Categories for Behavior

User Behavior at Pinnacle Peak Essay

User Behavior at Pinnacle Peak Essay

Pinnacle Peak Hiking Area is a multipurpose, exercise trail used for both hiking and equestrians. It is a 1. 75 mile one-way trail in Rio Verde, Arizona with breathtaking views of the Sonoran Desert from every direction. Because the trail is not a loop, there is a lot of traffic on the trail, especially during the fall and winter seasons and on weekends. Families specifically enjoy this trail because there is no way for their children to get lost; there is one way in and one way out, no confusing side trails for anyone to take.

There are a few areas where people are tempted to cut corners when there is a lot of traffic on the trail. This is quite dangerous as the entire trail is up a mountain and someone could very easily slip and fall. To help prevent people from cutting corners, the management has strategically laid rocks and logs along certain corners so it is a lot harder for people to step outside these boundaries.

Parking for Pinnacle Peak is a disaster. There is very little parking in the designated parking lot, and so people have to park on the street and walk a fairly far distance before they even reach the trailhead.

Like the trail, there is only one way in and one way out; there is no going around the busy street full of cars. On weekends when the trail is extremely busy, the parking situation is chaotic. People are out of breath walking uphill before they even reach the trailhead. At the trail head there is a large shaded area, decorated to match its desert surroundings, for people to stretch, rest, drink water, and have snacks both before and after their hikes. I found this extremely inviting and welcoming to users of all ages and hiking abilities.

However, the trail itself is quite uninviting. The trail is unsuitable for both hikers and equestrians to be using at the same time. It is very rare that you will see horses on the trail; even without the horses, the trail is not nearly wide enough for the amount of hikers it sees each day. Several people would rather run than walk Pinnacle Peak, and some like to enjoy their time in nature while slowly strolling the trail. As mentioned before, families love this hike, and enjoy brining their children out to enjoy it with them.

Unfortunately, with the amount of people Pinnacle Peak attracts, there are often times when people will have to either step aside, or stop and wait for other hikers/runners to pass by. The waiting is annoying and inconvenient, especially for those fully dedicated to their workout, and needing to complete their hike without a single stop. Pam Carothers (2001) states in the article “Social Values Versus Interpersonal Conflict among Hikers and Mountain Bikers” that recreation conflict is a major issue, whether it is on a hiking trail or on a lake. Interpersonal conflict between hikers and mountain bikers may be related to speed, lack of courtesy, crowding, or safety concerns. Safety issues, for example, have been linked to trail design (blind corners) and the behaviors of some mountain bikers who ride too fast for existing conditions” (page 48). The same idea may apply to runners versus hikers, and those who are on the trail to exercise, versus those on the trail to enjoy the scenery.

The only possibility to helping with the “waiting” situation would be a wider trail, however that process would be very long and tedious, as well as expensive. Management has provided two rest areas throughout the trail in which people can step aside, let people pass, grab a drink of water, and enjoy the scenery, all while staying out of other hikers ways. A few more rest stops/pull out areas could help out with the congestion and waiting, as well as people cutting corners and possibly injuring them selves.

Before you reach the trailhead, there is an information center with brochures, safety packets, and attentive volunteers wanting to answer any questions you may have about the trail, scenery or surrounding wildlife. John Loleit, Recreation Coordinator at Pinnacle Peak says, “Year round, you have a good chance of spotting wildlife, especially in the early morning and at dusk”. The information center also has bright, detailed pictures of harmful insects, animals, and plants to keep an eye out for on the trail.

Next to the information center are bathrooms, very well kept all year long with accessible stalls and water fountains. Because the trail is technically used for equestrians, too, some sort of horse facilities would be appropriate. Water troughs, large areas to park trailers, and hitching posts would all be extremely helpful for those with horses. Maybe with these extra facilities, the trail would attract more equestrians. As mentioned earlier, this site is very popular to families. Children are always playing on the rocks and benches at the beginning of the trail and rest area.

In most cases this would be dangerous and unacceptable, however Pinnacle Peak is very “kid friendly”, and everything is set up for the safety of the hikers. Several runners cut across the trail on busy days when there are packs of people crowding certain areas. Even with the logs and rocks blocking off the corners, it is difficult to avoid this situation. Large groups of hikers love to stop and take pictures together with the beautiful desert scenery in the background. And who could blame them? Pinnacle Peak does an amazing job in taking advantage of its many views.

No matter where you are on the trail, you will have a breath taking view of either Four Peaks or Tom’s Thumb, and at the right time of day, the mixture of pinks and reds of the setting sun. I noticed right away that Pinnacle Peak’s trail is not “horse friendly”, even though it is supposed to cater to equestrian needs as well as pedestrians. The trail has several stairways made of logs and rocks, both very difficult for horses to climb. The trail, along with the lack of horse facilities, probably discourages many equestrians from attending Pinnacle Peak.

Many horse owners live in the area around Pinnacle Peak; if they built a few facilities and fixed the trail to work with horses, they would be seeing a large increase of attendees. I also noticed that the trail was built in such a way that it works perfectly with the contours of the mountain. There are stretches of both smooth surfaces and uphill climbs, tight curves and long straightaways. They definitely used the area to the best of their ability when planning out how the trail would run.

By completing this project I learnt the importance of planning ahead and taking into consideration how people interact with their environment. I think that when it comes time to plan an event, facility, or specific environment, researching other competitors is crucial, to see what works, what doesn’t work, and what you are going to do to be proactive against certain issues. I expect to use this information professionally to help plan ahead for any event or facility in my future. The more knowledge and little tips I build now, the more prepared I will be for my professional career.

Theories Of Delinquency Essay

Theories Of Delinquency Essay

Deviant behavior is behavior that is a recognized violation of social norms. Formal and informal social controls attempt to prevent and minimize deviance. One such control is through the medicalization of deviance.

Acting upon certain discriminatory facts or problems. It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant.

Crime, the violation of formally enacted law, is formal deviance while an informal social violation such as picking one’s nose is an example of informal deviance.

It also means not doing what the majority does or alternatively doing what the majority does not do. For instance, behaviors caused by cultural difference can be seen as deviance. It does not necessarily mean criminal behavior.

An example of a group considered deviant in the modern United States is the Ku Klux Klan. Milder examples include punks and goths.

