p. 123-141) observed the autistic children with the typical children when both types of children were involved in symbolic play. It was observed that both the groups were involved to an equal extent when their language abilities were the same. So it is advised to initially find out the language abilities and developmental level of autistic children when plan to teach play skills to such children. Mundy, Sigman, Ungerer, and Sherman (p. 349-364) found that language development is based on play skills.

The language abilities of autistic children can be developed during their play with other children. The autistic children learn different aspects of language such as they learn how to take turn, their behavior is related when they request for their turn, and they are involved in joint attention and other social interactions (Baranek et al p. 20-30). Peer Involvement Peer involvement matters a lot. Typically developing children can play a great role in engaging their autistic peers in appropriate play and positive activities (Blanc, et al p. 229-245).

There are different ways in which the typically developing children can be encouraged to engage their autistic peers in social activities such as programs for peer tutoring, Circle of Friends etc. Teachers can discuss with typical peers about autism through an informal method. In this method, teachers discuss with typical peers about the ways in which they should initiate their social interactions with their autistic peers and they are also taught that they should accept social initiations if made by their autistic peers.

If typical peers do not encourage social interactions in a natural setting then training programs are initiated for them. It is also found that group games with same age-group play an important role in increasing positive social interactions and appropriate play (Baker et al. , p. 300-308). The researchers also pointed out that natural setting plays a great role. So, it is advised in order to get successful generalization, the setting of group games should be kept as natural as possible. There are a number of games that can be played in groups on the playground such as tag, baseball etc (Baker et al. , p. 300-308).

Setting and Intervention Method Setting and intervention method are as important to consider as the type of play. Teachers should consider different types of setting when they are to select the settings to teach play skills to autistic children. There is a variety of appropriate setting for such a task including the classroom of autistic children or of typical children to give them general education, a day care setting, the home of a child, playground of the school or a local park or other areas where students can be engaged in playing.

Using Peer Trainers and Peer Models Blanc et al found that children usually make other children involve with them while they are playing. Children should be encouraged to play because when they play with each other, they learn social and behavioral skills through interaction. Children who do not feel comfortable in such interactions do not go through experiences that are essential for their development. Autistic children do not prefer to play with their peers and they hesitate to socialize but they also get involved in activities when integrated settings are provided to them.

This means that autistic children do not prefer non-integrated settings (Blanc, et al p. 229-245). Integrated classroom is essential when typical children are encouraged to interact with their autistic peers. Integrated classroom is useful only if an intervention is implemented, otherwise typical children would prefer to play with other typical children and they would not preferably interact with their autistic peers (Blanc et al p. 229-245). Goldstein et al.

also believed that social interactions among typical and autistic peers should be increased and for that purpose they developed a number of intervention strategies that were purely peer-mediated. The main purpose of those strategies was typically to bring typical and autistic peers closer by increasing social interactions between them. In this intervention strategy, typical children were taught how to initiate social interactions with their autistic peers and how to respond when their autistic peer initiate an interaction. This intervention resulted in an improvement in the social behaviors of autistic peers.

Autistic children are encouraged through this strategy to respond to any initiation made by typical peers. The social behavior of autistic children are also strengthened when they get a response from the typical peers (Goldstein et al. , p. 265-280). Group Games. The facilitation of play skills and social interactions can be increased by incorporating typical peers into games and activities with their autistic peers (Baker et al. , p. 300-308). Teachers can use the preferred topics of autistic children in which they can get involved easily to increase their social behaviors.

Baker et al. (p. 300-308) suggested that group games should be developed by asking the autistic children about their favorite topics. These groups are usually very common such as tag. Children are usually inspired by movie characters so teaches should ask autistic children about their favorite movie character and they should incorporate that character into the game. In this way, autistic children are motivated and they become interested in engaging with their typical peers through social interactions.

In tag game, the target autistic child and typical children are given instructions about the game and then they are encouraged to play the game. Baker et al. , found that social interactions among autistic child and typical children increase because the target autistic child is given more importance as he or she is the who has chosen the topic of the tag game, typical children become involved because they find a lot of fun in the tag game, and the target autistic child, as a result, gets motivated to increase his or her social interactions with his or her peers.

