Categories for Brain

Auditory System Essay

Auditory System Essay

The world contains all kinds of energy that translates into information about what we see, hear, smell, touch and taste. A sensory system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing specific sensory information. The components of a sensory system include sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. To begin, energy from the environment stimulates the receptor cells in whichever sense organ is being used. If this information were auditory, the ear would convert sound waves in the air into electrical impulses that would further be interpreted by the brain as sound.

A sound wave first enters the pinna, the fleshy part of the ear on the outside of the body. It then travels through the external auditory canal where it then meets the eardrum, a thin membrane in the outer ear. The eardrum then vibrates in response to the sound wave. What we hear will depend on the wavelength and frequency of the wave.

The eardrum is connected to a group of three small bones call “the ossicles” in the middle ear. This group includes the malleus, incus and the stapes. These three bones, the smallest in the human body, protect the eardrum from more intense sounds and also deliver the vibrations to the base of the stapes.

The stapes then sends the vibrations into the inner ear and interacts with the round window. The round window, a small membrane that allows liquid inside the inner ear to be displaced and receive the vibration. The vibration travels through the spiral structure of the inner ear called the cochlea and ends at the round window. Inside the cochlea there are three canals: the scala vestibuli, the scala media and the scala tympani. The scala vestibule leads up to the apex of the cochlea, the scala tympani leads down to the round window and the scala media sits in between the other two canals.

All of these canals are filled with fluid and are separated by two different membranes; Reissner’s membrane and the Basilar membrane. Both of these membranes are flexible and respond to the vibrations traveling through the scala vestibuli. The movements of the membranes then send the vibrations down the scala tympani. A structure called the Organ of Corti, which is situated on the basilar membrane, becomes stimulated as the membrane vibrates and sends nerve impulses to the brain. Within the Organ of Corti are a group of specialized cells called hair cells, which are covered by the tectorial membrane.

As the basilar membrane vibrates, the hair cells are bents and push up against the tectorial membrane. This causes the hair cells to fire and send nerve impulses to the auditory cortex on each of the brains hemispheres through the cochlear nerve. How we determine pitch can be explained with two different theories. The Place Theory states that the entire basilar membrane does not vibrate at once so different parts of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies of sound. Lower frequency sounds vibrate the basilar membrane near the apex of the cochlea while higher frequency sounds produce vibrations closer to the base.

The Frequency Theory states that the frequency of firing matches the frequency of the sound wave. Hearing loss can occur for a number of reasons. Damage to the eardrum due to age and prolonged exposure to loud noise may cause the hairs or nerve cells in the cochlea to wear out and become less effective. A buildup of earwax can block the ear canal and prevent of sound waves from entering the eardrum. Otosclerosis, a genetic form of hearing loss in which the stapes is fixed in place so sound cannot enter the inner ear.

Methods Used to Study the Brain Essay

Methods Used to Study the Brain Essay

A variety of procedures are used by psychologists to study the functions of different areas of the brain.

Some of them are very old methods and outdated; some of them are most recent in origin and frequently used by modern investigators. The methods help us to study the localization of the functional areas of the brain.

One of these methods is the stimulation method. A specific part of the brain may be stimulated either by electric current or by chemicals. Through electrical stimulation, we can only stimulate the desired part of the brain. But by chemical methods, we can stimulate or defunct a particular part of the brain for a fixed period of time and observe their effects on behavior.

Another method is the Electrical Recording or Action Potential Method.The rhythmical electrical discharges of the brain are recorded by an instrument called electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG can detect minute electrical activities of the brain cells during sleep, arousal and activity.

The brain parts having greatest electrical activity can be linked with behaviors and sensations of the body. This will tell how the body surfaces are represented in the brain.

The Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) is a newer method in which thousands of separate X-rays are taken at slightly different angles, and the computer constructs an image of the structures of the brain by combining these X-rays. It is very useful for showing abnormalities in the structure of the brain such as swelling and enlargement of certain parts. But it does not provide information about brain activity.

Another method is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). It produces a strong magnetic field in which the person’s head is positioned. The radio waves directed at the brain cause the hydrogen atoms to emit signals, which are analyzed by a computer. The details of the MRI are superior to CAT scan, because it can distinguish between closely related brain structures.

Due to its importance, you might think the brain would be a little more forthcoming about its design and function. Fortunately, the human brain also
provides us with the remarkable ability and ingenuity to study the human brain, a skill in which brains of other life forms decidedly come up short. The study of the brain has yielded remarkable findings, and advances in brain research have created a better understanding of the way we function and life itself.