I have chosen two sociological theories namely differential association and conflict theory.  On the other hand I also chose psychoanalytic theory and learning theory under psychological theories.

Sociological Theories

  1. Differential association

Also known as Social Learning Theory, it explains deviance as a learned behavior. The most important variables in this theory are the age of the learner of deviance, the quality of contact between the learner and the deviant role model, and the relationship between the learner and the deviant model. It does a great job of explaining how children grow up to become law-breakers or juvenile offenders, but it suffers from a paradox. If all deviance is learned from a teacher, and the teacher learned from their teacher, how did the first teachers learn to be deviant?

In criminology, Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior.

The Differential Association Theory is the most talked about of the Interactionist theory of deviance. This theory focuses on how individuals learn how to become criminals, but does not concern itself with why they become criminals. They learn how to commit criminal acts; they learn motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. It grows socially easier for the individuals to commit a crime. Their inspiration is the processes of cultural transmission and construction. Sutherland had developed the idea of the “self” as a social construct, like when a person’s self-image is continuously being reconstructed especially when interacting with other people.

This theory stated that an individual commits deviant acts because of his motives, interests, drives and even attitudes.  Now let me apply this theory to the three deviant acts.

  1. Breaking and entering a home is an example of this. The individual will do such act if there is motive, for example getting valuable things in order to get his goal. His goal is maybe revenge or just plain theft.
  2. Another deviant behavior is carjacking, if the individual’s goal is to use that particular act in unlawful acts. An individual will do such act for self satisfaction.
  3. If an individual grew up in a community wherein deviant behavior can be seen all over he might commit the same deviant acts such as shoplifting. For example, if only this ct will supply all the needs of the individual.
  4. Conflict theory

Conflict theorists generally see deviance as a result of conflict between individuals and groups. The theoretical orientation contributes to labeling theory in that it explains that those with power create norms and label deviants. Deviant behavior is actions that do not go along with the socially prescribed worldview of the powerful, and is often a result of the present social structure preventing the minority group access to scarce resources.

Since it explains deviance as a reaction due to conflict between groups and individuals due to scarce resources, it does a great job of explaining deviance by poor citizens, etc. However, it does not do such an excellent job in explaining white-collar crime. This theory also states that the powerful define crime. This begs the question, whom is this theory functional to? In this theory, laws are instruments of oppression. In other words, tough on the powerless and less tough on the powerful.

In sociology, conflict theory states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. The theory is mostly applied to explain conflict between social classes, proletarian versus bourgeoisie; and in ideologies such as capitalism versus socialism.

The theory attempts to refute functionalism, which considers that societies and organization function so that each individual and group plays a specific role, like organs in the body. There are radical basic assumptions (society is eternally in conflict, which might explain social change), or moderate ones (custom and conflict are always mixed). The moderate version allows for functionalism to operate as an equally acceptable theory since it would accept that even negative social institutions play a part in society’s self-perpetuation.

In understanding conflict theory, social class competition plays a key part.

The following are four primary assumptions of modern conflict theory:

  1. Competition. Competition over scarce resources (money, leisure, sexual partners, and so on) is at the heart of all social relationships. Competition rather than consensus is characteristic of human relationships.
  2. Structural inequality. Inequalities in power and reward are built into all social structures. Individuals and groups that benefit from any particular structure strive to see it maintained.
  3. Revolution. Change occurs as a result of conflict between social class’ competing interests rather than through adaptation. It is often abrupt and revolutionary rather than evolutionary.
  4. War. Even war is a unifier of the societies involved, as well as war may set an end to whole societies.

Conflict theory is mostly applied to explain conflict between social classes, proletarian versus bourgeoisie; and in ideologies such as capitalism versus socialism.  Let me take the four primary assumptions of modern conflict theory in applying this theory to the three deviant acts.

  1. Competition
  2. The individual might indulge in shoplifting if the resources are not well distributed to the society, or if there is scarcity.
  3. Breaking and entering a home also occurs because of the existence of conflict between social classes. The lower class may do this act for him to get things that he cannot buy.
  4. Structural inequality
  5. Carjacking may exist because of this. Inequalities in power and wealth are one reason why people do such act.  Before a car is just leisure but times goes by, it becomes a need to people.  Cars nowadays have become a status symbol.  Some people indulge into this act in order to supplement other deviant act like kidnapping and others.

Psychological Theories

Psychological theories of crime begin with the view that individual differences in behavior may make some people more predisposed to committing criminal acts. These differences may arise from personality characteristics, biological factors, or social interactions.

  1. Psychoanalytic Theory

According to Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), who is credited with the development of psychoanalytic theory, all humans have natural drives and urges repressed in the unconscious. Furthermore, all humans have criminal tendencies. Through the process of socialization, however, these tendencies are curbed by the development of inner controls that are learned through childhood experience.

Freud hypothesized that the most common element that contributed to criminal behavior was faulty identification by a child with her or his parents. The improperly socialized child may develop a personality disturbance that causes her or him to direct antisocial impulses inward or outward. The child who directs them outward becomes a criminal, and the child that directs them inward becomes a neurotic.

Let us now take a look at sociological theories.  The first one is psychoanalytic theory, Sigmund Freud contented that all humans have criminal tendencies.  These tendencies may become reality because of different instances. Let me now apply this theory to the three deviant acts.

  1. Breaking and entering a home may depend on the family orientation. If the child is aware that it is the job of his father, sooner or later the child may also do the same act. It is mentioned that Freud saw all human behavior as motivated by the drives or instincts, which in turn are the neurological representations of physical needs. At first, he referred to them as the life instincts. These instincts perpetuate the life of the individual, by motivating him or her to seek food and water.
  2. If the individual is jobless and doesn’t have the money to buy food, the individual may shoplift in order to overcome hunger.
  3. He also mentioned that the unconscious is the source of our motivations. An individual may get involve into carjacking because of his friends but unconsciously, he has the inner desire to drive new and expensive cars.
  4. Learning Theory

Learning theory is based upon the principles of behavioral psychology. Behavioral psychology posits that a person’s behavior is learned and maintained by its consequences, or reward value. These consequences may be external reinforcement that occurs as a direct result of their behavior (e.g. money, social status, and goods), vicarious reinforcement that occurs by observing the behavior of others (e.g. observing others who are being reinforced as a result of their behavior), and self-regulatory mechanisms (e.g. people responding to their behavior).

