Categories for Blood

Trends in Hiv Prevalence Essay

Trends in Hiv Prevalence Essay


HIV prevalence in the world is becoming increasingly high. As of mid-1998, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unequally around the world. In many cities in sub-Saharan African countries more than a quarter of young and middle-aged adults are infected with HIV, whereas in most developed countries, the number of annual AIDS cases continues to decrease. The status and of HIV epidemics in most other areas of the world remains uncertain because of inadequate data on the prevalence of HIV-risk behaviours.

Hence, this paper presentation seeks to examine the trends of HIV prevalence across the world taking all the continents into consideration.


HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus, and like all viruses of this type, it attacks the immune system. Lentiviruses are in turn part of a larger group of viruses known as retroviruses. The name ‘lentivirus’ literally means ‘slow virus’ because they take such a long time to produce any adverse effects in the body. They have been found in a number of different animals, including cats, sheep, horses and cattle.

However, the most interesting lentivirus in terms of the investigation into the origins of HIV is the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) that affects monkeys, which is believed to be at least 32,000 years old.

It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus because certain strains of SIVs bear a very close resemblance to HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two types of HIV. HIV-2 for example corresponds to SIVsm, a strain of the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus found in the sooty mangabey (also known as the White-collared monkey), which is indigenous to western Africa.

The more virulent, pandemic strain of HIV, namely HIV-1, was until recently more difficult to place. Until 1999, the closest counterpart that had been identified was SIVcpz, the SIV found in chimpanzees. However, this virus still had certain significant differences from HIV

There are a number of factors that may have contributed to the sudden spread of HIV, most of which occurred in the latter half of the twentieth century and these includes:

* Blood Transfusion
* Drug Use
* Mother-to-Child Transfusion


The origin of AIDS and HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. For over twenty years it has been the subject of fierce debate and the cause of countless arguments, with everything from a promiscuous flight attendant to a suspect vaccine programme being blamed.

The first recognized case of AIDS occurred in the USA in the early 1980s. A number of gay men in New York and California suddenly began to develop rare opportunistic infections and cancers that seemed stubbornly resistant to any treatment. At this time, AIDS did not yet have a name, but it quickly became obvious that all the men were suffering from a common syndrome.

The discovery of HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, was made soon after. While some were initially resistant to acknowledge the connection (and indeed some remain so today), there is now clear evidence to prove that HIV causes AIDS. So, in order to find the source of AIDS, it is necessary to look for the origin of HIV, and find out how, when and where HIV first began to cause disease in humans.

In February 1999 a group of researchers from the University of Alabama announced that they had found a type of SIVcpz that was almost identical to HIV-1. This particular strain was identified in a frozen sample taken from a captive member of the sub-group of chimpanzees known as Pan Troglodytes (P. t. troglodytes), which were once common in west-central Africa.

The researchers (led by Paul Sharp of Nottingham University and Beatrice Hahn of the University of Alabama) made the discovery during the course of a 10-year long study into the origins of the virus. They claimed that this sample proved that chimpanzees were the source of HIV-1, and that the virus had at some point crossed species from chimps to humans.

Their final findings were published two years later in Nature magazine. In this article, they concluded that wild chimps had been infected simultaneously with two different simian immunodeficiency viruses which had “viral sex” to form a third virus that could be passed on to other chimps and, more significantly, was capable of infecting humans and causing AIDS.

These two different viruses were traced back to a SIV that infected red-capped mangabeys and one found in greater spot-nosed monkeys. They believe that the hybridisation took place inside chimps that had become infected with both strains of SIV after they hunted and killed the two smaller species of monkey.

They also concluded that all three ‘groups’ of HIV-1 – namely Group M, N and O (see our strains and subtypes page for more information on these) – came from the SIV found in P. t. troglodytes, and that each group represented a separate crossover ‘event’ from chimps to humans.

It has been known for a long time that certain viruses can pass between species. Indeed, the very fact that chimpanzees obtained SIV from two other species of primate shows just how easily this crossover can occur. As animals ourselves, we are just as susceptible. When a viral transfer between animals and humans takes place, it is known as zoonosis.

The most commonly accepted theory on how ‘zoonosis’ took place, and how SIV became HIV in humans is that of the ‘hunter’. In this scenario, SIVcpz was transferred to humans as a result of chimps being killed and eaten or their blood getting into cuts or wounds on the hunter. Normally the hunter’s body would have fought off SIV, but on a few occasions it adapted itself within its new human host and became HIV-1. The fact that there were several different early strains of HIV, each with a slightly different genetic make-up (the most common of which was HIV-1 group M), would support this theory: every time it passed from a chimpanzee to a man, it would have developed in a slightly different way within his body, and thus produced a slightly different strain.

An article published in The Lancet in 20044 , also shows how retroviral transfer from primates to hunters is still occurring even today. In a sample of 1099 individuals in Cameroon, they discovered ten (1%) were infected with SFV (Simian Foamy Virus), an illness which, like SIV, was previously thought only to infect primates. All these infections were believed to have been acquired through the butchering and consumption of monkey and ape meat. Discoveries such as this have led to calls for an outright ban on bush meat hunting to prevent simian viruses being passed to humans. Others theories include:

* The oral polio vaccine (OPV) theory
* The contaminated needle theory
* The colonialism theory
* The conspiracy theory

Four of the earliest known instances of HIV infection are as follows: * A plasma sample taken in 1959 from an adult male living in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. * A lymph node sample taken in 1960 from an adult female, also from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. * HIV found in tissue samples from an American teenager who died in St. Louis in 1969.

A 1998 analysis of the plasma sample from 1959 suggested that HIV-1 was introduced into humans around the 1940s or the early 1950s.  In January 2000, the results of a new study16 suggested that the first case of HIV-1 infection occurred around 1931 in West Africa. This estimate (which had a 15 year margin of error) was based on a complex computer model of HIV’s evolution.

However, a study in 200817 dated the origin of HIV to between 1884 and 1924, much earlier than previous estimates. The researchers compared the viral sequence from 1959 (the oldest known HIV-1 specimen) to the newly discovered sequence from 1960. They found a significant genetic difference between them, demonstrating diversification of HIV-1 occurred long before the AIDS pandemic was recognised.

The authors suggest a long history of the virus in Africa and call Kinshasa the “epicentre of the HIV/AIDS pandemic” in Central Africa. They propose the early spread of HIV was concurrent with the development of colonial cities, in which crowding of people increased opportunities for HIV transmission. If accurate, these findings imply that HIV existed before many scenarios (such as the OPV and conspiracy theories) suggest.

