Categories for Causality

The BAd Effects Of Alcohol Essay

The BAd Effects Of Alcohol Essay

Alcohol is harmless when not drinking in mass quantities, even it helps body in some cases, for example wine protects people from heart attacks. However, if you get used to drink alcohol, you can easily abuse. Alcoholism happens when someone engages in frequent alcohol abuse. As time goes on, alcohol starts to alter chemical makeup of brain, resulting in user to depend on alcohol so as to feel good. In the end, their body starts to crave alcohol in order to function properly and alcoholism comes to person with many damages.

An addiction to alcohol can have destructive and irreversible effects on a person’s health which we can classify as physical, psychological and economic. The initial effects of alcoholism are the physical ones. These are the most important, because these can bring about your death. For instance, alcohol abuse affects the nervous system and then lead to permanent brain illnesses which are dementia and Alzheimer. Furthermore, an abuse of alcohol over a number of years has been linked to developing cancers such as liver, colon, throat and breast cancer.

Besides, alcohol is a toxin which affects all body cells and tissues. According to the Jerry Kennard from Men’s Health, uncontrollable drinking gives rise to crucial health difficulties (1996). Also Jerry Kennard stated that “Each year more than 100. 000 Americans die of alcohol-related causes. ” (1996). All these physical effects make your life expectancy decrease and cause your premature death. The second results caused by alcoholism are psychological. At first alcohol makes you feel relaxed, but if you keep drinking more and more times, it increases anxiety and causes Oner, Page 2 depression.

It also changes your behaviors and you may have some complications with your family and social circle. For example, a drunk man may use violence to even his wife or daughter due to have a blackout which is caused from alcohol. In short, just for pleasure which lasts for a short time, you may lose your family and your good friends forever. The last consequences of alcoholism are economic. Alcohol is not cheap and when people are drunk, they do not care about money which is paid for alcohol or another things.

As a result, they do not have enough money for their major necessities. According to Shane Hall, eHow contributor, overindulgence drinking and alcoholism cost community billions each year and this includes the cure payments, prices to get rid of illegal situations and becoming unable to work which results from alcohol-related ailments and in the end untimely death. Thus, alcoholism not only causes your death, but also may result in lost all your wealth which you can leave an inheritance to new generations.

In conclusion, the effects of alcoholism which are physical, psychological and economic can bring about many problems that influence your life in all aspects. Alcohol alters your brain, muscles, cardiovasculer system, sexual conditions, digestion process and other disorders that affect your health. In addition it can cause your suicide owing to the depression and other brain damages. Besides, it will leave you in pennilessness, because it costs a lot. Finally, there is no reason to drink alcohol in excess, we can drink just a glass of wine and enjoy it!

Free Will vs Determinism Essay

Free Will vs Determinism Essay

The debate, free will versus determinism, has been long debated for centuries. Free will is a concept that holds individuals responsible for the action and decisions of their lives. Adversely, other individuals believe one’s life is predetermined. For the purpose of this essay I will prepare dialogue between myself and philosopher Socrates. I will also define free will and determinism. The Dialogue XXXXXX: Determinism is interpreted as the philosophical theory or doctrine in which an individual believes that action from humans are unavoidable; occurrences in nature are more than likely caused by preceding events or natural laws.

XXXXXX: Free Will is the ability of humans to express freedom; freedom to make choices freely without the influence of others or nature; better said, as the ability to act freely within limits. XXXXXX: No. I do not agree that every event has an explanatory cause. I would like to think it’s fair to say not every event or situation warrants an explanation.

Let’s say, for example, God developed in mind or physically, Adam & Eve, also accommodated them a garden with every fruit, with the exception of forbidden fruits. In consequence, they disobeyed.

A fair argument would be that there is no way to argue an explanatory cause in connection with Adam’s & Eve’s selection; free will came into existence. XXXX: I’d say… birth, wedding and funerals would be examples of events… XXXX: Explanatory cause would suggest behind every event that occurs has an explanation; to persuade an explanation for why events happen. XXXXX: As referenced previously, I don’t agree with explanatory causes for events that happen in human life. Only selected events have an explanatory cause such as death, for example.

Death was already predetermined at which time man was created. XXXXX: Choices of humans is the ability to make sound decisions without influence, freedom of choice. In this day and age humans are held to the highest degree of responsibility for their own actions. Judicial systems have been put into place for this very reason. Events occur from human action or choices. Absolutely, Choice and events are completely different. XXXX: Absolutely not Socrates, It is not a known fact that every action has an explanatory cause is completed dependently.

Some actions may be simply due to determinism however, at the same instance may be in connection with one’s free will. Murder would be great example. This would be a solely act carried out by an individual; free will. XXXXx: Exempt from external authority, an individual’s will, unrestricted. Free. XXXX: Absolutely, why not; despite individuals having the freedom of choice, within limits due to higher existing authority. It’s reasonable to come to the conclusion that free will is not completely free, external influences do exist.