CNS Breathe Right Essay

CNS Breathe Right Essay

Company Profile

CNS was originally formed by Dr. Daniel Cohen and Dr. Frederick Strobl as a medical equipment company in 1982. Strobl and Cohen were neurology residents at the University of Minnesota hospitals. Strobl was also an electrical engineer. The original intent of the company was to revolutionize brain activity monitoring by inventing and marketing a personal computer equipped with a circuit board that could analyze brain waves in real time during operations. After five years of increased technological advances but a steady decline in sales, the company hired Fred Brooks as president.

In 1990, the company finally recorded profits in 1990 for the first time by marketing their brain monitoring equipment to sleep clinics.

In 1991, Cohen met with Bruce Johnson, who wanted to scientifically advance some ideas he had for a nasal dilating system. After many attempts to dilate his own nasal passages internally, he came up with the idea to dilate them externally. Johnson then spent the next three years working on a spring loaded strip that would lift his nostrils and keep them dilated.

CNS then acquired the rights to market and sell this product in 1992, and Cohen reassumed the position of president.

In 1993, CNS hired Richard E. Jahnke as their new president. Because of a lengthy FDA approval process, it took a while before the Breathe Right strips could be sold to distributors. Because of this and because of continued losses in the sleep disorder market, CNS reported more losses in 1993. In 1994, however, things started to change. CNS was allowed shelf space in Eckerds, Walgreens, and Snyders. This, along with two endorsements from Herschel Walker and Jerry Rice, two prominent NFL athletes who swore by the use of the strip at the time, the sales of Breathe Right doubled in the fourth quarter of 1994. The company enjoyed continued success through marketing the strips as a use for athletic enhancement, a cure for snoring, a sleep aid, and a drug free way of degongestion.

Financial and Non-Financial Goals

The original non-financial goal of CNS was to produce efficient and useful technology to monitor brain activity that neurologists could use to effectively receive and translate data from electrical signals in the patient’s brain in real time during an operation. After this attempt at innovation failed to be profitable, the company acquired the marketing rights to the nasal strips invented by Bruce Johnson, and the company’s primary goal was the marketing and sales of the “Breathe Right” nasal strip.


GI tract symptoms Essay

GI tract symptoms Essay

Nick has complained of “burning and prickly pain” in his feet, dizziness when he is standing or sitting, weak refluxes, being clumsy, vision changes, hearing changes, and trouble focusing. His symptoms are considered both sensory and motor.Nick’s symptoms are most likely due to peripheral nerve damage not central nervous damage. The component of the reflex arc that is most likely to be damaged is the integrating center. One or more regions of the CNS relay impulses from the sensory to the motor neurons, meaning that the impulses don’t ever reach the effectors and the motor neurons.

The parasympathetic division of the ANS would be causing Nick’s GI tract symptoms because it is in controls of the inner workings of the body. The ANS control blood pressure by sensing a rise or fall in the about of blood pumping in the veins. Depending on that amount it either causes them to constrict o dilate at needed. During physical stress the part of the brain that interacts with the ANS to initiate the rapid heart rate and respiratory rate, elevated BP and extreme sweating is the prefrontal cortex.

The Adrenergic receptors regulate the closing of sphincters and relaxation of the organ walls. Polyneuropathy is an appropriate term to use to describe Nick’s symptoms because his symptoms are caused by damage to more than one nerve. The symptoms that indicate polyneuropathy are the decreased ability to feel pressure or pain, burning and tingling in his feet, decreased refluxes, being clumsy and the dizziness. Nick’s symptoms indicate a peripheral polyneuropathy rather than a CNS lesion of the brain or spinal cord because they are symptoms related to sensation loss or weakness of certain areas. Symptoms related to the somatic reflexes are the weakness of reflexes, loss of pressure sensation and burning/tingling in his feet. Symptoms related to the autonomic reflexes are dizziness when sitting to standing and his GI tract symptoms.

Is Google Making Us Stupid Essay

Is Google Making Us Stupid Essay

Since the development of Google, there has been a vast amount of information available on various topics or subjects. “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” explains and examines the different ways that the internet has been more useful and beneficial, according to the words of the author, Nicholas Carr. According to the readings, the author represents and expresses his thoughts and ideas using logos. Take for instance when Carr expresses that he once was a scuba diver in a sea of words, but now he zips along like a guy on a jet ski (Carr p.