Until recently, the origins of the HIV-2 virus had remained relatively unexplored. HIV-2 is thought to come from the SIV in Sooty Mangabeys rather than chimpanzees, but the crossover to humans is believed to have happened in a similar way (i.e. through the butchering and consumption of monkey meat). It is far rarer, significantly less infectious and progresses more slowly to AIDS than HIV-1. As a result, it infects far fewer people, and is mainly confined to a few countries in West Africa.

In May 2003, a group of Belgian researchers published a report18 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. By analysing samples of the two different subtypes of HIV-2 (A and B) taken from infected individuals and SIV samples taken from sooty mangabeys, Dr Vandamme concluded that subtype A had passed into humans around 1940 and subtype B in 1945 (plus or minus 16 years or so). Her team of researchers also discovered that the virus had originated in Guinea-Bissau and that its spread was most likely precipitated by the independence war that took place in the country between 1963 and 1974 (Guinea-Bissau is a former Portuguese colony). Her theory was backed up by the fact that the first European cases of HIV-2 were discovered among Portuguese veterans of the war, many of whom had received blood transfusions or unsterile injections following injury, or had possibly had relationships with local women.


Since 2001, MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have included HIV testing in 31 countries. In 13 of these countries testing has been included in two surveys, which provides an opportunity to examine trends. However, trend data must be viewed with caution, as only some changes are statistically significant.

Trends in HIV Prevalence In the charts below, changes in HIV prevalence that are statistically significant are marked with an asterisk and a star.  While it may appear that HIV prevalence has decreased in most countries, these decreases are only statistically significant in the Dominican Republic, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Tanzania, Malawi, and Zimbabwe. This means that in these countries, the change is large enough that it is unlikely that the decrease is due to chance alone; it probably represents true change in the HIV prevalence in the population. In some countries, such as Tanzania, the decrease is statistically significant for the population as a whole, and for men, but not for women. In Cameroon, Burkina Faso, and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence has decreased among both women and men.

DHS surveys have not detected any change in HIV prevalence in Mali, Senegal, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Lesotho, or Zambia. What does this mean? Because HIV prevalence is a measure of all HIV infections in a population, a decrease in HIV prevalence could indicate that fewer people are becoming infected, and/or that more people with HIV have died in a population. Similarly, an increase in HIV prevalence could point to more new infections, and/or could indicate an increase in HIV-positive individuals living longer on anti-retroviral therapy.


With over 60 percent if the world’s population, the Asia-Pacific Region presents a wide diversity of HIV-related risk environments, in terms of behavioural, political and cultural factors. Within the framework of this diversity, there has also been a wide range of HIV epidemics and responses, both across and within countries. It is not therefore possible to present a simple analysis of the actual and potential occurrence of HIV infection in this vast region. Our understanding of the HIV epidemic and its determinants in the Asia-Pacific Region has improved substantially over the past 3-5 years, as a number of countries have implemented comprehensive surveillance systems for HIV prevalence, and sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Despite these advances, a number of countries still have a limited capacity to assess the occurrence of HIV infection and related behaviours, and to monitor the impact of interventions.

A recent factor of importance in the Asia-Pacific environment has been the economic tumult of the past year. While various predictions have been made of the potential impact on the HIV epidemic, it is not possible to state with any certainty whether their net effect will be to increase or decrease the incidence of risk behaviour or HIV transmission. Since extensive HIV transmission has been a very recent phenomenon in a number of Asia-Pacific countries, there has so far been little experience with the care and support of people with HIV-related illness. Apart from Australia, Thailand and Japan, few countries have a healthcare workforce, which is adequately prepared to care for substantial numbers of people developing HIV-related illness.

Without simplifying too much, it is possible to classify the differing patterns of HIV transmission into broad categories, based on available surveillance data. In Australia and New Zealand, the virtually all HIV transmission has been through sex between men, and the incidence of transmission via this route has long been recognized as having declined substantially in the 1980s. In a few countries, such as Thailand, Cambodia and parts of Myanmar and India, heterosexual transmission has been extensive, mediated through large-scale sex industries but extending now to the regular partners of sex workers’ male clients.

Some countries have HIV epidemics among injecting drug users (IDU) with limited associated heterosexual transmission. These include countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, and some areas of India and China. Other countries have limited, but well documented spread of HIV infections, such as the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, and South Korea. Several countries have not reported substantial numbers of HIV infection, but do not appear to have comprehensive, ongoing surveillance systems. Papua New Guinea, Pakistan and Bangladesh are countries which may have a substantial risk environment, and need to strengthen their surveillance activities.

The analysis of HIV epidemic trends in the region becomes more meaningful when a focus is placed on populations whose cultural and social affinity and networks transcend geopolitical borders. A new geography of HIV/AIDS in the region then emerges that helps recognize the foci of intense HIV spread. These include large metropolitan areas in western and southern India (Mumbai, Chinnai); the India/Nepal border area; the larger “Golden Triangle,” which reaches out to northern Thailand, eastern Myanmar, but also encompasses the areas of Manipur in India and Yunnan in China; and the Mekong delta area, which includes Cambodia and southern Vietnam. To gain better understanding of the dynamics of HIV epidemics, factors of affinity between populations as well as mobility patterns must be explored and mapped out.

Lab Report on TLC analisys of Analgestic Drugs Essay

Lab Report on TLC analisys of Analgestic Drugs Essay

In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the composition of various over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics: Anacin, Bufferin, Excedrin, and Tylenol. The TLC plates were first viewed under ultraviolet (UV) light and then treated with iodine vapor in order to visualize the spotting. Experiment Scheme

Initially, sixteen capillary micropipets were created in order to spot the TLC plates. Two TLC plates were then obtained and marked with pencil for spotting. A line was drawn 1 cm from the bottom of each plate, and five small, evenly spaced marks were made along those lines (see Figure 1).

Each mark indicated where a substance would be spotted.

All compounds used were in solutions of 1g of each dissolved in 20 ml of a 50:50 mixture of methylene chloride and ethanol. The first plate made was the reference plate. Capillary micropipets were used to spot the first four marks with acetaminophen, aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide (in that order). (See figures 2-5 for chemical structures.)

The last mark was spotted with a reference solution of all four chemicals.

