Categories for Child

Ethical Dilema Essay

Ethical Dilema Essay

In this paper, I will discuss the ethical dilemma faced by a nurse who is caring for an eight month old patient, who reports with his mother to the emergency room with a suspicious fracture. The mother provides a plausible story, and the physician knows the family and does not suspect abuse. I will discuss the action I would take in order to provide the appropriate care for this patient. As a registered professional nurse, I feel the only approach to the case is to report the injury to Department of Family and Child’s Services (DFACS) for their investigation.

When a report is made, DFACS will complete an investigation and make the ultimate decision if abuse or neglect was the cause of the injury. Each nurse has a duty to report all suspicious injuries to DFACS, regardless of her feelings on abuse or neglect. This is true even when the physician knows the family or does not suspect abuse.

The nurse is responsible for her own actions.

In order to provide the best quality of care for this patient, I would take the statement from the parent about how the patient was injured, and then talk to the physician to gather the physical finding, which may include x-ray reports after this information is gathered, I would report the case to the local DFACS. Anytime there is a suspicious injury regardless of the plausibility of the story, or if the physician knows the patient and does not suspect the parent, the DFACS case must be reported. The nurse in this situation has a duty to report this injury and let child services decide if the patient is in danger. I would perform a complete examination of the patient and communicate with the physician, in addition to noting any other signs of abuse, along with paying close attention for indicators of abuse. Indicators of abuse can warn healthcare providers to pay closer attention to situations that may indicate abuse or neglect and sometimes there are not indicators even though the child may be abused (Henderson, 2013).

Three indicators of abuse or maltreatment include physical, child behavioral and parent behavioral indicators (Henderson, 2013). These indicators should not be considered in isolation but should be considered along with the child’s condition in the context with overall physical appearance and behavior; however, it is conceivable that a single indicator may be consistent with abuse or neglect (Henderson, 2013). Considerations of abuse are raised by injuries to both sides of the body and/or to soft tissues, injuries with a specific pattern or injuries that do not fit the explanation, delays in presentation for care, and/or untreated injuries in multiple stages of healing (Henderson, 2013). It would be helpful to check the patient’s record for previous unexplained injuries or history of frequent visits to the emergency room or physician’s office. Any burns or patterns of bruising during the examination would warrant further investigation.

Other signs of physical abuse I would monitor for include signs of pain where there is not visible injury and lack of reaction to pain. I would also note any emotional signs of physical abuse, which include passive, withdrawn or emotionless behavior, and fear when seeing parents. Any symptoms noted on exam should include this in the report to DFACS. Since the physical signs of abuse are often visible, most cases of abuse are recognized by a healthcare provider (Padera, 2009). These signs may be noted at routine appointments or while providing acute care. The ethical principle of non-maleficence and beneficence are addressed with this case. The ethical principle of non-maleficence helps to ensure that healthcare providers do not harm to their patients. If I did not report this case to DFACS for investigation and the abuse continued causing any harm to the patient, this would be an ethical violation of non-maleficence on the part of the nurse.

The ethical principle of beneficence ensures that health care provider’s actions benefit the patient. By choosing to report this case to DFACS, my actions would benefit the patient and help ensure that the patient was no longer being abused. As a nurse, if I did not report this to DFACS for investigation, I would be in violation of the nurse practice act, and I could be held liable if the patient suffer more injuries or death at the hand of an abuser. My report of child abuse or neglect is confidential and immune from civil or criminal liability as long as the report is made in “good faith” and “without malice” ( Provided these two conditions are met, as a nurse, I am immune from liability if they are asked to participate in any judicial proceedings resulting from the report (

In conclusion, mandatory reporting can produce unanticipated and unwanted consequences (Buppert & Klein, 2008). Nurses may be concerned about reporting suspected abuse especially, when the investigation is completed, no abuse or risk to the patient is found (Buppert & Klein, 2008). Boards of Nursing rarely discipline nurses for failure to report and nurses are covered with their nurse practice act when they make reports in “good” faith (Buppert & Klein, 2008). Given this information there is no reason not to report this mother to DFACS for investigation.

Buppert, C. & Klein, T. (2008). Dilemmas in Mandatory Reporting for Nurses. Medscape. P. 4- 16.
Henderson, K. L. (2013). Mandated reporting of child abuse: Considerations and guidelines for mental health counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 35(4), 296-309. Padera, Connie. (2009). Nursing, Child Abuse, and the Law. 7(37). P. 122-126. When you suspect child abuse or neglect: A general guide. Retrieved from https://www.oag.

A research on the effects of birth order on personality family and society Essay

A research on the effects of birth order on personality family and society Essay

How Does Birth Order Affect Personality, Family, and Society?


This research project will investigate birth order and how it directly affects one’s personality. This project explains why individuals behave differently within the family.

According to the systems theory, families adapt in response to changes in internal and external needs and circumstances, including the development of individual family members ( For primary research, opinions from different hierarchical perspectives will be provided through a survey. Depending on one’s position in the sibling hierarchy, personalities differ because different stages carry different roles and responsibilities.