Integrated Play Groups Model. Integrated play groups model can be used as another effective method to increase the play interactions among the typical and autistic children. In this type of play, the children are provided with proper guidance, support, environmental arrangements (Wolfberg, p. 52). the setting of the play area is very important to consider. Children should be engaged in activities in places where children normally play. In such a setting majority of the children should be socially competent so that they are able to integrate their autistic peer easily and comfortably.

The environment of the play area should encourage play activity. The play area should be of a normal size, the materials should be arranged properly and the children should be able to access and organize the material easily (Wolfberg, p. 52). The play groups should be balanced. Wolfberg (p. 52) explained that all the members of the play groups must be familiar to each other, means that they are children who meet with each other regularly. The play groups may have children of different age groups but they should be socially competent.

It is very important to determine the competencies of the target child. This element is very important to consider when developing an integrated play groups model. With the help of this feature it will be easy for the teacher to find out how much and what type of support has to be given to the target child. In order to facilitate the group play, the target child should be given the opportunity to select what type of activity he or she wants to play and this thing will help the teacher to find out the developmental level of the target child.

Guided participation is also encouraged in this model. Children are guided by an adult how to involve in a play that will enhance their social behaviors. The adult should provide supportive guidance instead of directive one (Blanc et al pp. 229-245). The principle of immersion should be followed in this model, means that children should be fully immersed in the play. Through immersion, more experienced children help the less experienced children in learning their roles under the supported guidance of an adult facilitator (Blanc et al pp.

229-245). Conclusion As autistic children have to struggle for the development of play and social skills in them, the teachers should be aware of all the necessary methods that are useful to teach the autistic children the required skills. A teacher must be able to determine the developmental level, language level and peer involvement level of the target autistic child and then the teacher should design, select and implement strategies that will enhance the required skills in him or her.

The learning ability of autistic children also depends on the type of play and setting in which the activity will be initiated. The researcher can conclude at this point that play is very important in childhood as children learn from each others experiences. Autistic children need to be taught how to socialize in order to make them useful citizens and for this purpose it is very important to implement strategies that are necessary to fulfill this task.

Works Cited

Baker, M. J. , Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. Increasing the social behavior of young children with autism using their obsessive behaviors. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 23 (1998), 300-308. Baranek, G. T. et al Object play in infants with autism: methodological issues in retrospective video analysis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59(1) (2005), pp. 20-30. Blanc, R, et al Dysregulation of pretend play and communication development in children with autism. Autism, 9(3) (2005), pp. 229-245.

An analysis of the childrens aid society and its contributions to the community Essay

An analysis of the childrens aid society and its contributions to the community Essay

Evaluation of Children’s Aid Society

Mission Statement

The Children’s Aid Society is a 501©3 children’s services agency that helps children in poverty to succeed and thrive. They do this by providing comprehensive support to children and their families living in high needs New York City neighborhoods (website). This organization has developed services that ensure children have access to programs that promote health and wellness as well as social-emotional development skills. They also strive to make sure that children attend college.

The Form 990 on page 2 does not provide any further detailed information.

With the available information from the mission statement on the website, as well as Form 990 part I and III, it is difficult to evaluate this nonprofit organization’s mission. The quality and the quantity of the available information from the website, and Form 990 is difficult to evaluate because the mission statement was not stated in the annual report. The Children’s Aid Society provides information about its programs on their website.

The Form 990 and the annual report are very similar because it is almost the same information. They provide numbers about how many people they serve and the impact the programs have on the children and families. The website and the annual report 2013 both mention this information.

Effectiveness

From the information obtained, the website provides the effectiveness of the programs from the website, the annual report and the Form 990. The programmatic goals state how many children receive service from various programs. The website provides the number of children served by the organization.

The Children’s Aid Society has three major programs that include Early Childhood (0-5), School Age (5-13), and Adolescence (14-18).

Early Childhood- The program’s goals are preparing young children for school success through physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development. The core services they provide are Early Head Start for children ages 0-3, and Head Start and Early Learn Day Care for ages 3-5.

School Age- The program’s goal is to promote physical, social, and emotional well-being as key factors for high school graduation and college success. This program serves to engage children, families, schools, and communities through a focus on academics, services, support, and opportunities. The core services include out-of-school time programs in Children’s Aid Community Centers and schools, summer camps, athletics, and the national center for community schools that provide assistance to developing a community school model nationally and internationally.