The second plate made was the sample plate. The first four marks were spotted with Anacin, Bufferin, Excedrin, and Tylenol. The fifth mark was spotted with a reference solution of all four drugs. Figure 1. Prepared TLC plates

Figure 2. AcetaminophenFigure 3. Aspirin

Figure 4. CaffeineFigure 5. Salicylamide

A development container was created with a wide-mouthed screwcap jar. It was filled with the development solvent, which was .5% glacial acetic acid in ethyl acetate, so that the solvent was approximately .

5 cm deep.The first TLC plate was then carefully placed into the development container. Great care was taken to ensure that the plate went in evenly so that the solvent could rise evenly up the plate. Once the solvent front had reached approximately 1cm from the top of the plate, the plate was removed, the solvent front was marked with a pencil, and the plate was allowed to dry.

The second plate was then placed in the development chamber in the same manner as the first. Once the solvent front reached approximately 1cm from the top of the plate, the plate was removed, the solvent front was marked with a pencil, and the plate was allowed to dry. Each plate was then viewed under the UV light.

Any spots that were seen were lightly circled with a pencil, and their color was noted. The orders of elution (Rf values) were calculated by dividing the distance from the baseline to the center of the spot by the distance from the baseline to the solvent front. After all observations and calculations were made, the plates were placed in a jar containing iodine.

The jar was warmed with hands so that the iodine vaporized. The plates were then removed from the jar and observed. The reference and sample plates were then compared to determine which compounds the drugs on the sample plate contained. Data

Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet Essay

Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet Essay

Known as a minimalist and experimental composer, Richard Gavin Bryars unleashed an emotionally intimate constructed piece out from a lone old vagrant singing, Jesus’ blood never failed me yet, this one thing I know, for he loves me so… Originally recorded from footage of a documentary by his friend Alan Power in 1971 (Grimshaw), this aged voice served as the focal point and backdrop for Bryars’ poignant yet challenging work unfolding and reiterating itself over the course of 74 minutes in length.

Whereas music that falls under Minimalist movement, sometimes associated the emotional neutralization of repeated materials, Bryars’ has the reverse effect in which rather than numbing the listener’s sensibilities, he heightens them and instead of imposing postmodern indifference toward the subject matter, it forces confrontation with it (Grimshaw).

The entire lengthy music might deflate the interest of its listeners as the lines simply repeated over the recording, but Bryars managed to extract the spirit of the tramp’s captive song as he slowly introduced an accompaniment.

The first part was merely the sole voice of the old man then eventually enhanced by string quartet, followed by plucked bass and guitar. Moreover, as the instruments subsequently fade out, the tramp’s song continues and eventually underscored by a much richer sounding ensemble of low strings, then woodwinds, brass, and delicate percussion and finally full orchestra and choir (Grimshaw). The soul of the music originated from the compassionate nature of the old vagrant who sang the religious tune during the recording of Power’s documentary that was about the life of street-people around Elephant and Castle and Waterloo in London.

Bryars’ recounted; while they are filming the documentary, some people broke into drunken ballad or opera songs, but there was a particular homeless old man sang “Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet”. When he played it at home, he noticed the exact tune of the singing to his piano, and, he discerned that the first section of the song that is 13 bars in length formed an effective loop that repeated in a slightly unpredictable way. Therefore, he took the tape to Leicester and copied the loop onto a continuous reel of tape having the idea of adding orchestrated accompaniment to it.

During the act of copying, he left the door that lead to the large painting studios, and when he came back, he found people weeping and silently listening over the old man’s singing, at that point, he realized a great emotional influence from the noble faith and tranquil music (Howse), a merely accidental root behind this epic. This particular Bryars’ piece was a breakthrough as there were other versions made during the latter years. Tom Waits singing along with it in 1990 and Jars of Clay released their own version on their album Who We Are Instead in 2003, aside from the fact that it was also used for several theatrical presentations.

Covering credits for its very straightforward message to the people, the unyielding constancy of the lyrics—repeated over 150 times—essentially keeps the music from achieving greater feats. It is said that no matter how many times you paint a house, it remains to be the same house. Still, that verse holds together the entirety of the minimalist piece, a factor that you cannot simply neglect. Focusing on keeping his music very simple yet haunting, this composer and double bassist is a native from Goole, East Riding of Yorkshire, England and born on January 16, 1943.

His first musical reputation was as a jazz bassist working in the early sixties with improvisers Derek Bailey and Tony Oxley. He abandoned improvisation in 1966 and worked for a time in the United States with John Cage, until he collaborated closely with composers such as Cornelius Cardew and John White. He taught in the department if Fine Art in Portsmouth, Leicester from 1969 to 1978, and there he founded the legendary Portsmouth Sinfonia, an orchestra whose membership consisted of performers who “embrace the full range of musical competence” — and who played or just attempted to play popular classical works.

He also founded the Music Department at Leicester Polytechnic (later De Montfort University) and served as professor in Music from 1986 to 1994. Meanwhile, his first major work as a composer owe much to the so-called New York School of John Cage—with whom he briefly studied, Morton Feldman, Earle Brown and minimalism. His earliest piece was The Sinking of Titanic (1969) and was originally released under Brian Eno’s Obscure Label in 1975 and the Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet (1971) both famously released in new versions in the 1990s on Point Music Label, selling over a quarter of a million copies.

The original 1970s recordings have been re-released on CD by Virgin Records. A major turning point in his development was his first written opera Medea, premiered at the Opera de Lyon and Opera de Paris in 1984. He has written another two operas, both with libretti by his long time collaborator Blake Morrison: Doctor Ox’s Experiment, and G, commissioned by the Staatstheater Mainz for the Gutenberg 600th Anniversary. Aside from that, Bryars has also produced a large body of chamber music including three string quartets and a saxophone quartet both for his own ensemble and for other performers.

He has also written extensively for strings as well as producing concertos for violin, viola, cello, double bass, saxophone and bass oboe. He has also written choral music, chiefly for the Latvian Radio Choir, with whom he has recently recorded a second CD, and for the Estonian Male Choir. From being a jazz bassist, composer, professor and opera writer, he also made a name as he collaborated with visual artists, worked with choreographers who have used his pieces, and written numerous Laude for the soprano Ana Maria Friman, to name a few.