This research project will look at how each stage affects personality.


For the primary research, a total of fifteen questions were asked to 6 people. Each of the interviewees was of different levels in the sibling hierarchy, i.e. first born, last born, the middle child, only child, and twins. In between each question, the subjects would have time to properly think about their next answer, this way results would be accurate and as substantial as possible.

The first interview was conducted with a set of 20-year-old twins, this interview was the most interesting and had the most answers. The next subject was a 13-year-old girl who is the only child of her family, the interview lasted seven minutes. The third interview was conducted with a 17-year-old girl, a 14-year-old girl and an 11-year-old boy, they were all siblings and would represent each part of the sibling hierarchy. Topics about the personality and how it affects relationship within the home and outside of the home were discussed. The topics covered were: personality traits and parent-child relationships.


All of the subjects were teenagers specifically because they would be experiencing the effects of their birth order currently as they are still at home with parents. One hundred percent of the interviewed subjects identified with, and agreed upon the following characteristics and stereotypes:

First Borns:

  • High achievers
  • Perfectionists
  • Obsessive
  • Responsible
  • Controlling

Middle Children:

  • Very Social
  • Generous
  • Diplomatic
  • Mediators
  • Values friendships and relationships
  • Somewhat rebellious

Last Borns:

  • Attention seekers
  • Outgoing
  • Selfish
  • Creative
  • Humourous


This study is supported by Alfred Adler’s theory of personality development. Alder was influenced and inspired by Charles Darwin’s study of genetic evolution and adaptation. Darwin’s phenomena can help explain why children tend to differentiate their personalities and carry out tasks uniquely based on their own individual approach to life in order to reduce competition and conflict. Children influence most of the relations that happen within the family, they decide for themselves the role they will play in the family, parents only help reinforce those choices (Schafer, 2015). Some might deem themselves as the “responsible one”, the “goody-two-shoes”, the “smarty pants”, the athlete, the persevering etc… Alder, who is a world-renowned psychologist would suggest that children be raised or treated individually; meaning as the unique individuals that they are. The primary socialization in a child’s life is determined by the family. The family helps you gain a sense of who you are (Holloway, 107). If a child is not raised individually, with each of their stereotyped personality traits taken into consideration, it could result in a low self-esteem, conflict and possibly distance within the family.

The Theory of Ego development, founded by Jane Loevinger discusses how ego is developed in three stages (Holloway, 105). The second stage of this theory talks about people understanding and accepting their individual differences and through that, distinguishing variations in feelings and emotions that make people unique (Holloway, 105). Most parents might not understand the psychology that is behind a child’s position in the family, which is why many children especially the middle child, might complain of lessened love and misunderstanding. A parent should feel responsible for the well-being of their child, but many of them overlook the importance of understanding the essence of birth order. 2 out of 5 interviewees described their relationship with their parents as normal without any real problems. The other 3 however, agreed upon the fact that their parents do not understand them and in fact treat their siblings and them the same and bringing them up as “one person”; saying things like “Be like sibling A”, “Sibling A gets very high grades, why is it different with you?”. It is a challenge for parents to understand their children and treat them based on their different characters and psyche, which is why most parents don’t even bother. Feelings of neglect and unimportance may arise within certain children when they compare their relationships with their parents to that of their siblings.

Sibling relationships are one of the most significant relationships people experience through life. They help define our early social and cognitive skills. The emotional connection and protection that comes from a sibling bond is a great life satisfaction that helps reduce levels of depression. They can teach us about conflict resolution, managing social tensions, conduct friendships and handle ourselves in group situations ( Gender also has a role to play in birth order positions. In the case of the first-born child, oldest males are more of leaders as they tend to take charge. Oldest daughters, on the other side of the spectrum, are more aggressive and confident, sometimes bossy. “Middleborns are the Type O blood of relationships: They go with anyone,” (Schipani, 2010). Middle children tend to be good at making compromises as they would have bossy older siblings and needy younger siblings. The youngest child of the family is usually treasured and in many cases treated as babies for much longer than their older siblings. The youngest siblings of the family also tend to stray away from taking charge and might be seen as the shy and quiet sheep of the family.

The only children of the family are usually stereotyped to be precious and would be pampered as they have all the attention on them; parents would not have to split attention and in worse cases love between siblings because there is only one child. Many say that only children are more mature for their age because of the amount of time they spend with their parents.

My research showed that the 13-year-old girl interviewed who is the only child of the family, considered herself more socially aware than her peers and is very much accustomed to and satisfied with her own company.

Symbolic interactionism examples that a child’s self-esteem is determined by the parent’s appraisal of the child’s worth, this occurs during the parent-child interaction. It assumes that supportive parental behavior like nurturance, approval, and love all determine a child’s inherent worth (Adkins, 2003). The child will be able to confirm that his parents accept him for who he is and see him as a competent and worthwhile person. The more the parent interact with a child using positive sentiments, the child will positively act upon not just her immediate family but the environment around her. The theory states that if parent-child relationships are spread across equally amongst all children, all the children within the family will have an equal self-esteem.