According to learning theorists, deviant behavior can be eliminated or modified by taking away the reward value of the behavior. Hans J. Eysenck, a psychologist that related principles of behavioral psychology to biology, postulated that by way of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling people learn moral preferences. Classical conditioning refers to the learning process that occurs as a result of pairing a reliable stimulus with a response.

Eysenck believes, for example, that over time a child who is consistently punished for inappropriate behavior will develop an unpleasant physiological and emotional response whenever they consider committing the inappropriate behavior. The anxiety and guilt that arise from this conditioning process result in the development of a conscience. He hypothesizes, however, that there is wide variability among people in their physiological processes, which either increase or decrease their susceptibility to conditioning and adequate socialization.

The second one is the learning theory. Let us apply this theory to the following deviant acts.

  1. A shoplifter do such acts because in the end he is being rewarded, he may eat the food he shoplifted or even sell materials he got from the store. By means of this he is also earning money.
  2. Another deviant act is breaking and entering a home because the individual has observed the same acts from his peers.
  3. Behaviorists say that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behavior; in contrast social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. Learning may or may not result in a behavior change. A good example of this carjacking, the individual may learn how these acts do by merely observing and eventually he may do it and be rewarded by this act.


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     Social Learning Theory. Retrieved November 19, 2006.

Journal of Consumer Behavior Essay

Journal of Consumer Behavior Essay

Consumer complaints and recovery through guaranteeing self-service technology NICHOLA ROBERTSON1*, LISA MCQUILKEN1 and JAY KANDAMPULLY2 1 Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia 2 Ohio State University, 266 Campbell Hall, 1787 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA ABSTRACT Self-service technologies are shaping the future of consumer behaviour, yet consumers often experience service failure in this context. This conceptual paper focuses on self-service technology failure and recovery. A consumer perspective is taken. Recovering from self-service technology failure is fraught with difficulty, mainly because of the absence of service personnel.

The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical framework and associated research propositions in respect to the positive role that service guarantees can play in the context of self-service technology failure and recovery.

It contributes to the consumer behaviour domain by unifying the theory pertaining to consumer complaint behaviour, service recovery, specifically consumers’ perceptions of justice, and service guarantees, which are set in a distinctive self-service technology context. It is advanced that service guarantees, specifically multiple attribute-specific guarantees, are associated with consumer voice complaints following self-service technology failure, which is contingent on the attribution of blame in the light of consumers’ production role.

Service guarantees are argued to be associated with consumers’ perceptions of just recovery in the selfservice technology context when they promise to fix the problem, compensate only when the problem cannot be remedied, offer a choice of compensation that is contingent on failure severity, afford ease of invocation and collection, and provide a personalised response to failures. Previous classifications of SSTs are used to highlight the applicability of guarantees for different types of SSTs. Managerial implications based on the theoretical framework are presented, along with future research directions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


The growing application of technology in services has transformed the way that organisations interact with consumers (Liljander et al., 2006). Self-service technologies (SSTs) are technological interfaces that enable consumers to generate benefits for themselves, without the presence of the organisation’s personnel (Meuter et al., 2000). They enable consumers to take an active role in the production of their service experience. As SSTs are a major force shaping consumer behaviour (Beatson et al., 2006), the implications for both consumers and organisations need to be considered. The failure of SSTs is commonplace (Forbes, 2008; Robertson and Shaw, 2009).

SST failure, or consumers’ perception that one or more aspects of SST delivery have not met their expectations, is attributed to poor service and failing technology (Meuter et al., 2000). Failures are inevitable with all services, especially SSTs that introduce new types of failures, such as consumer failures (Forbes, 2008; Meuter et al., 2000). However, SST recovery, e.g., fixing the problem and providing compensation, is generally reported to be poor (Forbes, 2008).

While consumers demand a superior response to SST failure, complaints are largely ineffectively handled in this context (Collier and Bienstock, 2006). This is despite the fact that SST failure intensifies the need for recovery because consumers are often remote from service personnel (Collier and Bienstock, 2006). SST providers have ignored consumers, denied responsibility for failure, blamed consumers for the problem, *Correspondence to: Nichola Robertson, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia. E-mail: [email protected] and provided a generic complaint response (Forbes, 2008; Holloway and Beatty, 2003). Unsurprisingly, consumers might not bother voicing because they believe that it will be useless (Holloway and Beatty, 2003; Snellman and Vihtkari, 2003). If consumers are dissatisfied with an SST encounter and service recovery is perceived to be inept, they will switch and/or spread negative word of mouth and/or mouse (Collier and Bienstock, 2006; Dong et al., 2008; Harris et al., 2006a).

In the interpersonal service context, it has been argued, albeit rarely, that service guarantees, or explicit promises made by organisations to deliver a certain level of service to satisfy consumers and to remunerate them if the service fails (Hogreve and Gremler, 2009), are an effective recovery tool (Björlin-Lidén and Skålén, 2003; Kashyap, 2001; McColl et al., 2005). In a recovery encounter, service guarantees have been found to provide benefits, such as reducing consumer dissatisfaction, negative word of mouth, and switching (Wirtz, 1998). We argue that in the context of SST failure, service guarantees could act as a surrogate for service personnel who, in the interpersonal service context, encourage consumer complaints and facilitate recovery.

Following our extensive review of service guarantees employed in the SST context, it was revealed that guarantees are uncommon in practice for non-Internet SSTs, such as kiosks and interactive voice response (IVR). However, in the Internet context, they appear to be more widespread. For example, guarantees are often used in the context of online banking, where online security, in particular, is guaranteed. They are also prevalent in the hotel context, typically in the form of online price matching guarantees. Therefore, the ‘real-life’ examples of SST guarantees provided throughout this paper are skewed toward Internet SSTs. However, in N. Robertson et al. guarantees also have the ability to enhance consumers’ perceptions of fairness following failure. SST guarantees indicate justice in a context that is mostly devoid of interpersonal and other external cues, thereby encouraging consumer voice, facilitating service recovery, and, ultimately, retaining the organisation’s reputation and its consumers.