534). Carr expresses that he once was a person who hardly used the internet but now he is one who uses it on a regular basis, making feels that someone has been tinkering with his brain, making it change. No longer does he enjoy reading a book of any length because he cannot sustain concentration on the book. Carr feels that all the time he now spends online is affecting his abilities to concentrate and recognizes that the Internet has been a useful tool for him to search for information and communicate.

Carr notes that, unlike footnotes, links send you to the information rather than just refer to it.

Reading is not an instinctive skill the way learning a language is, requiring us to teach our minds to translate symbolic characters into the language we understand. Media and technologies used to learn and practice reading shape the neural circuits of our brains suggest that readers of ideograms used in languages such as Chinese develop a different mental circuitry than readers whose language uses an alphabet. These variations extend across many regions of the brain, including functions that govern memory and the interpretation of visual and auditory stimuli. It is reasonable to assume that circuits woven by the use of the Net will be different from those woven by reading books and other printed matter (Wolf p. 536).

Using Google makes it easier for several people to perform functions on a daily basis. Changing the way the world researches and finds answers to several questions with various tabs and several articles, Google is believed by many to not make up stupid. In conclusion to this, several others agree that it may be an untraditional method of research, but it sure does cut down on time.

Sixth Sense Essay

Sixth Sense Essay

The senses are basic: hearing, taste, smell, sight, and touch. These are the given senses that are apart of every living creature on earth. People have always wondered about the existence of the sixth sense. A sixth sense is a power of perception beyond the five senses. Many have theorized that the ability of the sixth sense is a skill that can be gained by appreciating nature, similar to the innate senses of an animal. The idea of the existence of a sixth sense has been misguided.

The sixth sense we all believe is there, does not exist, there are only abilities or enhancement that have been misunderstood. Animals for along time have seemed to have a sixth sense but in reality it is their already enhanced senses that we are seeing. Animals have been able to detect or even notice things that cannot possibly be known. These are the main instances where animals’ sixth sense is misconceived.

They are from a completely different world than we are.

Animals have gained abilities that have helped them survive in nature. These heightened senses are due to the lack of one of their already basic senses. For example a bat with its blindness relies on its ears to detect waves, vibrations in the air in order to see. Animals in turn of needing something to replace the lack of one of their senses gains an ability. Humans have this capability as well. The human body can enhance a sense giving its host an ability that compensates for something lost. Humans are just as diverse as animals. We gain different abilities that are based on different factors like gender, heritage, and even the environment that one has grown up in. These factors are what makes an ability or even an enhancement even possible.

One ability that have still yet to understand is instinct, an inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environment, or can be defined as a powerful motivation or impulse. Every living creature has this ability inside them, it is just the matter of how in touch one is with the instinct that is inside them. Animals for some reason are more in touch with their instincts than we are as humans. Some believe it is for the reason that animals are more in touch with nature. Humans only seem to be really in touch with their instinct when they are in serious danger, when their senses are more focused because they know their life is threatened.

Animals have forever been the thought to be the key of understanding what the sixth sense was. The fact that what they were observing was something other than a sixth sense lead their conclusions about the sixth sense to be misguided. There have been multiple events throughout history where animals have been noticed of having odd behaviors. In most cases animals’ behavior was due to a disaster or something strange they sensed. Most people have misunderstood there actions as something odd, different. People began to notice what was causing animals to act like this, when they found out why they wanted to know the how. How could the animals possibly know when there was a disaster?

This is what lead people to believe there was a sixth sense. Their observations were not of a sixth sense but an animals heighted senses working in their favor. Throughout history animals have had weird behavior when it came to disasters occurring or even beforehand. The misconception of these animals is that these actions that they are exhibiting are due to a sixth sense. This is not the case, most scientist state that we are seeing the animals’ heighted senses at work. Animals have senses that are superior to ours as humans.

Depending on the animals determines which of the senses maybe more enhanced. On February 4, 1975, an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 struck the Haicheng County, Liaoning Province. Before the earthquake hit local people saw hibernating snakes coming out from their holes into the snow. Through the period of the first three days in February the activity intensified even more, unusual behavior in larger animals such as cows, horses, dogs, and pigs was reported. (“The Use of Animals in Earthquake Prediction” 1)

Events along this line is what people may misconstrue as a sixth sense that animals have, what people don’t really think about is the abilities or the heightened senses animals have that acts as a warning. Once we identify what abilities or senses that are enhanced, we can gain better understanding as to why these animals reacted the way they did in response to the earthquake. Snakes for instance, it is not surprising that they were the first to respond to this coming threat.