As proven by Alfred Adler’s theory, birth order does have an effect on one’s personality. As well as individualistically, a child’s position in the family can reflect on his immediate family, meaning sibling and parent relationships as well as how they relate to the outside world. If parents don’t learn to properly care for their children individualistically, conflict and feelings of incompetence could arise within the family.



Adkins, K. L. (2003, May). Predicting Self-Esteem Based on Perceived Parental Favoritism and Birth Order. In Tennessee State University Graduate Studies. Retrieved from<>

Schafer, A. (2015, May 5). Birth Order Theory. In HUFF POST PARENTS CANADA. Retrieved from <>

Schipani, D. (2010, May 28). How Does Birth Order Affect Relationships? In Women’s Day. Retrieved from <>

White, James Martin., and Margaret Holloway. Families in Canada: Social Contexts, Continuities,

And Changes. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.

Whiteman SD, McHale SM, Soli A. Theoretical perspectives on sibling relationships. J Fam Theory Rev. 2011;3:124–139.

What Does Birth Order Say About You (n.d.). In International School Parent. Retrieved from <>

The Price of Peace Essay

The Price of Peace Essay

I saw some children playing in our neighborhood the other day and the simplicity of how they lived their life amazed me. Here were two kids belonging to relatively the same age group; one had a Popsicle stick and the other had a pack of cookies. Now, I am sure both of them were quite curious as to what the other child had since they would look curiously at each other. Finally, after about a minute or so, the child with the pack of cookies approached the other child.

At that point I wish I had the ability to speak the language of children because I have no idea what was said but when the child with the pack of cookies reached for the Popsicle, the other child simply gave him the liberty to taste it. What is even more astonishing is the fact that when the other child offered a cookie without any hesitations! Looking back at this, I would say it was a sublime experience for me.

At that point, the world suddenly made sense to me. I thought to myself, “This is how life should be! ” It’s simply living in utter understanding of your fellow man.

I have no idea how the course of history shaped humanity into the beasts we are today. We put ourselves on a pedestal and think that our society has reached the pinnacle of success when in fact; we continue to spiral towards decadence. We have left a trail of war, violence, prejudice, and discrimination in our history and yet all we can say is that we have evolved into a more civil society! It is a false consciousness that has become the fabric of our world. Moreover, we have resorted to power and domination as tools to bring about what we refer to as “peace. ”

This is quite saddening but nonetheless, it is the reality we are faced with. As we grow and develop into the so called responsible individuals’ society demands, we continually lose the purity and simplicity we possessed as children. As we mature we become more jaded and as a result the lines of what is right or wrong blur before us. We lose touch of the most basic of values; that is to say, loving one another. A basic command left to us by Christ and the key to a utopian society. I came to realize that the world has been reduced to the tangible things; materials and objects have become what define a man.

Consequently, it has also made us ego-centric. Our world has become about what I want and what I need…we have become apathetic to the plight of others and have been raised to be callous. We no longer have a sense of social equity or justice. As I reflect more on this, I become increasingly convinced that this is the root of all the chaos we have. No wonder we seek to engage in war and look to send our own people to foreign lands just to get slaughtered in the name of “democracy” and peace! You see peace may be an abstract thought to us simply because we have forgotten about how tangible it can be.

It isn’t always about what makes us feel good or what benefits us. It’s about looking at a grander scheme wherein other people, regardless of color, race or creed become a part of who we are. This is a consciousness we must internalize and reintroduce into the fabric of society. Plato, Aristotle and Socrates spoke of this in varying degrees. It is about the common good. Not I but we. Looking back at the two children, it wasn’t about bartering or what one could get from the other. It was simply about understanding the needs of the other person.

Applying this rudimentary ideology would be the key to a better society. What would I pay to achieve peace? Not millions in monetary value, not just because I don’t have this…well no one could actually put a price on peace. In the end, the price is simple; I would give-up my civil liberties in order for others live more comfortably. Quite a sacrifice, but it is a higher level of understanding we all have to achieve and one I would gladly pay in order to attain peace. After all, if everyone lived in this manner then establishing a world of peace would be child’s play so to speak!

Social and Mental Effects to Broken Family Status Essay

Social and Mental Effects to Broken Family Status Essay

Children need to have both parents in the home to have a balanced life. Both socially and mentally but, if the parents cannot get along and the children are being raised in a constant battleground, socially and mentally this can be more damaging to them. This can lead to trust issues and other relationship problems. Parents who abuse each other will most likely have children who will become involved in abusive relationships. Children whose parents have divorced and the absent parent are still involved in their everyday life still benefit from both parents.

But most importantly the child needs to understand that their parents’ divorce or break up was not and never will be their fault. Divorce is hurting American children very badly. Each year over a million children suffer the divorce of their parents and by 1999, half of all American children reaching their eighteenth birthday and who were born to married parents will have experienced the divorce of their parents.

The reversal of the legal status of divorce will entail nothing less than a cultural revolution because American culture now embraces divorce in law and in behavior. It’s easy acceptance once rejected as scandalous.