Our paper contributes to the consumer behaviour domain by adding to the underdeveloped literature on consumer complaints, consumer recovery perceptions, and service guarantees in the SST context, in addition to bringing these independent streams of literature together. As SST recovery in practice is reported to be deficient from the consumer perspective, further exploration of this topic is warranted. The remainder of this paper justifies a conceptual framework that describes how guarantees applied to different types of SSTs can encourage consumers to voice following failure and enable organisations to provide just recovery for consumers. We close with theoretical contributions, managerial implications, and an agenda for future research.

developing our propositions, we apply the SST classification schemes developed by Dabholkar (1994) and Meuter et al. (2000) in respect to technology type, purpose, and location. These schemes will be used to highlight the SST contexts that best fit the application of guarantees, which is beyond Internet SSTs. There are two key types of guarantees commonly offered in interpersonal services, unconditional and attributespecific, that also appear to be relevant in the SST setting. An unconditional guarantee covers the core service offering, and consumers are free to invoke it whenever they are dissatisfied (Wirtz et al., 2000). The attribute-specific guarantee is narrower in breadth, covering either a single or multiple service attributes (Van Looy et al., 2003). It is directed to areas within an organisation where consumers perceive that the guarantee adds value (Hart et al., 1992). The attribute-specific guarantee is the type most common in interpersonal services (Van Looy et al., 2003).

Our review revealed that this also applies to SSTs. For example, Hertz car rental offers its consumers online check-in for rentals. It guarantees that online check-in enables consumers to pick up a rental vehicle within 10 minutes or less. If it fails to fulfil this specific promise, consumers are credited $50. In another example,, an online dating service, guarantees via its ‘Make Love Happen Guarantee’, that if consumers do not find someone special in six months of using its site, it will provide them with six months free service. In the interpersonal service context, consumers have been found to prefer attribute-specific guarantees when they consider invoking the guarantee, ‘. . . probably for their clarity and manifest nature’ (McDougall et al., 1998: 289). We further argue that in the SST context, generally devoid of service personnel and, therefore, with reduced opportunities for consumer monitoring, the clarity of an attribute-specific guarantee is less likely to attract consumer abuse (McCollough and Gremler, 2004).

Therefore, we advocate and assume for the remainder of this paper an attribute-specific guarantee. This can cover multiple SST attributes, which is referred to as a multiple attribute-specific guarantee. For example,, an online printing service, guarantees both the quality of its product and on-time delivery. This type of guarantee provides consumers with the opportunity to complain about several SST problems via guarantee invocation (Björlin-Lidén and Skålén, 2003). In the context of service recovery, the examination of service guarantees has been scarce, and the use of service guarantees in the SST context has not been examined before. This is confirmed by Hogreve and Gremler (2009) in their review of the past 20years of service guarantee research.

To begin to address these gaps, our paper conceptualises the role of service guarantees in the SST failure and recovery context from the consumer perspective. We consider different types of SSTs in developing our propositions. We argue that SST guarantees encourage consumers to voice their complaints via guarantee invocation in the absence of service personnel. In line with the call for research examining the justice dimensions (i.e., distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of service recovery in the SST context (Forbes et al., 2005), we propose that SST Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


The conceptual framework proposed (see Figure 1) is grounded in the theory pertaining to service guarantees, consumer voice, attribution theory, and justice theory. In justifying the framework, the distinctive characteristics of the SST context were considered, including the requirement of consumer co-production that is independent of service personnel, a lack of interpersonal interaction with service personnel, and consumers being obliged to interface and interact with technology (Robertson and Shaw, 2009). When studying SSTs, it is important to distinguish meaningfully between their types (Meuter et al., 2000). In terms of categorising SSTs, two key classification schemes can be drawn. The most cited classification scheme is that proposed by Dabholkar (1994).

Her classification scheme considers the following variables: (i) who delivers the service (degree and level of consumer participation); (ii) where the service is delivered (location of the SST, i.e. remote, such as IVR or onsite, such as kiosks); and (iii) how the service is delivered (technology type, i.e. Internet and non-Internet, such as kiosks and IVR). More recently, Meuter et al. (2000) proposed a similar classification of SSTs. As per Dabholkar’s (1994) scheme, they included the different types of technologies that organisations use to interface with consumers (i.e., Internet and non-Internet) and the purpose of the technology from the viewpoint of consumers, that is, what consumers accomplish from using the technology (i.e., transactions and/or customer service).

Types of Behaviors Essay

Types of Behaviors Essay

Description: In this assignment, you will apply the principles of classical and operant conditioning, as well as the notions derived from cognitive explanations of learning. You will write a paper on one of two types of behaviors that can be readily explained from a learning perspective.

Using a Microsoft Word document, write a 500- to 750-word paper that explains the development of one of the following behaviors. (Be sure to specify the behavior you are discussing in your paper.)

*Fear-driven reactions to insects

Consumer behaviour Essay

Consumer behaviour Essay

Understanding consumer behaviour has taken the attention of researchers and companies due to their relevance for business success (Jones et al 2000). How is consumer satisfaction related with their loyalty has been likely the most important issue in consumer behaviour for ensure a long-term success in a marketing strategy (Pappu et al 2006). The literature and researchers suggest that there is a strong relation between product satisfaction and brand loyalty, but always highlighting their relation as a unidirectional relationship.

In other words, product or service satisfaction has a direct relationship with loyalty, but loyalty has not a significant dependency with satisfaction (Oslen 2005).

In other words, brands can have satisfied customers; nevertheless, that does not mean loyal customers in the future (Oslen 2005). In addition, the literatures also suggest that there is a link between loyalty and profitability thanks to repurchase behaviour (Dick & Basu 1994; Anderson et al 1994; Rust et al 1995).

All these positive consequences are possible if managers consider in their strategies concepts such as consumer satisfaction and customer loyalty to build strong relationships based on trust and commitment (Dick & Basu 1994).

All these concepts are totally useful to take a lot of opportunities in the wine business. Its features as a business mix between products and services, its challenging competitive environment and its complexity for products evaluation, make the wine business completely dependent of these concepts.

Hence, this essay will discuss what is customer satisfaction and why is relevant for a business success in a long-term. Then, it will do the same with customer loyalty concept making a special attention in the differences between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty concepts. Furthermore, to have different viewpoints about loyalty, also it will be discussed an important argument against loyalty known as “double jeopardy effect”. After that, this essay will offer two approaches of how is calculated customer profitability due to their significance in managerial marketing decisions.