And to date, he recently completed a theatre piece, To Define Happiness, with Peeter Jalakas for Von Krahl theatre in Tallinn, and a project around Shakespeare’s sonnets, Nothing Like the Sun, with the Royal Shakespeare Company and Opera North. Gavin Bryars is an Associate Research Fellow at Dartington College of Arts and Regent of the College de ‘Pataphysique. And married to Russian-born film director Anna Tchernakova with three daughters and a son. He is currently living in England and British Columbia, Canada.

WORKS CITED Howse, Christopher. “The Assurance of Hope”. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006. xix. ISBN 0-8264-8271-6 Mckeating, Scott. http://www. stylusmagazine. com/articles/seconds/gavin-bryars-jesus-blood-never-failed-me-yet. htm Grimshaw, Jeremy. “All Music Guide”. http://www. answers. com/topic/jesus-blood-never-failed-me-yet-orchestral-classical-work http://www. gavinbryars. com/ http://www. myspace. com/gavinbryarsmusic http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Jesus%27_Blood_Never_Failed_Me_Yet

The path of blood Essay

The path of blood Essay

The path blood take from the right femoral vein to lower lobe of the right lung via the pulmonary artery is as follows; we start in the right femoral vein which is located in the thigh and travel to the right external iliac vein. Blood from the femoral vein emptiness in the inferior vena cava but first must travel through the external iliac. The iliac vein joins with the inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava takes deoxygenated blood form the lower limbs of the body to the right atrium (Thibodeau, Patton, 2008.


Following the inferior vena cava we travel in to the right atrium of the heart. The purpose of right atrium of the heart is to receive deoxygenated blood from the body through the inferior vena cava and pump it into the right ventricle (, 2012). Once we are ready to leave the right atrium we go into the right AV valve (AV is atrioventricular or cuspid, (Thibodeau, Patton, 2008.).The AV valve stops blood from flowing backwards and every time the heart beats the valve opens and closes.

The AV valve allows blood to flow into the right ventricle. But before blood goes into the right ventricle it has to travel through the tricuspid valve. The tricuspid valve along with AV and SL are all structures that prevent blood from flowing backwards (Thibodeau, Patton, 2008.). So we now know that the right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium, but what we don’t already know is that the right ventricle sends the… [continues]

Blood Diamond Essay

Blood Diamond Essay

Africa was known as “The Dark Continent” during the Victorian Era, believed by Europeans to be a land where even the slightest trace of civilization tends to collapse under madness and savagery. It seems especially common for Europeans to assume that anyone who ventures into Africa would then sink into an irrevocable state of delirium. Such notion was amplified by Joseph Conrad, who, in Heart of Darkness, took Africa as a land so free from moral restraints that no civility could stand from being pulverized by its darkness.

Blood Diamond, dating a hundred years after Heart of Darkness, presents a different view. Although the film seems to faithfully support the conventional view of Africa as a place that forces its inhabitants into madness, a closer examination of Blood Diamond shows that, quite the opposite of depicting Africa as The Dark Continent, the film actually rebuts the view by emphasizing the underlying grace of the land. Blood Diamond sends out the message that rather then being the other way around, it is the colonizers of Africa who are forcing the continent into its present state of violence and madness.

Through contrasting between parts of Africa with assorted degrees of western influence, director Edward Zwick shows that Africa without colonization would be a land of peace and grace. This contrast is established between the depiction of an RUF (Revolutionary United Front) headquarters and an elusive school that lies within the immutable jungles of Africa. Zwick uses costume to represent western ideals brought to Africa through colonization when portraying the RUF headquarters.

When Danny Archer first gets off the plane to do business with Commander Zero, the audience is introduced to a group of African teenagers dressed in shockingly familiar looking attires. Indeed Captain Rambo, a member of the RUF, is dressed in no way different from any North American boy. His clothing without doubt emulates the fashion of North American hip-hop generation. His wide sunglasses, baggy pants, and chain necklace all too well indicate western influence. It is only when he holds up a gun that the audience senses a strong odour of irony.

The gangster image that prevails this RUF headquarters contrasts with a peaceful African community in the midst of the jungle, a community in which the effect of colonization is less apparent. In fact, Zwick speaks of this community as an “island of sanity”. The term “island” denotes not only a sense of isolation from the atrocity of the surrounding world, but also a sense of isolation from western influence. It is within this community that a group of child soldiers are carefully returned to life.

Of these two African communities, the one that displays a crave for western ideals is the one that rears violence and madness, whereas the primitive jungle described as the very medium of suffocation in Heart of Darkness becomes the place where sanity is restored. Through contrasting between a world greatly influenced by colonization and a world that is not yet penetrable to its grasp, Blood Diamond clearly conveys the idea that it is the white people who are jeopardizing Africa’s graceful soul with their intrusion, and it is the colonizers of Africa who are ultimately responsible for any violence seen there today.

Zwick also uses various types of shots to establish Africa as a graceful land. Although scenes of RUF troops committing heinous violence are omnipresent in Blood Diamond, Zwick does not forget to show what Africa was like before war and colonization. The use of master shots often precedes any scenes of violence in the film to constantly remind the audience of the majestic panorama of Africa. Shots of grand canyons, peaceful sunset, and misty cities again and again take the audience’ breath away.

These shots are images of Africa entirely different from those underscoring problems of poverty and hunger commonly seen in media, thereby are all the more shocking. It is indeed hard for one to find a trace of savagery or madness in this landscape. Without these shots, one would laugh with an air dismissal when Dia says to his father “teacher says our country (Sierra Leone) was built to be an utopia”. But with these breathtaking images, the audience cannot help but to ruminate over Dia’s belief that “when the war is over, our country will become a paradise.

Apart from using master shots, Blood Diamond also employs wide shots to convey similar ideas. The film opens with a wide shot of fishermen working against sunrise. In the shot, the black silhouettes moving quietly yet arduously against the breaking dawn of the sky effectively convey a sense of peace. By integrating various types of shots into the content of the film in a meaningful manner, Zwick successfully delivers his desire to show what Africa was like before colonization. These shots are key to establishing Africa as a land of peace before its colonizer’s arrival.

Zwick also conveys the idea that it is the Europeans who are responsible Africa’s present chaotic state by probing the different meanings of diamond in Africa and in Europe. A character responsible for this layer of the film is a sadistic RUF mine general– General Poison. Following after the priceless diamond like an animal after the smell of carcass, General Poison is depicted as the very heart of distortion and madness throughout the film. In the prison scene, Zwick’s use of lighting and colour effectively turns General Poison into the icon of animosity similar to that described in Heart of Darkness.