Even if they themselves have divorced the men and women who shape popular opinion, as well as the policymakers in state legislatures who are responsible for domestic law should begin to challenge this practice. The devastating effects of divorce on children just might provide these leaders with the motivation to start such a cultural revolution, or at least to question the direction the nation has taken. The plight of children may give Americans the moral courage to overcome a fear of raising this delicate subject.

If Americans do not overcome this fear, we will lock ourselves into inaction and lock the nation into a downward spiral of weakening effects and diminishing social capital because divorce diminishes children’s future competence in all the major institutions. In family life, divorce permanently weakens the relationship between children and parents. It leads to destructive ways of handling conflict, diminishes social competence, leads to early loss of virginity, and it diminishes young adults’ sense of masculinity or femininity. It leads to more trouble in dating, to more cohabitation, to higher divorce rates later in life, to higher expectations of divorce, and to less desire for children.

* In religious life, divorce diminishes the frequency of worship of God, and recourse to Him in prayer. * In education, divorce diminishes learning capacities and high school and college attainment. * In the marketplace, divorce reduces household income and massively cuts the life-wealth of individuals. * In government and citizenship, divorce massively increases crime rates, abuse and neglect rates, and the use of drugs. * Also, divorce weakens the health of children; even their life spans will be shortened.

* Finally it increases behavioral, emotional and psychiatric risks, including suicide. The effect of divorce on children’s hearts, minds and souls range from severe to mild, from seemingly small to massive, and from short term to long term. None of the effects apply to every child of divorce, nor is it likely that any one child has suffered all the effects. Nonetheless, the one million children who see their parents’ divorce each year are affected by the trauma. There is no way to predict how any particular child will be effected or to what extent, but it is possible to predict its effects on society. They are numerous and very serious. The major issue for researchers is no longer what the ill effects of divorce are, but the depth and length of persistence of these effects on children, and on their future children and grandchildren.

Ashford University Essay

Ashford University Essay

Pornography is very addictive and can destroy someone’s marriage and life. This addiction can, and in many cases, lead to someone committing very serious sexual crimes. People who look at porn often look for more perversity in different areas. The resources from which I found my information on is the Ashford Library and a couple credible internet sites. There are several reasons why people turn to porn. Some reasons are for seeing their own fantasies acted out because they can’t act them out with their own partner / spouse, some people want to avoid intimacy within their own relationship for personal reasons, some just do it for personal pleasure.

But for whatever reason, there is always a consequence that will follow. According to the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML), 56% of divorces occur because one spouse keeps returning to a pornographic website. These men / women feel as though they are being compared to these people in the pornographic films or pictures.

Whether it’s the man or the woman who is watching porn inside the marriage, in most cases, they are doing this against their spouses wishes. This leads to lack of intimacy, low self esteem, shame, and lack of trust. This also makes the spouse feel as if they are no longer found attractive. “Just ask your spouse how confident they feel being naked in front of you after you’ve looked at pornography and you’ll understand this one.” ( ). Many people say that they introduce porn into their marriage to spice their love life up but in the end all this does is slowly destroy the intimacy that was there. After watching pornography people’s views are completely changed. After being exposed to R- rated material men no longer see their spouse as they once did. They look at them now more as an object rather than an individual that they love.

Studies have shown ( ) that pornography can be just the same as an addiction. Some experts who have studied porn addiction have called the effects of porn on the brain toxic and also compared it to the deadly drug cocaine (WebMD, 2014). These addicts no longer just suffer from nights without sleep or unpaid credit card bills but they are also becoming more engaged in group sex and sexual contact with animals. Other effects that have surfaced from pornography include acting out what they have seen in porn material, sexual acts towards children both boys and girls, and rape using foreign materials / objects. (The Forerunner, 1991). Child pornography is a disgusting fact that we hear about every day. “Child pornography is the visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct includes acts such as intercourse, bestiality and masturbation as well as lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area.” (Pulido, 2013). Recently, there were 71 people, 70 men and 1 woman, who were arrested in child pornography charges. Among that 70 included a police officer, a paramedic, a rabbi, an airline pilot, an architect, and a Boy Scout leader.

Many of these people who were arrest had search the phrases “real child rape” and “family sex” into their computers search engines turning up extremely disturbing images (Hays, 2014). With so many people connected to the internet it has made this type of crime so easy. Perverts and pedophiles search the web everyday to find new victims. “The victims are getting younger, and the images more violent.”(Flack). When a picture of a child circles the internet going from one person to another, that child is being re-abused. No child should have to endear that type of suffering, never! A peer – to – peer, also known as P2P, file sharing network, that allows people to share music, videos, and pictures, was under investigation by authorizes and had 3,000 child pornography consumers with tens of thousands of child pornographic images traded. “The investigation began after agents, using software available to law enforcement, were able to trace files of child pornography to an I.P. address on a computer used by Brian Fanelli, 54, who until January was the police chief of Mount Pleasant, N.Y” (Berger, 2014).