Finally, it will be explained how are linked satisfaction- loyalty-profitability and its consequences to the wine business. Customer satisfaction is very important to a business success in a long-term (Jones et al 2000; Pappu et al 2006). There is a wide range of arguments to support why customer satisfaction is so relevant for future performance of many companies. For example, satisfied customers are stronger against competition marketing campaigns, also they are less sensitive to the price and might be more loyal to the brand than unsatisfied customers (Dimitriades 2010).

However, satisfaction is not the only step that wineries have to give to archive their goals with their clients. There is a big differentiation between satisfaction and loyalty, and a deep understanding of each concept might be essential for businesses with a strong association between products and services like the wine business. Nowadays, the wine business has been recognized as one of the most competitive business due to its small margins and large supply. In addition, the changing wine business environment has forced wine producer to use strategies focused on consumer preferences (Kimpakorn & Tocquer 2011).

All these factors have become critical for wineries that want to have a differentiation against their competitors and satisfy their customers. According to aforementioned, several authors are defined and studied customer satisfaction and their loyalty due to their relevance in a long-term, but their definitions vary according to the purpose of the study (Oslen 2005). Nevertheless, The American Marketing Association (AMA), is the most respectful professional association for individuals and organizations who are leading the practice, teaching, and development of marketing worldwide, and they defined customer satisfaction as follow: 1.

The degree to which a consumer’s expectations are fulfilled or surpassed by a product. 2. The post-purchase evaluation of a consumer action by the ultimate consumer or the decision maker. The beliefs, attitudes, and future purchase patterns; word-of-mouth communication; and legal and informal complaints have been related to the post-purchase satisfaction/dissatisfaction process. (American Marketing Association 2012) Therefore, for those wineries that are looking for a differentiation, satisfied customers might be a good alternative.

As it is possible to see, according to the definition of AMA, everything is related with consumer’s expectations and how companies exceed it or not. In addition, the post-purchase process will determinate their attitudes and beliefs to the brand. In this line, a satisfied customer is a potential ‘promoter’ of the brand through word-of-mouth and could be a very profitable if companies understand their needs and wants. Moreover, Anderson and Sullivan (1993) explain that are two factors as antecedents of satisfaction, expectations and perceived quality (Anderson et al 1993).

This means, the evaluating process will depend on how were built these expectations and the quality perceived. Furthermore, the authors sustain that these antecedents will have a different weight in the process depending on how complex is evaluate the product. Consequently, it might be more relevant manage customer satisfaction when clients are familiarized with the product. On the contrary, when the product is complex or difficult for evaluating, expectations are more relevant (Anderson et al 1993). So, these findings challenge the wine industry due to wine is not an easy product to evaluate.

In other words, it is not enough produce just a good quality wine, but also it is manage customer’s expectation as a part of their job to obtain their satisfaction. Wineries that already exceed customer’ expectations, now are looking for keeping their attention and future preferences. Is here when loyalty becomes an important and relevant goal for those wineries that passed the first step, create a long-term relationship with their customers. Many conceptualizations of customer loyalty can be found in the literature (Donio et al 2006).

The importance of create profitable relationship with customers is so relevant that many authors have dedicated their studies to understand it. What is customer loyalty and why it is so significant to the future success of a business are the key questions. The main recurrent argument in the literature is capturing a new customer is much more expensive than delighting existing one (Dick & Basu 1994). As we discuss before, satisfaction in the wine business is more related with customer expectation, but once exceeded these expectations, is essential start to thinking in how to build a sustainable relationship with customers in the long-term.

Dick and Basu (1994) defined loyalty as follow: “The strength of the relationship between an individual’s relative attitude towards an entity (brand, service, store, or vendor) and repeat patronage” (Dick & Basu 1994) So, Dick and Basu (1994) suggest that there is a link between the strength of the relationship and the individual’s relative attitudes toward a brand, which it determinate a possible future purchase. Now, it is not clear yet how these attitudes work and are built. To explain this, Dick and Basu (1994) explain three different approaches of customer loyalty.

First, loyalty as an attitude toward a brand, second, loyalty expressed as a pattern behaviours, and third, buying moderated by individual attitudes (Dick & Basu 1994). Understanding these three views are very useful for appreciate deeply what is customer loyalty. The first approach is viewed as positive attitudes toward a brand. This means, a good past experiences generated a commitment with the brand. This is measured asking people how much they like the brand or if they will give any recommendations.

The level of these feelings and recommendations will measure the level of commitment with the brand and future purchases (Dick & Basu 1994). In other words, any marketing campaign that reinforces positive attributes toward the brand is working on enhancing these positive attitudes. For instance, Coca-cola and its marketing campaign of happiness or Harley-Davidson and their ‘unique sound’ and ‘style’ of motorcycles, both are campaigns that enhance positive attributes toward the brand.

However, this definition is not quite verifiable for buying of ‘low-risk’ (Dick & Basu 1994). The second definition, loyalty expressed as pattern behaviour, defines different kind of customers. Those called ‘monogamous’ that means one hundred per cent loyal to a brand and the others as ‘promiscuous’ that means loyal to a category of products more than a specific brand (Dick & Basu 1994). So, under this definition loyalty is more like a propensity to buy a brand into a category of products than feelings of commitment with a particular one.

In deed, there are evidences that show people who declared them self as satisfied or very satisfied and in the next purchase they buy another brand. For example, In the UK, Oglivy Loyalty Centre found that, although 85% of automotive customers declared them self as satisfied, only 40% bought the same brand, and of packaged goods customers who identified a favourite brand, the 66% had bought another brand recently (O’Malley 1998). Finally, the third approach, buying moderate by individual attitudes, links the behaviour with customer’ attitudes.

Dick & Basu (1994) interpret behaviour as the act of buying plus the attitudes created for that act. As attitudinal dimensions Dick and Basu (1994) give three steps, ‘customer satisfaction’, ‘customer trust’ and ‘customer commitment’. These three steps would be the antecedents of customer loyalty. In simple words, people will buy something with expectations created by advertising, background, social environment, etc. Then, post-purchase, they will create several attitudes according to the process of product evaluation.

Consequently, these attitudes will generate satisfaction if these expectations were exceed it. Once satisfaction is obtained, people might develop trust in that brand and a possible desire of commitment. Hence, according to this third definition, we can see a deeper process behind customer loyalty and a better explanation of how to manage it. It may say, to build customer loyalty is not enough create a relationship through a loyalty scheme, gifts or create email lists and send emails for communicating promotions and activities.