Adolescence-The goals of this program are to enhance young people’s physical, social, and emotional competencies as well as improving their academic performance and preparing them for successful careers and gaining financial independence. According to the Form 990, the core services that the organization provides are the Carrera adolescent pregnancy prevention program, which meets the top-tier evidence of effectiveness standards by the coalition for evidence-based policy. The EXCEL college support program assists young people to enter and complete college. The HOPE Leadership Academy provides wrap-around support and develops leadership through a peer education model. They also provide teen employment services such as AmeriCorps internships and the summer youth employment program.

Efficiency

From the information obtained from the three sources, it is very difficult to determine whether these programs have been efficient in the programs that they administer. After looking into the Form 990, there is no available information about the total costs per person in the programs provided.

The three most expensive programs are school age, adolescence, and early childhood.

School-age- The total cost of this program is $18,843,068. In Form 990 on page 2, the organization mentions that its goal is promoting physical, social and emotional well-being. However, they do not mention any specific programs. In the annual report, it states that they provide health services to about 4,000 children through school-based health clinics. They do not provide costs for each child served by the school-based health clinics. The annual report also states that the Office of Client Advocacy helped 345 clients avoid eviction. There is no information on the program information in Form 990, pg 2.

Adolescence- The total cost of this program is $15,402, 365. In Form 990, page 2 mentions Carrera-Adolescent Prevention Program but does not provide any further information on the number of people served and the costs. The annual report also does not state how many adolescents were served and at what cost. However, the annual report states that the program reduced teen pregnancy by 50 percent. The EXCEL college support program does not provide information on the number of students served as well as how much it costs. The annual report states that more than 90 percent of EXCEL students graduate high school and go on to college. There is no information on how many students are in the program. The quality and the quantity of available information is not very satisfying because there should be detailed information on the exact costs of each major program within the program.

Early Childhood- The total cost of this program is $11,612,396. According to the Form 990 page 2, the organization mentions the Early Head Start program. The program provides numbers on its website stating that each family receives a minimum of 32 home visits a year for 90 minutes each. However, it does not state the number of families served. The 2013 annual report does not contain any specific numbers about the program. The quality and quantity of available information are not satisfying because there are no exact costs of how much program costs.

According to the nonprofit’s annual report, the management and general administration costs increased to $7,378 in 2012 compared to $6,546 in 2011. This organization increased its expenses, which means that they are spending money on ways to increase mission impact and evaluate programs that may or may not work. The costs of the programs from the Form 990 do not match the financial statement in the annual report. In Form 990, it states larger expanses and is not specific about where the money went. In the annual report, the expenses are more specific but the costs seem to be smaller in Form 990. This shows that the organization is not efficient in its programs. It also shows that they may not have provided other essential information.

Governance

The Form 990 claims that the Children’s Aid Society has a governing body where the organization documents all meetings. It also states that the committees have the authority to represent the organization on behalf of the governing body. This organization also has different policies. The two main policies that it has based on Form 990 are the whistleblower policy and the written document retention and destruction policy. The Form 990 states that the organization consists of 31 Board Members. These members also have the power to elect other members to the governing body. The Children’s Aid Society has executive centrality governance.

Finances

The organizations current total revenue is $117,154,454 and its current total expense is $121,692,560. This organization is running a deficit rather than a surplus. The organization is losing its revenue stream and its assets will not cover it for a long time. The organization is fiscally unsustainable. The organization has net unrestricted assets total of $258,063,545 and its restricted assets is a total of $13,848,823. According to the Form 990, the organization received a total of $31,966,571 in contributions and grants. However, it only spent $31,966,571 on fundraising expenses. After dividing the expenses by costs, a total cost of raising a dollar was .09, which is very low. The salary of the Chief Executive Officer is $408,431.00 and it is too much. The average salary according to www.payscale.com states that the average salary is $100,000 for a Chief Executive Officer of a nonprofit organization. After calculating the organization’s program expanse it came up to be .88 ratio from dividing its total program service expenses by its total functional expenses.

After analyzing the Children’s Aid Society, I determined that this organization is not worthy of a significant contribution because it is not transparent in providing information to the public. Even though it has a high mission impact in helping children get out of poverty, financially it is starting to become unsustainable in its assets and revenues. This shows that the organization is mismanaging its finances spending. This organization does not earn the seal of approval because the potential donor wants to donate to an organization that is impact-oriented and achieves results cost-effectively, which this organization does not achieve.