Another, earlier, report back in 2009, out of all the arrest made on P2P users, 33 percent of those arrested had images of children three years old and younger and 42 percent had images of children showing some type of sexual explicit material. (Pulido, 2013). Virtue Ethics is “A person’s character is the totality of his character traits. Our character traits can be good, bad or somewhere in between. They can be admirable or not. The admirable character traits, the marks of perfection in character, are called virtues, their opposites are vices.”(Garrett, 2005)., I believe that this theory is a big part of someone who is willing to put everything at risk for something so degrading and disrespectful to themselves. A persons character says a lot about who that person is and what that person may be capable of doing. Not everyone has good virtue ethics and this is when one’s character and moral traits come in play. One’s character is shown through their actions and behavior, whether this is being good or bad. One’s moral values are shown through their honesty, their loyalty, and their respect for others.

As we all know pornography is very popular but it can also cause serious problems. Many people look at the disturbing images not thinking about the consequences, they are only thinking about what is happening at that moment and at that moment that’s what they want to do. I look at this issue using the deontology theory. “Rather than looking at the consequences of an act, deontology looks at the reason for which an act is done, and the rule according to which one chooses to act.” (Mosser, 2013). I take that as someone doing something on impulse rather than thinking about the consequences that they will face when they act upon their decision. If someone knew that they was going to destroy their marriage by watching porn, if someone knew that by watching porn it would make them fall behind on their bills, or if someone knew that by watching porn they would go out and commit sexual crimes, do you think they would have continued or even started looking at these images, I think not!

Berger, J. (2014, May).71 Are Accused in a Child Pornography Case, Officials Say. The New York Times. Retrieved from Dr. Garrett. (2005, Nov.) Virtue Ethcs. Retrieved from Editorial Staff. (1991, Nov.). The Documented Effect of Porn. The Forerunner, X(VI). Retrieved from Flack, (Date, N/A)E. Bill Calls For Harsher Penalties For Possessing Child Porn. Retrieved from Hays, T. (2014, May). Cop, rabbi among 71 charged in child porn case. Telegraph – Herald Retrieved from Mosser, K. (2013). Ethics and social responsibility (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Pulido, Ph.D. (Oct, 2013). Child Pornography: Basic Facts About A Horrific Crime. Huffington Post. Retrieved from

Global Sourcing Challenge Case Questions Essay

Global Sourcing Challenge Case Questions Essay

1. Marianna Barner should decline the invitation for IKEA to have a representative appear on the upcoming forecast of the German video program. The producers of the documentary invited them to take part in a live discussion during the airing, and while this offer does sound beneficial for IKEA to educate the public and the producers of the current efforts taken to fight child labor, it would not be in their best interest. This is attributed to the fact that the producers refuse to let IKEA preview the video beforehand and that they are aware that the producers “planned to take a confrontational and aggressive approach” directly aimed at them.

As a result, there is a very high possibility that the representative would then be blindsided with questions and then IKEA’s message of their efforts would not be portrayed accurately. Instead, IKEA should respond to the allegations by releasing their own statement allowing them to explain their efforts once they have had the opportunity to review all evidence and verify the credibility.

2. In regards to the supply contract that IKEA has with Rangan Exports, it would be best if Barner terminates the contract, should sufficient evidence prove that they do indeed use child labor. They stress the importance of taking responsibility for their suppliers, and in the IWAY (IKEA Code of Conduct), it clearly states that they do not accept Child Labourm, otherwise their contract will be terminated. The well-regarded company (Rangan) had signed an addendum that explicitly forbids the use of child labor, so it is important that IKEA upholds their standards and codes in order to maintain a fair position with their other suppliers. It would also be wise for her to then issue a statement or press release about the severed ties with the company, stating the reasons for the decision and maintaining integrity by upholding their own policies regarding child labor, so that the public and other suppliers see that they won’t tolerate unethical behavior or violations to their contract.

3. It is suggested that IKEA stays in India and continue operations. The long-term strategy that Barner should take regarding continued operations includes maintaining their code of conduct to uphold their image of being responsible for their suppliers and the environment, while also contributing to an improved quality of life for those in India.

The Piagetain’s Model: Four Stages of Development Essay

The Piagetain’s Model: Four Stages of Development Essay

Children begin to develop language as early as infancy. By the time they begin school their language vocabulary has grown tremendously. There are several developmental stages that a child goes through from birth to adulthood. The Piagetian model includes the sensori motor period, preoperational period, concrete operational period and then the formal operational period. Children begin to learn at a very early age. The first stage of cognitive development is sensorimotor period.

This stage begins at birth and lasts until about 2 years old (Otto, 2012).

It involves the use of motor activity without the use of symbols (Wood, 2012). Piaget believes that in this stage children tend to systematically repeat inadvertent behavior (Seigler, Alibali, 2005). This stage is based on physical interaction and experience, therefore knowledge is limited (Wood, 2012). The preoperational stage begins between two years old up until seven years old it consist of language, memory and imagination (Wood, 2012).

Children in this stage usually engage in make believe and understand and express relationships between the pass and future in this stage cause and effect has not been learned and intelligence is ego centric and intuitive and not logical (Wood, 2012).