The prison scene is dominated by a sickly luscious combination of brown, green, and red, creating a canvas that is hunted by greed and fear. Here, Zwick plays around with the employment of fluorescence light to give General Posion the aura of a mad dog as he barks at Solomon Vandy. Yet General Poison reveals something rather astonishing near the end– he craves for that diamond not because of greed, like the diamond dealers in London, but because he wants to escape his own cruelty. “You think I am a devil, but it is only because I have been in hell.

I want to get out, and you will help me”. This is what the general says to Solomon, and the audience learns that he too is a prisoner suffering from the effects of colonization. General Poison craves for that priceless diamond not because of the wealth it shall bring, but because it is his only ticket out. As soon as this is revealed, the audience learns that his devilish behaviour is not the result of his native instinct; rather, it is the result of having to cope with the values of white men. It is white people, the colonizers, who are forcing him into madness.

Suffocated by the atrocity of colonization, he must act cruelly to free himself from his own madness. This internal irony shows that Africa is not a continent with the natural tendency to drive its inhabitants into madness; rather, the madness seen in the film is only the result of Africans trying to cope with the values of their colonizers. In Blood Diamond, Zwick effectively combines style and content to show that Africa is not a continent of darkness and savagery; rather, the moral dilapidation seen there today is the result of colonization.

Indeed instead of pushing those who venture into its land beyond the boundaries of civilization, Africa is itself a prisoner and a sufferer. It is with productions like Blood Diamond that the images outlined in Heart of Darkness become increasingly relegated from the status of a journal to that of a fiction. It is with productions like Blood Diamond that the truth about Africa is slowly revealed. In a way, Blood Diamond has given Africa a testimony of its grace that is rather long overdue.

Keeping Up With the Jones’s Case Study Essay

Keeping Up With the Jones’s Case Study Essay

Part I:

1. What two parameters are responsible for creating the movement (filtration and reabsorption) of fluid across the capillary wall? 2. Find a diagram of a capillary – copy/paste and cite the source. 3. Under normal circumstances, what components of the blood cross the capillary wall? 4. Cytokines, like histamine and leukotrienes, are secreted by damaged cells in Dave’s ankle. How do these cytokines cause inflammation? 5. How does the application of ice to the ankle affect blood flow through the capillaries? 6. How does the removal of ice from the ankle affect blood flow through the capillaries and the cytokines? 7.

How does compression, which is provided by an elastic (Ace) bandage wrapped around the damaged ankle, decrease inflammation? 8. How does elevation of the damaged ankle decrease inflammation?

Part II:

1. What problems are there in Suzie’s life, and does she exhibit any peculiar signs and symptoms? 2. Why did Suzie pass out when she stood up? 3. Why did Suzie’s mother place Suzie’s feet on a chair? 4.

Why did Suzie feel as if she had no energy at the doctor’s office? 5. Make an initial speculation about Suzie’s condition at this time. Assuming that your speculation is true, what do you think the doctor will find in the results of Suzie’s physical examination?

Part III:

1. What new signs and symptoms does Suzie exhibit that would concern you if you were the doctor? 2. Do you wish to make any further speculation about Suzie’s condition at this time? Assuming that your speculation is true, what do you think the doctor will find in the results of Suzie’s physical examination?

Part IV:

1. Is Suzie’s weight reasonable for her height? 2. Calculate the stroke volume of Suzie’s heart, and compare it to that of a normal individual. 3. Why do you think her blood pressure is lower than normal? Does low blood pressure explain any of Suzie’s signs and symptoms that you may have noticed? 4. Why is Suzie’s hematocrit low, and why are her red blood cells pale and immature? 5. Compared with a normal, healthy person predict the level of the following in Suzie’s blood (higher, same, lower): sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, iron, and protein. 6. Do you wish to make any further speculation about Suzie’s condition at this time?

Part V:

1. Assuming that the ion levels in the blood plasma are similar to those in the interstitial fluid, what is the effect of low potassium levels on the membrane potential of Suzie’s nerve and muscles? 2. Does this explain Suzie’s slow heart rate and ectopic beats? 3. How does low plasma calcium level account for her decreased stroke volume? 4. What is the role of blood proteins in the movement of fluid between the blood and the interstititial space? 5. What would be the effect of low blood protein levels on the colloidal pressure? 6. How do low plasma protein levels produce edema?

Part VI:

1. What conditions make Suzie a candidate for anorexia? 2. Do you think the doctor’s treatment is appropriate, or would you have admitted her into hospital? 3. When do you think Suzie should schedule her next visit to the doctor?

Source: National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science

Responsibilities of a paediatric first aider Essay

Responsibilities of a paediatric first aider Essay

Maintain your own safety
Contact the emergency services
Give accurate and useful information to the emergency services Support the casualty physically and emotionally
Appreciate your own limitations

Know when to intervene and when to wait for more specialist help to arrive. PEFAP 001 1.2: Describe how to minimise the risk of infection to self and others Wash your hands with soap and water before and immediately after giving first aid. If gloves are available for use in first aid situations, you should also wash your hands thoroughly before putting the gloves on and after disposing of them.

(Plastic bags can be used when gloves are unavailable.) Avoid contact with body fluids when possible. Do not touch objects that may be soiled with blood or other body fluids.

Be careful not to prick yourself with broken glass or any sharp objects found on or near the injured person. Prevent injuries when using, handling, cleaning or disposing of sharp instruments or devices. Cover cuts or other skin-breaks with dry and clean dressings.

Chronic skin conditions may cause open sores on hands. People with these conditions should avoid direct contact with any injured person who is bleeding or has open wounds.

PEFAP 001 1.3: Describe suitable first aid equipment, including personal protection and how it is used appropriately. (Print off your PPE report) All first aid boxes should have a white cross on a green background. Guidelines published by the National Association of Child Minders, NCMA, as well as Ofsted and experienced paediatric first aid trainers, recommend that the first aid box in a child care setting should contain the items listed include:

1 first aid guidance leaflet

1 large sterile wound dressing
1 pair disposable gloves
10 individually wrapped wipes
2 sterile eye pads
1 pair of scissors
1 packet hypoallergenic plasters – in assorted sizes
3 medium sterile wound dressings
2 triangular bandages
5 finger bob bandages (no applicator needed)
4 safety pins
It is recommended that you do not keep tablets and medicines in the first aid box.