The two can coexist. XXXX: Possibly determinism but not internal free will. Free will cannot be classified as internal or external factors. In Conclusion, determinism vs. free will is a debate that has been debated over centuries. This debate will continue to obtain conflicting attention for many years to come from a variety of people. In this paper I have discussed briefly the definition of free will and determinism. I have also presented dialogue between the deceased Socrates and myself in attempt to shed more on this highly debatable topic.

Essay on Free Will and Determinism Essay

Essay on Free Will and Determinism Essay

Explain what freedom and physical determinism are and why they seem to conflict. How would you resolve this conflict? Give reasons for your answer. Physical determinism is believing in the fact that every event has a cause. (Theodore Sider, pg 113) And that a chain reaction of such would cause an inevitable event to occur. E. g. The invasion of Poland by Hitler in 1939. (Theodore Sider, pg 115) Freedom is the belief that you are able to act on your own free will irrespective of what event has occured, that a decision you make is entirely of your own volition.

It is the belief that our life is not predetermined and we are able to influence our future. FROM A SCIENTIFIC POINT OF VIEW, THE DECISIONS WE MAKE AND HOW WE BEHAVE ARE STUDYABLE, EXPLAINABLE AND IF GIVEN ENOUGH TIME, PREDICTABLE AND CONTROLLABLE. (THEODORE SIDER, PG 114) THIS WOULD INDICATE WHEN THE ‘WHY’ WE DO WHAT WE DO IS DISCOVERED, WE CAN FULLY DETERMINE WHAT A PERSON WOULD DO IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT, THUS LEADING TO THE DETERIORATION OF FREEDOM FOR THAT PERSON.

There are 3 ways to resolve this conflict, of which the first is to reject the belief of freedom in what is called hard determinism. (Theodore Sider, pg 117) A complete rejection of freedom would demean any meaning of living so I will not consider it. THE OPPOSITE OF THIS IS THE LIBERTARIAN, WHICH BELIEVES THAT PEOPLE ARE EXCLUDED FROM DETERMINISM AS THE SCIENCE IS UNABLE TO COMPLETELY STUDY , OR RATHER, MAKE SENSE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND PREDICT WHAT A HUMAN CAN DO.

(THEODORE SIDER, PG 119) I FEEL THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE DIFFICULTY IN OBTAINING THE ABSURD AMOUNT OF INFORMATION AND FACTORS THAT WILL ALLOW FOR THE PREDICTION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR. The problem with the libertarian’s explaination is the lack of definition for the word freedom, as rejecting determinism would mean actions of a person would be uncaused, and therefore random. (Theodore Sider, pg 119) Thus an idea called agent causation is found, such that you only act freely when your action is not caused in the mechanistic way but is caused by you of your own free will.

This does not work as the the realm of physics has to be rejected in order for the libertarian to fully resolve this conflict. THE LAST AND MOST VIABLE METHOD TO RESOLVE THIS CONFLICT IS CALLED SOFT DETERMINISM (THEODORE SIDER, PG 125) SOFT DETERMINISM STATES THAT A FREE ACTION IS ONE THAT IS CAUSED BY THE PERSON’S BELIEF AND DESIRES, PROVIDED THAT THOSE BELIEFS AND DESIRES FLOW FROM ‘WHO THE PERSON IS’. (THEODORE SIDER, PG 130) IT IS A THEORY THAT ACTIONS ARE CAUSED BY ONES BELIEFS AND DESIRES. THE FIRST-ORDER DESIRE ARE DESIRES TO DO THINGS.

WHERE A SECOND-DESIRE IS A DESIRE TO HAVE A FIRST-ORDER DESIRE. WHEN THE FIRST-ORDER DESIRE IS CAUSED BY THE SECOND-ORDER DESIRE, THEN IT IS SAID TO BE FLOWING FROM ‘WHO THE PERSON IS’. (THEODORE SIDER, PG 131) A person goes to school for education because he believes that it is the best alternative he has as opposed to starting to work without an education. This is a case where a first-order desire comes from a second-order desire, which then implies the action of going to school comes from the self.

A PERSON AFFLICTED WITH A COMPULSION TO HOARD, ALTHOUGH HE MIGHT DESIRE TO NOT DO SO, HIS ACTIONS OF HOARDING IS SAID TO BE DONE WITHOUT FREE WILL. FROM THIS STEMS FIRST AND SECOND ORDER OF DESIRE, WHERE HIS SECOND ORDER OF DESIRE IS NOT TO HOARD, AND HIS FIRST ORDER OF DESIRE IS TO HOARD, THIS CONTRADICTS AND HIS ACTIONS ARE SAID TO BE NOT OF FLOWING FROM THE SELF. REFERENCES Sider, T. (2005). Free will and determinism. In E. Conee, & T, Sider (Eds. ), Riddles of existence: A guided tour of metaphysics (pp. 112-133). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Traffic Accidents Essay

Traffic Accidents Essay

Traffic accidents are on the rise these days. Most of the accidents caused injuries or either worse death. Research have found that most of the accidents are caused by inexperienced drivers, for example young drivers.