Piaget believes that in this stage children” focus their attention to narrowly ignoring important information” also they” cannot accurately represent transformation and are able to only represent static situations” (Seigler, Alibali, 2005).

In the concrete stage the ages are between seven and eleven (Wood, 2012). Logic and systematic manipulations of symbols are expressed in this stage (Wood, 2012). In this stage thinking is less egocentric, increase awareness of external events and involves concrete references (Wood, 2012). In other words the children in this stage can take in other points of views, and more than one perspective. The limitations for this stage “they do not yet consider all of the logically possible outcomes and do not understand highly abstract concepts” (Siegler, Alibali, 2005).

The formal operational stage is the period of adolescents (11 or 12) to adulthood. In this stage symbols are used related to abstract concepts variable are thought of in systematic ways, hypothesis are formulated and knowledge about abstract relationships and concepts are present (Wood, 2012).

In this stage it is believe that children are able to solve problems that would be impossible for children in other stages (Siegler, Alibali, 2005). Although Piaget believes very strongly about his model there are others who don’t. In Piaget’s conclusion he suggests that preschoolers do not grasp the concept of numbers (Siegler Alibali, 2005).

While on the other hand Gelman perceive that even though this may be true about preschoolers not being able to grasp the concepts abut number they do know a great deal about numbers (Siegler, Alibali, 2005). Some examples that Gelmen give are” they count accurately, they know the effects that adding and subtracting has on small objects and they know which numbers are bigger and which ones are smaller” (Siegler, Alibali, 2005).

In my conclusion, children development comes in different stages. Every child has their own pace that they grow at. There are four developmental stages that each of these children go through which are senorimotor period, preoperational period, concrete period and formal period. From birth up until adulthood children grow through each one of these stages. Some children may develop slower than others because of difficulties in learning as other progress successfully.


Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Siegler, R.S., and Alibali, M.W. (2005). Children’s thinking 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Wood, K. C. (2012). Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. Retrieved January 14, 2013 from

McDonald Case study Essay

McDonald Case study Essay

Comparing with other competitors in the catering industry, McDonald’s has developed into one the giant and most famous fast food restaurants in the world. At present time, McDonald’s is the world’s largest food service retailers offering services to customers, in the same time they are keeping opening new shops all over the world every day. However, even though their business is keeping increasing, but they also met some negative messages from consumers or other parties, such as their products is not unhealthy, food they provided will cause obesity to the childhood.

From relative estimation, it shows that obesity condition and the qty of those overweight children have been increasing rapidly throughout the world. More seriously, childhood obesity rate in the country of Australia is the highest in the world. From this consideration, it is much necessary to analysis relationship between the fast food and the obesity. Here, I will take the example of McDonald’s to research in detail 2.

0 Analysis of case (McDonald fast food)

There are lots of people will be consumed in McDonald’s., roughly, there are more than 30 million customers will be served in McDonald’s restaurants around the world. Accordingly, McDonald also achieved great success, especially comparing with other not so famous similar competitors. But due to fast food’s unique style of business, such as: their unique food ingredients, material used and cooking method, people think fast food will be the main cause for the obesity, typically for children, because they like the taste of such fast food a lot and consumed a lot too.

In Australia, according to the study, there are about 25% of children in Australia are obese or overweight nowadays, while that was just 5% in the 1960s. The study from Australia’s Child Youth Help shows that the overweight preschoolers aged four years rose from 3.2% for boys and 3.5% for girls, to 4.1% for boys and 5.8% for girls in 2002. Also according to many scholars and nutritionist’s reflection, it is not hard to know that the fast food provided will be the main reason for causing childhood obesity.

Since obesity has lots of negative effect to the health of the people, and especially for childhood, comparing with normal adults, childhood will be the focus for parents or relative health institute to pay attention on. As relative research shows that fast food will generate relative higher fats etc, so becomes one of the main causes of getting child fat. For McDonald, due to their significant achievement, together with their multi-advertisement, makes people, child is more familiar with them, on the contrary, this type of condition also makes McDonald become the target of complaints of childhood obesity. 2.1 Questions 1: McDonald relationship with childhood obesity Due to the cause of the obesity, McDonald’s relationship with child and parents becomes much tight.

There are lots of people complain this giant food seller, because they have provided to many fast food to children, which cause them failed to be healthfully growing. In which, their variety type advertisement also become the target for people to blame. Because advertisement will bring good feeling and positive to the consumer, especially when child get to know the advertisement, they will be much easily to be attracted by the contents, therefore, they will be much easily tend to take such advertising food. In the meantime, since they are short of the knowledge to judge and get to know more detail of the products, is it good, or will it bring bad effect to health once eats. So in the way, McDonald’s advertisement becomes the target of people’s blaming.