PEFAP 001 1.4: Describe what information needs to be included in an accident report/incident record and how to record it. Details of all reportable incidents, injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences must be recorded, including: The date when the report is made

The method of reporting
The date, time and place of the event
Personal details of those involved
A brief description of the nature of the event or disease.

Records can be kept in any form but must conform to data protection requirements . PEFAP 001 1.5: Define an infant and or a child for the purpose of first aid treatment. Paediatric first aid focuses on infants and children. An infant is defined as being from birth to the age of one year and a child is defined as one year of age to the onset of puberty. Children are however different sizes and a small child over the age of one may be treated as an infant. Similarly puberty can be difficult to recognise, so treat the child according to the age that you think they are, larger children should be treated with adult techniques.

PEFAP 001 3.2: Describe how to continually assess and monitor an infant and a child whilst in your care. Remember your ABC and continue to monitor the infant or child in your care until you can hand over to a doctor or paramedic. A is for AIRWAY : check that the airway remains open. Always monitor a child while in recovery position. B is for BREATHING: Check that breathing is normal and regular. C is for CIRCULATION: check the pulse (if you are trained and experienced) but ensure you take no more than ten seconds to do this: (a) In a child over one year : feel for the carotid pulse in the neck by placing your fingers in the groove between the Adam’s apple and the large muscle running from the side of the neck . (b) In an infant: feel for the brachial pulse on the inner aspect of the upper arm by lightly pressing your fingers towards the bone on the inside of the upper arm and hole them there for five seconds.

PEFAP 001 4.1: Identify when to administer CPR to an unresponsive infant and a child who is not breathing normally. CPR should only be carried out when an infant or child is unresponsive and not breathing normally. If the infant or child has any signs of normal breathing, or coughing, or movement, do not begin to do chest compressions. Doing so may cause the heart to stop beating. PEFAP 001 4.3: Describe how to deal with an infant and a child who is experiencing a seizure. Witnessing a child having an epileptic seizure is a very unpleasant experience, particularly the first one. However, some young children experience what is termed a Febrile Seizure which is brought on when the child has a high temperature or infection.


Stiffening of child’s body
Twitching of arms and legs
Loss of consciousness
May wet or soil themselves
May vomit or foam at the mouth
Usually lasts for less than five minutes
May be sleepy for up to an hour afterwards
Protect them with cushioning or padding- do not hold them down. Cool them down by removing some clothing.
When the seizures stop, place the child in the recovery position and monitor signs of life. If they become unresponsive or the seizure lasts for more than 5 minutes then you must call 999/112 for an ambulance.

PEFAP 001 5.1: Differentiate between a mild and a severe airway obstruction. A mild airway is usually a partial obstruction, it means the entire airway is not closed off, so air is able to pass by the obstruction, and the victim can respond and cough forcefully , or may wheeze between coughs. In a serer airway obstruction, the airway is completely blocked off and the victim cannot breathe because air cannot pass by the object. PEFAP 001 5.3: Describe the procedure to be followed after administering the treatment for choking. The child may experience difficulties after having treatment for choking-for example, a persistent cough or difficulties with swallowing or breathing. It is important to monitor and assess the child’s condition and to seek medical help if the problem persists. PEFAP 001 6.1: Describe common types of wounds.

A cut (incision): This can be caused from a sharp edge, such as a tin can ,that can lead to a lot of bleeding. A torn wound (laceration): is a jagged wound that can be caused by a broken toy, a fall or collision. Graze or abrasion: cause by friction or scraping, generally happens when children fall. Bruises or contusion: is bleeding underneath the skin. The blood collects and results in a black/blue mark. Children often have bruises on their skin, chin and head from knocking themselves or falling. Soft tissue bruises should be investigated if you have a concern about them. Puncture wound: cause by the body being pierced by an object, for example , a child falling whilst carrying a pair of scissors. Velocity wound: cause by an item travelling at high speed such as a bullet from a gun.

PEFAP 001 6.4: Describe how to administer first aid for minor injuries. With minor bleeding from cuts and abrasions the emphasis is on keeping the wound clean and to control any blood loss. Wear disposable gloves.

Examine the injury for any embedded foreign objects.
Clean the wound under fresh running water.
Sit the casualty down. If they feel weak and unsteady, position them on the floor. Clean the skin around the wound with wet sterile gauze or sterile non-alcoholic wipes and carefully remove any grit or dirt. Do not remove any embedded object.

Elevate the injury to control any blood loss.
Dry the wound with sterile gauze and apply a plaster or sterile dressing.
Advise the parent or guardian of the child or infant to seek medical attention if necessary.

PEFAP 001 7.1: Describe how to recognise and manage an infant and a child who is suffering from shock. After an initial adrenaline rush, the body withdraws blood from the skin in order to maintain the vital organs – and the oxygen supply to the brain drops. The infant or child will have: Pale, cold, clammy skin that is oftern grey-blue in colour, especially around the lips A rapid pulse, becoming weaker

Shallow, fast breathing.
In an infant
The anterior fontanelle is drawn in (depressed).
In an infant or a child may show:
Unusual restlessness, yawning and gasping for air
Loss of consciousness
The treatment is the same for an infant and a child.

If possible, ask someone to call an ambulance while you stay with the child . Lay the child down, keeping her head low to improve the blood supply to the brain. Treat any obvious cause, such as severe bleeding. Raise the child’s leg and support them with pillows or on a cushion on a pile of books. Loosen any tight clothing at the neck, chest and waist to help with the child/s breathing. For an infant: hold the infant on your lap while you loosen her clothing and offer comfort and reassurance.

Cover the child with a blanket or coat to keep her warm. Never use a hot-water bottle or any other direct source of heat. Reassure the child: keep talking to her and monitoring her condition while you wait for the ambulance. If the infant or child loses consciousness, open her airway, check her breathing and be prepared to give rescue breaths. Do not give the child anything to eat or drink: if she complains of thirst, just moisten her lips with water.