Young drivers tend to be more daring and are unable to avoid a crush when they face one. They tend to be more daring after drinking alcohol at night and this causes them to lose control of the car. Drunk driving will not only risk a person’s own life but may also cause an innivent life to be lost.

The government should encourage the driving school to conduct driving lessons foryung drivers for a longer period. This will give them a clear picture about how accidents happen and teach them about the safety of others on the road. Drivers that have been in an accident after drunk driving should be ban from driving for at least two years and be given driving lessons again.

However, for the aged drivers, the government should not only lowered the age limit but also check the capability of the aged drivers for instance eyesight, hearing and other related health conditions to ensure safe driving.

It does not mean that an aged person are not fit to drive and has a problem with the heart but a young or a middle aged person could also have heart failure these days.

To conclude, I feel that to raise the agelimit of young drivers arenot the best solution but to give them more driving lessons about the problems they may encounter on the road and to ban them from driving if they have caused an accident due to carelessness. As for the age drivers, as long as they are capable on the road before a certain age and there are no health issues there shouldn’t be a problem.

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The Power of Fate vs. Free Will Essay

The Power of Fate vs. Free Will Essay

1001 Nights has many stories, with the same theme fate vs. free will. In these stories several characters have to deal with the choices they make and their outcome. What is fate verse free will? Fate could be more destined to happen, as free will could be the ability to do what you want, and pursue your interests. In the story, a€? The Enchanted Horse,a€? it was either fate or free will of man that decided the outcome of the story.

In ancient times fate was considered to be part of life. Almost every aspect of life was based upon fate. An example of fate in a€?

The Enchanted Horse,a€? would be when the king did not allow the Indiana€™s reward to marry the princess, so the Indian tricked the Prince into riding the horse. The Indian was locked away in prison by the King for allowing the prince to leave on the magic horse, Well, your head shall answer for it,” returned the monarch, “and if in three months he is not safe back with me, or at any rate does not send me news of his safety, your life shall pay the penalty.

” So saying, he ordered his guards to seize the Indian and throw him into prison. (Lane Pg 1).

This quote from the story shows how this story could be choosing fate for not only the prince but also the Indian. This quote once said by someone can relate to this topic and story in several ways: It is my fate to control my destiny, and it is my destiny to control my fate, People have free will and can decide how their life turns out. Regarding kings, magic, and genies, mankind has the ability to control their lives. In the story the prince had the choice to fly around or go back home after discovering the switch on the horses neck but chose to find a princess instead.

He then remembered that he had never waited to ask how he was to get back to again, and understood the danger in which he stood. Luckily, he did not lose his head, and set about examining the horse’s neck with great care, till at last, to his intense joy, he discovered a tiny little peg, much smaller than the other, close to the right ear. This he turned, and found him-self dropping to the earth, though more slowly than he had left it. (Lane pg 2) Towards the end of the story he won over the princess by beating the kings large army.

By the prince choosing free will he chose a cause and effect to take place. He chose to find a princess instead of willing able to return home. After reading the story it was hard to distinguish which is best, fate or free will. It is the enchanting story that keeps you wondering which will it be. Fate and free will both decide the turn out of the prince in this story. With the help of the magic, trickery, and kings in the story, that helped show the themes of fate and free will.

Elephantiasis Disorder Essay

Elephantiasis Disorder Essay

Elephantiasis is usually caused by obstructions in the lymphatic system. It causes a swelling in the skin and tissues, generally in the lower trunk and the legs. It is most likely seen in the legs and genitals, causing baggy, thick and ulcerated skin, accompanied by fever and chills. Limbs can swell so much that they will resemble an elephants front leg in size, texture and even color. Elephantiasis has two main forms. Lymphatic filariasis is the most common form, caused by a parasitic disease just from a bite from a little infected mosquito.

This form of Elephantiasis is caused by a parasite, most commonly called roundworms.

The parasite blocks the lymphatic vessels, inhibiting their ability to drain the affected area. This disease can be very painful and will most likely impact the individual’s ability to lead a normal life. A severe case can block blood vessels, which will limit the blood flow to the skin causing inflammation and possible gangrenous.

Elephantiasis is recognized as the second leading cause of disability worldwide because of its physical and psychological impact to the affected individual. An economic burden is also a huge issue, although treatments are available, those who are affected are usually from the poor community so they cannot afford the drugs to help cure them.

The physical impact is very obvious to the infected because of the edema. It makes it very difficult for them to move around to do their daily activities. Most will have thickening skin and a very strong body odor. Because of these symptoms they usually are unemployed making life a struggle for money. Elephantiasis is known to be a disease of poverty because it is endemic to poor tropical countries. It is a public health and socio-economic problem worldwide. It affects 120 million people in over 80 countries. The disease is prevalent in urban and rural areas affecting people of all ages and sexes.