Loyalty is much more complex than that, first, it is necessary obtain customers’ trust for building a compromise with them (Dick & Basu 1994). Then, once customers take commitment, it is possible to speak about loyalty. As an example, this is similar to marriage. First, there is a period where people know each other (trust), then, people who really want to make a compromise for building something in the future get engaged, and finally, during the marriage, the couple works everyday to remember their votes and keep their loyalty through time.

In marketing, seems to be the same pattern, companies that want to create strong relationships based on trust, first, they must gain it. Then, companies have to build a commitment with those customers that are profitable for them and, finally, find the way to develop their loyalty, remembering why they took this preference in the past. Small brands have a double goal, increase their market share and their popularity to defeat the double jeopardy effect. In the literature it is possible to find a very common, but unknowing phenomenon called, Double Jeopardy (Ehrenberng et al 1990).

This phenomenon, presented in business is cited as one of the most common arguments against loyalty explaining the repurchase behaviour as a consequence of the brand size in the market. Ehrenberg (1999) explains this phenomenon as follow: In any given time period, a small brand typically has far fewer buyers than a larger brand. In addition, its buyers tend to buy it less often. This pattern is an instance of a widespread phenomenon called “double jeopardy”

Household Behavior and Demand Essay

Household Behavior and Demand Essay

Household behavior is one of the any basic concepts in economics which has an effect on market trends. Household demand, for instance, can be seen as related to consumer choices in terms of which products are mostly bought in the market and which products need more supplies in terms of item production and its corresponding allocation. One of the many essential features of household demand is its corresponding effect on what is being provided in the market and, more importantly, the quantities or stock that is being allocated in the market.

It seems quite obvious that the quantities of certain products in the market—for instance, in a certain area or a certain supermarket—are patterned according to the existing demand and the foreseen demands a some point in the future, say within a frame of a few weeks time. Household behavior, for its effects on market trends to be realized and understood, must be taken from a general and collective standpoint since a single specific household behavior cannot entirely be taken into account as the precise and sole measure in determining the overall household behavior true for all o most instances with regard to market trends.

For example, it has been observed that Chinese people rely largely on the prices of products in determining which ones are the best buys. Paul French notes that “for pragmatic Chinese shoppers, price remains the bottom-line” which translates to the idea that “win on price and you win” (French, 2007). Hence, in the context of Chinese households, producers of certain goods should greatly consider the fact that Chinese households will most likely prefer goods which are relatively lower in price as compared to other products in the market in order stay atop the competition.

To be able to gain control of the price index of a certain product in the market means to be able to win the market competition if the Chinese household behavior is the primary basis to be used. The perception appears simple enough: household behavior determines household demand which, in consequence, affects a large portion of certain market trends. Thus, to analyze a specific market trend for a specific product entails the analysis and understanding of certain trends in household demand caused by household behavior.

An existing household demand, say, for breakfast cereals can be looked upon the collective household behavior in terms of cereal consumption for the past six months for the locality of Chicago, for example. Given a relatively high consumption rate for breakfast cereals with the price not exceeding $4 per box among families, companies producing breakfast cereals may have the corresponding decision to pattern their product according to the existing demand.

Although it may not essentially be the case that companies will sacrifice prices of their products in order to meet the demand for the value of the products, being able to adjust product prices in accordance to the existing market prices will most likely lead to favorable results on the part of the companies since market demand is met. Quite on the contrary, there are still other related factors which hinder the feat of lowering prices according to the budget and income of households which determine their capacity to buy and consume certain products.

More recently, several instant-noodle corporations in China have difficulties in lowering the prices of their products due to escalating prices in wheat and other farm commodities (Zhu, 2007). With prices in instant-noodles—a popular product among individuals with meager budget—soaring, even the household demand or low-cost instant-noodles may hardly deter companies from lowering the prices of their goods just to meet the existing demand in the market.

On the part of households, proper allocation of income can be one remedy in order to curb unnecessary spending so as to be able to allocate budget on goods which the households deem as a dire part of their income-spending. In this case, household behavior and demand appears to be patterned according to the existing market trends which is the opposite or reverse case of what has been provided earlier. Hence, it is also possible to have a household behavior or consumer choice that is based on existing market trends apart from the possibility that market trends may also be based on existing consumer choice and household behavior.

Allocating income to maximize utility is one household behavior that determines consumer choice in the long run. For instance, there is the observation that “household expenditure patterns are affected by the share of household income accruing to women” (Hopkins, Levin, & Haddad, 1994). Given this perception, the choices of consumers over a vast array of products competing in the market is not only affected by external elements determined by companies but also by internal elements sprouting from household consumption patterns of certain goods in relation to the household’s budget allocation.

In terms of income and substitution effects, the changes in the prices of certain goods are proposed to alter the demands for such goods. Changes in relative prices as well as changes in the purchasing power of the money income can greatly alter the existing demands for, say, a breakfast cereal. Even if the prices for breakfast cereals remain the same for a given period, alterations in the income will result to an equal change in the budget constraint (Hamermesh, 1977).

On the other hand, if the price of breakfast cereals changes, the budget constraint will change accordingly. One concrete way in further understanding the situation is that in order to maximize the utility with the decreased budget constraint, the household will tend to have shifts in their patterns of consumption. For instance, with the budget constraint arising from the decrease in the money’s purchasing power, households will tend to maximize the utility of money by increasing the segregation of purchases of goods based on low-cost preference.

An example to this is when households purchase goods with relatively lower prices given a budget of $20 which results to more purchases of various goods while on the other hand households purchasing goods with relatively higher prices will result to lesser maximization of the utility or lesser goods purchased with the $20 budget. Hence, wage rates also share a crucial part in determining household behavior and demand as well as consumer choice. It has been seen that the rates of wages of certain groups of people have corresponding implications on the purchasing power of households.

To arrive at the observation that the wage of a household is decreased corresponds to the observation that the purchasing capacity of the same household proportionally, if not significantly, decreases. A higher wage, then, will translate to a higher capacity to purchase goods in the market. In the larger scheme, a group of households with a high rate of wage will most likely have higher purchasing capacity thereby inducing the household behavior of increased spending assuming the household has lesser tendencies to save their income.