PEFAP 001 7.2: Describe how to recognise and manage an infant and a child who is suffering from anaphylactic shock. During an anaphylactic reaction, chemicals are released into the blood that widen (dilate) blood vessels and cause blood pressure to fall. Air passages then narrow (constrict), resulting in breathing difficulties. In addition, the tongue and throat can swell, obstructing the airway. An infant or child with anaphylactic shock will need urgent medical help as this can be fatal. The following signs and symptoms may come all at once and the child may rapidly lose consciousness: High-pitched wheezing sound

Blotchy, itchy, raised rash
Swollen eyelids, lips and tongue
Difficulty speaking, then breathing
Abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea

If you suspect an infant or child is suffering from anaphylactic shock, follow the steps below: Call an ambulance. If the child has had a reaction previously, she will have medication to take in case of more attacks. This should be given as soon as the attack starts, following the instructions closely. Help the child into a comfortable sitting position to relieve any breathing problems and loosen any tight clothing at her neck and waist. Comfort and reassure her while you wait for the ambulance. If the child loses consciousness, open her airway, check her breathing and be prepared to stat rescue breaths.

PEFAP 001 6.2: Describe the types and severity of bleeding and the affect it has on an infant and a child. Even tiny a mounts of blood can seem like a lot to a child. Any bleeding may frighten children because they are too young to realise that the blood loss will stop when clotting occurs. When a child loses a large amount of blood, he or she may suffer shock or even become unconscious. Platelets and proteins come into contact with the injured site and plug the wound. This process begins within ten minutes if the loss of blood is brought under control. There are different types of bleeding:

Bleeding from arteries : This will pump blood from the wound in time with the heartbeat and is bright re in colour. If the bleeding from a major artery will lead to shock, unresponsiveness and death within minutes. Bleeding from veins: The bold will gush from the wound or pool at the site of the wound. This will depend on the size of the vein that has been damaged. The blood will be dark red in colour due to the oxygen being depleted. Bleeding from capillaries: Oozing at the site as with an abrasion or maybe internally from a bruising to muscle tissue and internal organs.

PEFAP 001 6.3: Demonstrate the safe and effective management for the control of minor and major external bleeding. With minor bleeding from cuts and abrasions the emphasis is on keeping the wound clean and to control any blood loss. Wear disposable gloves

Examine the injury for any embedded foreign objects

Clean the injured area with cold water, using cotton wool or gauze Do not attempt to pick out pieces of gravel or grit from a graze. Just clean gently and cover with a light dressing if necessary Sit the child down if they feel weak and unsteady, position them on the floor. Elevate the injury to control any bold loss

Record the injury and treatment in the Accident Report Book and make sure that the parents/carers of the child are in formed. When a child is bleeding severely, your main aim is to stem the flow of blood. With severe wounds and bleeding the emphasis is on controlling blood loss and treating for shock.

Wear disposable gloves

Sit or lay the child down on the floor to help prevent shock Examine the injury to establish the extent of the wound and to check for any foreign embedded objects Try to stop the bleeding:

Apply direct pressure to the wound: use a dressing or a non-fluffy material, such as a clean tea towel Elevate the affected part if possible: if the wound is on an arm or leg, raise the injured limb above the level of the heart Apply a dressing: if the blood soaks through, do not remove the dressing, apply another on top and so on Support the injured part and treat the child for shock. Keep them warm and do not let them have anything to eat or drink Call 999/112 for an ambulance and monitor the child’s condition

Contact the child’s parents or carers

If the child loses consciousness, follow the ABC procedure for resuscitation Always record the incident and the treatment given in the Accident Report Book. Always wear disposable gloves if in an early years setting, to prevent cross-infection.

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Blood Alcohol Content Essay

Blood Alcohol Content Essay

The thought of alcohol being involved in fatal crashes brings about an emotional response. Recently, there has been a movement based on emotion rather than logic to change a certain drinking and driving law. This involves lowering the Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from 0. 10% to 0. 08% nationwide. However, this attention is misdirected. By looking at my personal experiences, statistics, and current laws, it is clear that there is no need for lowering the BAC. First off, I do not drink.

Yet, I’ve had many experiences relating to drinking and driving through my friends.

One thing I’ve noticed is that it is extremely hard for people to tell if they are legally drunk or not. Furthermore, I have never heard any of my friends say that they feel that they should drive home because they have only a . 09% BAC. The law has very little effect on how many drinks a person decides to consume. Therefore, lowering the legal drunk limit will not result in people acting more responsible.

Supporters of lowering the BAC like Judith Lee Stone in her essay “YES!

” think they are targeting the problem of drunken driving, but the real problem lies within the higher BACs. Ninety three percent of fatal accidents are 0. 10% BAC and above, and half of those ninety three percent have a BAC of 0. 20% and above. The average BAC for fatal accidents is at actually at 0. 17%. This seems like a more logical target for new laws then 0. 08%. Furthermore, Stone asks “Who would want their children in a car driven by someone who has consumed three, four, or even more beers in an hour” (Stone 46)? I couldn’t agree more.

However, this common argument from the pro-0. 08% side is more like a parent responsibility question. They use this to manipulate our emotion by putting an innocent child in an improbable and unrelated situation. She also goes on to state, “A study at Boston University found that 500 to 600 fewer highway deaths would occur annually if all states adopted 0. 08%” (Stone 47). On the other hand, a similar study at University of North Carolina shows no significant change after their adoption of 0. 08%. Which study is correct?

Most likely, both have some truthfulness. It could be either way depending on the state. The lowering of the Blood Alcohol Content percentage law is unnecessary and useless. Nevertheless, some states have already moved to the 0. 08%, and we hear the argument: “It makes no sense for a driver to be legally drunk in one state but not in another” (Stone 46). To that, I ask a couple questions of my own. Why can I carry a concealed gun in one state and not another? Why is it that I can drive a certain speed in one state, but a different speed in another?

The response to those questions and Stone’s statement is all of the above are state laws. At this point, the federal government seems to get confused. In October 2000, congress passed a law that uses the states’ money against them. It asserts that if a state doesn’t lower its BAC percentage to 0. 08% by 2003, it will lose two percent of its highway money. States that don’t like the law will be forced to vote for it because they are desperate for highway construction money. Strings shouldn’t be attached to this money.

What are lost in all of this are the current laws for drunk driving. Driving while impaired is already illegal whether the person tests 0. 04% or 0. 10%. Courts can use alcohol test of 0. 04% and higher as evidence of impairment. It’s at 0. 10% where a person is legally drunk and cannot legally operate a vehicle. Therefore, it’s not as if people who test 0. 08% are going unpunished like the other side would have you believe. In conclusion, anybody who picks out one particular aspect and says that it is not working hasn’t looked that the whole problem.