As far as I am concerned, it is not doubt that McDonald will hold the direct responsibility, because they are the food providers, and they are the persuader to make children like their food by advertisement. But in the meantime, children’s parents shall also have the responsibility. Normally when the child go in to the McDonald’s shop, they will accompanied by their parents or elder person, at this point, when the children do not have the knowledge and the ability to tell the negative of the fast food, their older accompanier shall point out in time, also shall provide necessary guide in selecting the food. 2.2 Questions 2. The impact of McDonald’s marketing

Advertisement will bring lots of effect to consumers, and for McDonald’s marketing because most of their advertisement contents will be designed by professional, who will be able to make the contents of the advertisement will be much attracting to their consumer, and when they target children, normally, the effect of the advertisement will work. Also they will design relative program to present their products to consumers.

2.2.1 Impact of McDonald’s marketing on individual consumers It is well-known the principle of the treatment to the people in McDonald’s that people are the key to the success of McDonald’s. To individual consumers, McDonald’s celebrate the children’s birthday with them.

The parties are fun, Hassie-free and make for great memories to give an impressive and unforgettable experience for each of the individual customers in it. Customers can choose from two great-value packages, each offering games, entertainment and meals, and with more than 200 committed birthday party restaurants Australia-wide, there are plenty of nearby locations to choose from. Additionally, there is online booking for the convenience of the customers, which is even easier to give the little customers a party they’ll love.

2.2.2 Impact of McDonald’s marketing on other business and society Apart from the great favorable impact of McDonald’s to the individual consumers,
McDonald’s itself also shed indispensable impact on other business and society as a whole. There are 267 franchisees and 9,000 suppliers serving as business partners in McDonald’s Australia alone (McDonald’s Australia Corporate Responsibility & Sustainability Report 2010). Therefore, the great sales in McDonald’s will no doubt generate vast increase to the sales of those business partners to a large extent.

2.3 Question 3: Social marketing’s influence to children
Social marketing will contribute and affect a lot to the consumer through variety type of approaches, and it can be clearly known from the example of McDonald. The great success of McDonald’s is basically because of its establishment and implication of its responsibility to do what’s right. To better carry out this responsibility, McDonald’s takes several measures as the societal marketing listing below: (1) Productive strategy of high quality products.

The quality of the products is the life thread of an enterprise. From this consideration, McDonald’s places this to the first of the other four criteria. (2) Price strategy of reasonable price. To be successful in the furious competition of fast food industry, McDonald’s implicates the marketing strategy of low price and national uniform price. (3) Service strategy of clean and speedy service. The cleaning of the food in McDonald’s has closed connection with the health of the customers, especially that of the children’s. While clean and speedy service provides convenience for the necessity of busy customers.

Promotional strategy oriented with ads. The promotional strategy in McDonald’s is rather simple but quite effective, mainly with the strategy of ads publicity to create sensational effects. (5) Cultural strategy of accustoming to the local culture. McDonald’s maintains its own style of diet and also adapts to the local culture to invent food of the traditional distinguishing features (Nestle & Jacobson, 2000).

Through the measures above, McDonald try to widely present their products as top as possible to the consumers, also their products will be accompanied with good service which will greatly influence the consumption intendance and habit of their customer, in which children are also the most part, therefore children will naturally like to eating in McDonald. 2.4 Question 4. Opinion of advertising for kids and other solutions for childhood obesity in Australia 2.4.1 Problems of
advertising for kids

The advertisements of McDonald’s are always aimed at interesting more customers, especially to the little children. McDonald’s enticing their children customers to want its food by applying free toy giveaways. The ads of McDonald’s are both in TV or other publications produce various attractive pictures and images to entice the children to it from their visual to their gustatory sense. 2.4.2 Other solutions to solve childhood obesity

To solve childhood obesity, several strategies are decided as followed:

– More focus must be placed on the group prevention rather than the individual treatment and instruction. In order to change the diet and behavior in the family, it is critical whether to depend on the family and the society. The effect of the individual instruction such as the fat farm and summer camps will be very limit without the long term support from the society and school (Allison & Webe, 2003).

– School must be the major part of the prevention of childhood obesity.

– The government must make no efforts to control childhood obesity.

– How to cooperate with the food industry is one of the parts of the strategies (Berg,Buechner& Parham,2003).
2.5 Trend of the fast food industry in Australia
The fast food industry in Australia has achieved its great success in recent years. The social and industrial status of fast food industry has been gradually established and become more important. The scales of both the industry and the enterprises are increasingly broadening, and the quality and standard are improving evidently. In a word, the development of fast food industry is limitless in the long run.

All around Australia, fast food is not simply a commodity; it is also a representation of “the West” or “American”. If it wants to help explain its attraction, McDonald’s should innovate its quality as well as the foods themselves to match the advance demand of the society. Australian business environment was so complicated that foreigners could not hope to survive on their own, in such circumstance, only those enterprise matching with the consumer requirement will be survive. On the whole, Australian consumers treat “fast food” restaurants as leisure centers and tend to stay longer than do most Americans.

In the meantime, other type food, like rice is more than a simple grain; it is imbued with symbolic meanings and is perceived as sacred by many Australians. The style of food does not fit easily into the existing Australian food system, so McDonald’s, if can operated in a more healthy way for their food by improving step by step in innovation, it can be easier to be accepted. 3.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, McDonald’s is believed the giant of the fast food industry. It has achieved great success in its sales and the fame all over the world. However, together with its great success, McDonald’s also creates serious problems to the society, in specific the childhood obesity. It is estimated that the prevalence of obesity and overweight children has been increasing rapidly throughout the world. And the rates of the childhood obesity in the country of Australia are the highest in the world.