In effect, a certain market demand will be conjured in such a way that a certain good, for instance, will experience an increase in demand which calls for a corresponding increase in goods being supplied. Thus, it can be noted that the overall rate in household demand will relatively increase given the increase in wages. On the other hand, interest rates may greatly alter or shift the persisting demand from households towards a certain good. For instance, a higher interest rates for purchased loans by households will certainly result to a higher real cost of purchase in the fulfillment of all payments made for the loan.

It is quite apparent that an increase of 2% in interest rates from 4% to 6% will most certainly have a corresponding effect on the actual cost of the good purchased. For the most part, higher interest rates translate to higher cost of purchases, decreased household spending given a fixed rate of wages, and a lesser spending on other goods which result to a corresponding decrease in the demand for those other goods. The price of leisure also has a significant role in comprehending the patterns in household demand and consumer choices.

For instance, higher prices in the cost of airplane travels would entail that the consumer will opt for the airline provider with the least cost. A decline in the preference for airlines with comparatively higher airline prices will most likely be felt assuming that a given set of consumers have fixed income. Budget constraints in an environment of increasing prices in leisure enable one to view the household demand for existing leisure. Indeed, it has been observed that several market trends can be viewed and analyzed using the perceptions on household behavior and demand for certain goods and products.

The interrelationships existing between the market trend and the household behavior is clear although at some point several exceptions would have to be made. Essential to this understanding is the view that there may or may not be actual budget constraints and that prices of commodities may actually shift even without the presence of the shift such as a decline or incline in the demand from households. Nevertheless, there are many cases in which household behavior has its implications on the existing market trends.


French, P. (2007). When the Best Buy Is No Buy. The Wall Street Journal(August 7). Hamermesh, D. S. (1977). A Note on Income and Substitution Effects in Search Unemployment. The Economic Journal, 87(346), 312. Hopkins, J. , Levin, C. , & Haddad, L. (1994). Women’s Income and Household Expenditure Patterns: Gender or Flow? Evidence from Niger. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76(5), 1219. Zhu, E. (2007). China’s Battle Against Inflation Puts Noodle Makers in Hot Water. The Wall Street Journal(August 29), B11.

Nature vs. Nurture Essay

Nature vs. Nurture Essay

Over recent years the nature vs. nurture debate has been extensively discussed and researched. Should human characteristics such as intelligence, personality, behavior and ability be attributed to our genetics or our environment? One problem with this is how to pin a trait down to either an inherited or learned characteristic, or perhaps it’s both.

Are we to blame for our behavior or is inevitable due to our genetics? This question and others seems to be part of the controversy over the subject.

Also, these questions play a factor in how to change and adapt behavior. Different techniques would be more effective depending on the cause of a particular behavior or characteristic.

When analyzing the causes of behavior problems in children the question of nature vs. nurture is a legitimate question. One recent study conducted by the University of Virginia and several others including one in Australia studied 1,045 twins and their 2,051 children. Some of the parents were identical twins with others being fraternal.

This affected the amount of genes that were shared among the siblings. Participants were twins from a volunteer twin registry and information was gathered through a series of phone interviews beginning in 1993 and ending in 2003.

The study discovered that spousal fighting wasn’t to blame for behavioral problems in their children. Rather, it was the genes that influenced how often they argued with spouses. These genes when passed to their children caused more conduct problems. The conclusion of the study was that in family therapy, more focus on the child rather than the parents would be more effective (Society for Research in Child Development, 2007). This conclusion supports the theory that it is nature or our genetics that influence this particular behavior.

On the other end of the spectrum another study involved observing children in different childcare settings. Researchers from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development studied the children beginning in 1991 from the age of one month until they were school age. These 1,364 participants were selected at birth and were studied through phone and personal interviews at three month intervals. The children’s cognitive and social functioning was measured at certain intervals and followed up to the children on sixth grade. It was concluded that center based care yielded more aggression and disobedience than other types of childcare, with the quality of childcare was also found to be a factor (Society for Research in Child Development, 2007). This conclusion supports the theory that it is nurture or our environment that influences this particular behavior and the type of care children receive is an important factor in a child’s development.

Both of these studies posed the question of whether the cause of a particular problem, this one being behavioral issues, is genetic or ones environment. Both of these studies looked exclusively at one cause or the other with little being discussed about the other possibilities. The differences in the studies was the length of time given to each study with the genetic study being short term and the childcare study involving observations over a period of time. Another difference is the twin study looked at parents of a specific group, that being twins. The child care study looked at the children of many different types of parents.

While both of these studies have their merits, neither study was able to conclusively determine the cause of behavioral problems observed as being attributed solely to genetics or the environment. The question of which one plays a greater role will likely continue to be asked. Hopefully this leads to more research and answers that will further our understanding of human behavior.


Society for Research in Child Development (2007, March 26). Center-based Care Yields More Behavior Problems; In Other Types Of Care, Problems Short-lived. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from¬ /releases/2007/03/070326095340.htm.

Society for Research in Child Development (2007, February 7). Parents’ Genes, Not Parents’ Arguing, May Cause Children’s Conduct Problems. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from¬ /releases/2007/02/070207090943.htm.

Universal Motives Essay

Universal Motives Essay

What are universal motives? What are some examples of universal motives?

            In the aspect of psychology, scientist study and determine the behavioral characteristics of each individual based on their personal motives and interest On this aspect, human person basically react, decide, or simply act towards the achievements of their motives and interest. Thus, ensuring the achievement or the satisfaction of these factors can significantly motivate or encourage a person towards a certain reaction or behavioral conditioning. Because of which, the factor of motives and interest become an important factor in the determination of the behavioral pattern and characteristics of each individual.

            In the field of behavioral pattern and psychological characteristic, several factors are considered to be of universal nature as the general society display similar interest towards the achievement or satisfaction of these certain factors. Due to which, the scientific society established these factors to be universal motives as they are rooted in the innate needs and characteristics of the human behavior in general.

Included in this category are the motives for food or survival, job for biosocial function, sex for reproduction and physiological pleasure, friends or family for social acceptance, bodily comfort, health, specific fears, and others.