The president for the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Brian O’ Neill, says that he’d rather see resources directed toward enforcing existing drunken driving laws. Hopefully, with more education, more awareness, and more enforcement we can successfully reduce drinking and driving fatalities. Bibliography Stone, Judith Lee. Yes!. Reading and Writing Short Arguments. Ed. William Vesterman. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company, 2000. 46-47. Word Count: 702.

The Blood Brothers Essay

The Blood Brothers Essay

“Willy Russell writes entertaining drama about believable characters and champions the cause of the socially disadvantaged. ” With reference to the historical and social context of Blood Brothers, analyse the accuracy of this statement. ” Blood Brothers is a musical play written in the 1980s during a recession in a United Kingdom. Written by Willy Russell, the play revolves around the subject of social class, which is definitely a constant theme throughout the play. Set in Liverpool, the story centres on a set of twins that are separated at birth with both mothers desperately trying to keep them apart in vain.

In this essay I will analyse the accuracy of the statement above and relate to it throughout this essay. Russell uses a variety of techniques to make Blood Brothers an entertaining piece of drama. One way he portrays the story in an effective way to engage the audience, is by using dramatic tension. Dramatic tension is used when Mrs Lyons blackmails Mrs Johnstone to not tell anyone that the two boys are brothers, by using her fear of superstition.

“They say… they say that if either twin learns that he was once a pair, they shall both immediately die.

You won’t tell anyone about this Mrs Johnstone; because of you do you will kill them. ” This section of the play is an excellent example of dramatic tension as it creates suspense and makes the audience sympathise with Mrs Johnstone. Dramatic irony is also another technique Russell uses to entertain the audience. The section of the play where Mickey and Edward meet as young children is great example if this. “Ey, we were born on the same day… that means we can be blood brothers. Do you want to be my blood brother, Eddie?

The audience (and the narrators) know the full story, and know that Mickey and Eddie don’t need to be blood brothers because they are already real brothers, and share the same blood. This frees up the audience to observe the implications of the characters actions and having an advantage over the story, by knowing the full plot. Blood Brothers is a musical play, and the songs involved, play an important role throughout. As well as keeping the audience entertained the songs gives us character insight, provides extra information, and carries along the storyline.

The songs emphasise and highlight key moments during the play, and make the audience aware of their importance. Techniques such as foreshadowing are made clearer, and the music portrays certain moods making characters emotions and thoughts clearer. An interesting technique Russell has used at the beginning of the play is by using a prologue. This is a very effective way to engage the audience, by giving the audience an insight into the plot for example “of one womb born on the self same day, how one was kept and one given away…

” It brings forth questions in the audience’s mind and the answers are revealed as the story unfolds. It frees up the audience to speculate the storyline and how the ending came to be. This intricate plot structure shows how the characters actions have severe consequences throughout the story “An did you never hear how the Jonstones died, never knowing that they shared one name… ” Foreshadowing is fantastic technique that Russell uses successfully in the prologue and throughout the play. Foreshadowing is when events that happening later on in the play are foretold or hinted by earlier events.

The prologue makes foreshadowing possible because the end is revealed to the audience and makes them look for possible omens of this during the story. There are many great examples of this throughout the play, especially in the beginning when the children are playing with toy guns. “But you know that if you cross your fingers, and if you count from one to ten, you can get up off the ground again, it doesn’t matter the whole thing’s just a game. ” The reference to guns and “it’s just a game” is repeated throughout the play, and relates to the twin’s death at the end as both of them are shot.

At the end of the play it’s not just a childish game, and the reality becomes too difficult for the characters to deal with. The quotation implies a long for childish innocence from all the characters, and a cry for help from the tragic ending. Although the outcome of the Blood Brothers storyline is tragic, Russell adds comedy and humour throughout. When the boys first meet, an example of Russell’s humour occurs; “So they took him to the hospital an’ put a plate in his head… A plate? A dinner plate? ” Russell lightens the mood by injecting humour into a scene full of tension and irony.

The comedy in the play makes Blood Brothers a more enjoyable and entertaining piece of drama for the audience to watch. By adding this childlike humour into the play, it shows that Russell can invent realistic and believable characters which make the audience more likely to sympathise with the characters. As well as having a great understanding of young children, Russell also has an understanding of adolescents as well. “… Linda, I wanna kiss y’ an kiss y’… but I don’t know how to tell y’ because I’ve got pimples an’ me feet are too big an’ me bum sticks out…

Blood Brothers Essay

Blood Brothers Essay

You are the director of a new production of blood brothers. Give advice to the actors playing the roles of Eddie and Mickey about how to tackle the age changes. You must comment on at least two scenes in detail. If you have seen a production of Blood Brothers you may also refer to this. In the scene when you both meet for the first time you must consider your body language. You must consider how an eight year old would walk and stand.

An eight year old would have fewer worries than someone who is older than them so they would walk not really paying much attention to what is around them.

You would also have to think how someone who is better off would walk compared to someone who is from a less well off background. You have got to consider how to use the tone of your voice. At first they were a bit shy. But after they first met you would have to consider how an eight year old would not be shy so they would say anything so say your lines so the audience have no clue to what you will say next.

Another important factor to consider is the way you deliver your lines. You should deliver your lines in a free flowing way.

When they are swearing you should not feel like people might be offended. In the scene when you Mickey and Eddie meet for the first time after they have both moved to the country you should pay attention to your body language. This time Eddie and Mickey are both 16 – 17 years olds. So you have to think about how a 16 – 17 year old would act. A 16 – 17 year old would have more problems than a person of 8 years old but still not as many as an older person. You still have to consider how a person who is better off would act compared to a person from the ghetto.

Again you would have to consider the tone of your voice. You would expect a teenager to swear more and they may speak with a slight mumble. Again you should consider the way you deliver your lines. In the scene when Mickey is trying to kill Eddie you should again pay attention to your body language. This time Eddie and Mickey are both in they’re thirty’s. Mickey is depressed and he has a lot of problems an example of which was that he was put in jail for his brother shooting someone. While Eddie on the other hand has few, because he has a successful business.

Mickey has just realised that Eddie is seeing his girlfriend Linda. When Mickey is pointing the gun at Eddie, Eddie has to act scared because he fears for his life. Mickey is holding the gun so that he feels in control instead of having Eddie control his life. Mickey has to act confused because Eddie made his life; he gave him a job and a nice home. You again have to consider the tone of your voice. Mickey should say his lines in a sort of stuttery way. Eddie should deliver his lines in a scared voice, while Mickey should deliver his lines in a scared and confused way.