Its beginning relates to the starts of a new political era, on in which local interests challenge the authoritarian rule of the Nationalist Parethy, in this way, the Golden Arches arrive just as Australia reaches takeoff as a major player in the global electronics and computer markets. To many consumers in Australia, McDonald’s meant something the leisure and easy, and people prefer it. So in order to advance their business, but in the same time, not to bring the negative side to the consumer, especially children, it is part of McDonald’s responsibility to take care of their products, trying best to find good method or innovation to catch the problem of causing serious state of childhood obesity, that is certain measures are in great need to be taken to solve or affiliate the situation.

It is also believed that with better responsibility taken, and with correct marketing, trying to stick the principle of “right goods is the base of good marketing”, then the fast food industry will be successful forever.

Allison,D.B. & Weber,M.T(2003). Treatment and prevention of obesity: what works, what doesn’t work, and what might work. Lipids

Berg,F., Buechner J. & Parham E. (2003). Guidelines for childhood obesity prevention programs: promoting healthy weight in children. Nutr Educ Ebhav

McDonald’s Australia Corporate Responsibility & Sustainability Report 2010

Nestle,M.& Jacobson,M.F(2000). Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach. Public Health Rep

Social and emotional develop Essay

Social and emotional develop Essay

To support social and emotional develop and to provide positive guidance As an early Childhood Teacher I promote social-emotional development in my classroom by embedding my teaching practices throughout the day. Remaining sensitive to children’s needs helps them feel secure and confident, and acts as a model for effective social behavior. For example, I usually ask questions to help children find a solution to a social conflict that helps them develop problem-solving skills. I also tend to every day read a story and engage children in a conversation about a socially challenging situation witch serve as a lesson in handling social problems as well as in literacy.

Self – I greet each child and their parents daily. I provide plenty of praise and encouragement to the children about their activities and accomplishments. This action lets the children know that they are loved, appreciated and special. I help children feel good about them selves and build high self-esteem. I use games, books, songs, finger plays, etc.

to help the children learn to accept themselves and others. I provide materials and activities that are age-appropriate so that each child can experience success. I also spend time with the children individually and I make sure they get plenty of hugs and affection throughout the day.

Social – I teach the children how to socialize with each other daily. I provide activities and space for the children to play together. We discuss sharing, taking turns and working together in small/ large groups. I interact with the children one-on-one daily and encourage them to interact with each other. I also use games, books, video tapes, songs, pictures, etc. to teach the children about positive social skills.

Guidance – I try to anticipate negative behavior and redirect it positively into other activities. I provide plenty of materials and space to help eliminate conflicts. I talk to the children whenever they exhibit inappropriate behavior and let them know that we should be kind to our friends. Only positive guidance techniques are used with the children in my care.

CS III a – I help children learn to do simple tasks for themselves. Each child has a personal space to keep its belongings. We play games that highlight each child’s name and do self-portraits. I also play “mirror” games and provide cultural books and materials to help the children learn to appreciate themselves and others.

CS III b – I believe that children’s behavior needs to be understood and guided in a positive manner. I do this by example. I tell the children what I expect of them and use positive words to guide their behavior. As a child, discipline methods were just the opposite of what I practice in my classroom. There was no such thing as guidance techniques. Today, I am knowledgeable of child development, and I practice appropriate guidance techniques daily. My children are valued and accepted for who they are. I also use redirection, active listening, proximity control, simple rules with positive consequences and valuing/praising appropriate behaviors to work with all children, including the difficult/challenging child.


Social-Emotional Teaching Strategies. (2010). Retrieved from

Developmental Stages Matrix Essay

Developmental Stages Matrix Essay

Physical growth is at the fastest rate during infancy. Young infants learn to roll over, sit up, crawl, and walk within 12 to 15 months of birth. Uses the Sensorimotor stage of development. The infant uses sensory and motor contact to explore and understand the world around them. During infancy is when a child develops the bond with his or her guardian. An infant will learn who the guardian is and feel emotional attachment when their guardians are present or absent.

Early Childhood

Children continue to develop motor skills during early childhood.

Things like stacking blocks, walking without help, and Push or pull things begin to develop during the early childhood stage. Uses the Preoperational stage of development. The child is able to use words and images to convey the world around them. They are still not able to assign logic to events that occur around them. This is the stage when most children become socially interactive with other people. This is when the child will begin to explore the world around them and either feel a sense of excitement or fear.

Middle Childhood

This is the stage of increased growth. The child sees the most physical growth during this stage. Uses the Concrete Operational Stage of development. The child is able to think logically and assign logic to situations or events. During this stage the child begins to develop a minimal sense of independence. The child can go off on his or her own to school or out to play without feeling a sense of anxiety from separation of the parents. This stage is when the child begins to form bonds outside of the immediate household.