They ‘hear’ by picking up vibrations through their jawbones. The part of body in direct contact with the ground has an incredible sensitive stereo hearing, which enables a snake to sense and detect the position of prey (“Facts about snakes” 1). This ability can logically count as an early warning sign to an Earthquake. Snakes are not native to the environment that surrounds them, they notice the slightest change. By them being able to feel the vibrations in the ground they could feel the slightest tremble in the ground.

Dogs on the other hand can hear higher pitched sounds that humans cannot hear. They often bark at vacuums because they hear a very loud annoying pitch. Dogs detect sounds in the frequency range of approximately 67 – 45,000 Hz (varies from different breeds), compared to humans with the approximate range of 64 – 23,000 Hz. Dogs have 18 or more muscles in their ears allowing them to be mobile, whereas a human has only 6. (“Understanding a Dog’s Senses”1). These extra muscles allow dogs to move their ears specific directions as to better focus their hearing. Dogs with perked ears can usually hear well than dogs with hanging ears, especially if they can move their ears in the direction of the sound.

This ability would also explain why the canine would be able to react to an earthquake or any disaster that affects the sounds waves in the air. By a canine directing and focusing it hearing on certain points, they would be able to determine if there is a threat coming. This is only one instance where animals abilities have save them or acted as an early warning sign from a natural disaster. What people have been seeing was the enhanced senses and abilities that animals have working in their favor. Humans on the other hand may gain an enhanced sense mostly in special cases.

Scientist were working on determining what factors contribute to a blind person’s sense of hearing being enhanced. They know that it is possible;
they did not understand why this was occurring. Some of their theories is that a sixth sense in the body could be acting on a blind persons hearing giving them a new way to see. After much research scientist discovered that it is the brain that is causing the enhancement of the hearing sense. When a human losses a sense a brain has to work harder in order to make up for what your boy has lost. We all know that the brain is a muscle and the more you use a certain area of it the stoner it will become.

By a blind person losing their sense of sight their brain works their muscles in their ear more while makes the hearing capability stronger. This view of a sixth sense was proven wrong by that of science. The scientists determined that there was not a sixth sense that was working but, an enhancement due to that lose of another sense. A factor that people over look is that everyone already has a sixth sense. The only action that every living creature has is instinct. Instinct is the something that scientist have not been fully able to explain.

A person’s, even an animal’s instincts are unpredictable because it depends on how in touch they are with this instinct that lives inside of them. My research has lead me to the conclusion that the closest we as living creatures have to a sixth sense is instinct. Instinct is an inward stimulator that affects our five basic senses. As we know a sixth sense is a power of perception beyond the five senses. By following this definition and the proof of the continued misconceptions of the sixth sense, the logical ideal sixth sense would be instinct.

Instinct in some instances can be controlled by sheer will power or even through constant training. Instinct mainly relies on your brains reactions in order to be activated. Think of your brain as a trigger. Scientist have discovered that instinct is more often triggered when one is believe to be in danger (whenever life is threatened). The reason they believe animals are more in touch with their instincts is because since they live in nature their lives are constantly threatened. This in turn always keep them on edge. There sense are being constantly worked like a muscle, which allows them to get stronger.

Humans on the other hand live a more comfortable life style. We have learned to make the environment around us work in our favor. We live a relaxed life, our lives are not constantly threatened, there are the instances where we get to a situation where our life maybe on the line which than beings out our instincts. To better understand the difference between the average human life style, compare it to a person who has been on the battle field for years. Their instincts have been working constantly. We notice the difference the people had n these environments when they return average society and try to return to their normal life style. They can’t turn it off because there body now feels, just like an animals, like there is always a threat that is about to pounce.

There are more ridiculous ideas as to what the sixth sense could possible turn out to be with further study. Most people believe that we will be able to gain super human power like telekinesis. The power to move object without applying physical force. Being able to communicate without the use of talking but through thoughts. Scientist have not found any logical proof that this exist yet, they are continuing to do their research. This is only one of the possibilities that has been widely viewed as a possible sixth sense throughout the 20th and mostly the 21st.

The misconception of the sixth sense are mostly simple. Most of the views on the sixth sense have been only enhancements and/or abilities. The fact that animals are so much different than us make it difficult to compare them to us. We live in completely different world so the sense that we have are different, the abilities we obtain are different, and the instinct we develop is different. Look deeper and you will find a true answer, there is always something under the first sheet that is laid down.