These motives are commonly shared by the universal human population or certain social regions thus, becoming a similar factor in the field of human behavior. The manifestation and development of these universal motives in each individual likewise become a unique characteristic based on the origin of these influences such as environmental factors, social inheritance, biological structures, and others. In general, these motivational factors are commonly shared by the human population giving them their universal characteristics.

            The satisfaction of these universal motives are generally important in the behavioral modification and conditioning in the social perspective as these factors serves as the common interest of the people. Likewise, the achievement of these universal motives are essential as they are based on the basic needs of each individual in the physiological and biological nature thus, important for their welfare and survival. As such, considering these factors is important in understanding the human behavioral characteristics and patterns in both the individual and social perspective.


Gorman, Philip (2004). Motivation and Emotion. Routledge Publication. ISBN-10: 0415227704.

Site Visit Essay

Site Visit Essay

Human Services is a broad field for workers who assist individuals with various types of issues or problems; whether the assistance is housing, mental health, vocational, or elderly services. These workers are housed throughout many organizations and agencies that have department in which they cater to specific needs. Some organizations have departments and programs that specialize in behavioral and cognitive–behavioral techniques to further address behavioral issues or problems. The Children’s Village (CV) is a non-profit human service organization and their mission is to work in partnership with families to help society’s most vulnerable children so that they become educationally proficient, economically productive, and socially responsible members of their communities (“The Children’s Village”, 2013.


The type of families CV caters to are foster care and adoption and therapeutic children. In locating this organization online, I spoke with one on the Masters Social Workers (MSW), Benia E. Thomas who further explained the type of behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapy they provide for the clients served.

The Children’s Village employs group behavioral therapy geared toward behavioral modification to adolescents ages 11-21. The types of behaviors the children display are Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and other conduct disorders.

According to “Understanding ADHD” (2013), “ADHD is one of the most common childhood psychiatric conditions, affecting 9.5% of school-aged children in the United States.” ADHD is a psychiatric disorder as OCD is another disorder affecting children and promoting disruptive behaviors. According to Internal OCD Foundation (2012), “Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder of the brain and behavior. OCD causes severe anxiety in those affected. OCD involves both obsessions and compulsions (para. 1.) The techniques CV employs at their organization helps change these potentially self-destructing behaviors such as ADHD and OCD. Behavioral therapy is also called behavioral modification or cognitive behavioral therapy. Medical professionals use this type of therapy to replace bad habits with good ones. The therapy also helps you cope with difficult situations (Healthline, 2013.)

This type of treatment is used on the children who have faced difficult times within the home with their biological parents and assists them with any behaviors stemmed from removal from one home to the next. In cases like these children can become very angry, blame themselves, academically failing, and act out differently for attention. Foster children often face multiple adversities putting them at risk for problems in social, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Some of the risks are experienced prior to placement into foster or adoptive care, such as drug exposure, maltreatment, and institutional care (Adoption and Foster Placement, 2008.) In discussing the population this program participates in, the effectiveness of the interventions is measured by the team of therapeutic social workers at CV. Therapy techniques and approaches must be effective so the children can live normal lives in the community and when placed in other homes.

The types of interventions used on the clients at CV are used by a number of therapeutic social workers who work hard at achieving long-term goals for the children. For example, if a child displays disruptive behavior in school and is acting in an aggressive manner at his or her home several techniques and interventions are used to eliminate or calm the situation to a minimal. Techniques such as: homework charts, behavior charts, listening, communication, and documentation of the behaviors are implemented by the social worker or therapist to further allow the child to discuss what is bothering him or her (Benia E. Thomas, personal communication, September 27, 2013.)

The most effective technique used by the social workers at CV is the behavioral modification chart. According to Bach, PhD and McCraken, PhD, LCSW (n.d) “Behavioral treatment is concerned with the analysis and change of behaviors. Thorough assessment is an integral part of any behavioral intervention or behavioral assessment.” Examples of behavior modification that can be used to increase positive behaviors are praise and approval, positive reinforcement, awards, and self -monitoring. The technique used in the behavioral therapy seems to work for some of the children, as they display change when they come in for therapy sessions with the social workers. At this current time the CV only uses behavioral therapy as a technique to assist with cognitive behaviors.

Children’s Village is a non-profit organization that has not received the adequate funding to support other programs that would be suitable for the organization at this time, but it is something the organization is interested in later on once funded. Although there are not any plans for other programs, play therapy is used for children (ages 2-10). According to Association For Play Therapy (2013), “Play therapy refers to a large number of treatment methods, all applying the therapeutic benefits of play. Play therapy differs from regular play in that the therapist helps children to address and resolve their own problems” (para. What is play therapy?.) This type of therapy helps the children act of scenarios with playing and using objects such as dolls and coloring to further explain behaviors.

The other models and techniques used at Children’s Village are Functional Family Therapy/Child Welfare (FCT-CW) and Multisystemic Therapy (MST). FFT-CW is a family-based prevention program that helps families make positive changes to their households and MST is an evidence-based program that helps families manage out of control children (“Preventative Services”, 2013). These two types of models are used in CV to better assist the children and the foster parents who require support from the organization. MST and FCT-CW is form of support that the organization implements to their children and foster parents to ensure safety and structure. In conclusion, the Children’s Village is a foster care and adoption agency that employs behavioral therapy to the children they place in homes. The children are 11-21 and have disorders such as ADHD and OCD among other behavior dysfunctions.

These techniques used assist the children with the various behaviors they display as a result of removal from biological families and placement into homes of strangers. When the children display these cognitive behaviors in school or the community behavioral modification charts are used to keep track of the behaviors and monitor improvement. When improvement is noticed the social workers reward the children with movie tickets or other praises they find effective for each individual child. Each behavior is treated differently and addresses in a manner where different techniques are used as well. Children’s Village would like to expand their cognitive behavioral depart, but because of funding they are limited. This agency has displayed the use of the methods and techniques used to change behaviors


Adoption and Foster Placement. (2008). Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development, 25-31. Retrieved from Association for Play Therapy. (2013). Retrieved from Bach, PhD, P., & McCraken, PhD, LCSW, S. G. (n.d). Best Practice Guidelines for Behavioral Interventions. Behavioral Health Recovery Management Project. Healthline. (2013). Retrieved from Preventative services. (2013). Retrieved from The Children’s Village. (2013). Retrieved from Understanding ADHD. (2013). Retrieved from disorder/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=adhd&utm_campaign=condition