Categories for Automobile

Impact of the invention of Automobiles Essay

Impact of the invention of Automobiles Essay

The invention of automobile has been one of the most significant factors that have contributed towards the transformation of the world. Before the invention of automobile it was very difficult and time consuming to travel from one place to another. Man has become the master of his own time due to the automobile. Now he can plan his own schedules and manage his time more efficiently and constructively.

Automobile gave a boost to the world economy. Petroleum was a product that was in abundance but was largely unused.

With the invention of automobile it started getting used and also boosted the living standards of the people of the countries in which it is available the most for e.g. the Middle Eastern countries. Though there was enough living space in all the continents of the world, people used to live clustered in the locality that was nearest to their work.

As a result those working in factories used to live close to it despite the health hazards it created.

With the invention of the automobile people were able to cut down their health risks by moving away to cleaner places with better air to breathe and yet manage to report to work within the stipulated time minus any hassles that earlier long distance traveling encompassed. All the services got fast. The firemen, the doctor, and the policeman can all reach on time and get on with their work that is extremely urgent.

Many newer services got created for e.g. the courier service that thrives on the benefits laid down by the invention of automobile. Hence the socio-economic condition of the world has got totally and positively transformed with the invention of the automobile. But sadly there have also been certain negative outcomes of the invention of the automobile. The number of deaths on roads has increased due to this modern necessity. Also the world has become a much more polluted place to live in because of the toxic fumes that automobiles create.

However, if we compare the negative and positive impacts of the invention of automobile on the world at large then we cannot deny the fact that the positive impacts outshine the negative impacts. The best part is that if human beings are careful then these negative impacts can be shunned completely. Man cannot think living without the automobile and perhaps its invention is the best thing that has happened to the world.

References

Colorado.edu. (2009). Negative Impact of the Automobile. Retrieved Jun. 1, 2009 from

     http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/systems/agentsheets/New-Vista/automobile/negative.html

Nosotoro, R. (2007). Impact of the Automobile. Retrieved Jun. 1, 2009 from

    http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t4w32automobile.htm

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Automobile Industry Essay

Automobile Industry Essay

Strong demand growth due to rising incomes, growing middle class, and a young population is likely to propel India among the world’s top five auto-producers by 2015 Growth in export demand is also set to accelerate.

Tata Nano and the upcoming Pixel have opened up the potentially large ultra low cost car segment Innovation is likely to intensify among engine technology and alternative fuels.

Advantage India
Rising investments

Policy support
India has significant cost advantages; auto firms save 10-25 per cent on operations in India compared to Europe and Latin America A large pool of skilled manpower and a growing technology base will induce greater investments.

The government aims to develop India as a global manufacturing as well as R&D hub There has been a wide array of policy support in the form of sops, taxes and FDI encouragement.

FY10
Market size: USD57.7 billion

 

Notes: R&D – Research and development, FDI – Foreign direct investment; FY – Indian financial year (April – March); FY16E – estimated figure for financial year 2016; estimates are from the government’s Automotive Mission Plan (2006 – 2016) ADVANTAGE INDIA.

For updated information, please visit www.ibef.org.

3.

Automotives

AUGUST

2012

Contents
 Advantage India  Market overview and trends  Growth drivers  Success stories: Maruti, Tata Motors  Opportunities  Useful information

For updated information, please visit www.ibef.org

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Automotives

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2012

Evolution of the Indian automotives sector
20.4 million units (2012) 11 million units (2007) 2008 onwards 0.6 million units (1992) 1983 – 1992 0.4 million units (1982) Before 1982 • Closed market • Only 5 players • Joint venture (JV) Indian government and Suzuki to form Maruti Udyog; started production in 1983 • Component manufacturers also entered via JV route • Buyer’s market 1993 -2007 • Sector de-licensed in 1993 • Major original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) started assembly in India • Imports allowed from April 2001 • Introduction of value added tax in 2005 • More than 35 players in the market • Removal of most import controls • Indian companies gaining global identity

• Long waiting periods and outdated models
• Seller’s market

Source: Tata Motors, Society of Indian Automobile
Manufacturers (SIAM), Aranca Research, Notes: JV – Joint Venture MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

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Automotives

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2012

The automotives market is split into four segments
Automobiles

Two-wheelers

Passenger vehicles

Commercial vehicles

Three-wheelers

Mopeds

Passenger cars

Light commercial vehicles

Passenger carriers

Scooters

Utility vehicles

Motorcycles

Multi-purpose vehicles

Medium and heavy commercial vehicles

Goods carriers

Electric twowheelers

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

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Automotives

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2012

Revenues have been growing at a strong pace

Gross turnover of automobile manufacturers in India expanded at a CAGR of 17.7per cent over FY07-1 1 Excluding three wheelers, cars account for the largest share of revenues (66.2 percent in 2010) Revenue trends over the past few years in USD million

70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.5 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 66.2% 36.6 33.3 21.5% Trucks Cars 58.6 CAGR: 17.7% 43.3

Market* break-up by revenues (2010)

12.3%
Two Wheelers

Source: SIAM, Datamonitor, Aranca Research
Note: *does not include three wheelers

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

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Automotives

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Sector’s growing strength evident from rise in total production figures Total production of automobiles in India (million units)
16.0

12.0 7.6 8 8.4 10.0 8.0 6.0 1.3 0.4 0.4 1.2 0.4 0.4 1.6 0.6 0.5 1.3 0.5 0.6 1.8 2.4 4.0 6.5 8.5

Notes: CAGR – Compound annual growth rate

10.5

Passenger vehicles was the fastest growing segment during that period with a CAGR of 14.5 per cent

14.0

13.4

0.8 0.8

3.0

2.0
0.0

FY05

FY06

FY07

FY08

FY09

0.4 0.5

FY10

0.6 0.6

FY11

FY12

Passenger Vehicle Three Wheelers

Commercial Vehicle Two Wheelers

Source: SIAM, Aranca Research

For updated information, please visit www.ibef.org

MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

0.8 0.8

3.1

15.5

Automobiles production increased at a CAGR of 13.2 per cent over FY05-12

18.0

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Automotives

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2012

Market break-up by production volume

Two wheelers dominate production volumes; in FY12, the segment accounted for more than three quarters of total automotives production in the country

Market share by volume (FY12)

In fact, India is the world’s second largest two wheeler producer; the country is also the fourth largest commercial vehicle producer

4% 4% 16% Two Wheelers Passenger Vehicle Commercial Vehicle Three Wheelers 76%

Source: SIAM, Aranca Research

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

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Automotives

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2012

Market break-up of individual segments by production volumes … (1/2)

Shares in production of passenger vehicles (FY11)

Shares in production of commercial vehicles (FY11)

11.5%
Passenger cars

8.1% 36.0% MCV & HCV Passenger Carriers MCV & HCV Goods Carriers LCV Passenger Carriers 49.7% 6.1% LCV Goods Carriers

Utility vehicles/multipurpose vehicles 88.5%

Source: SIAM, Aranca Research Notes: LCV – Light commercial vehicle; MCV – Medium commercial vehicle; HCV – Heavy commercial vehicle

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

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Automotives

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2012

Market break-up of individual segments by production volumes … (2/2)

Shares in production of three wheelers (FY12)

Shares in production of two wheelers (FY12)

15.8% Goods carriers

15.6%

5.3% Mopeds

Motorcycles Passenger carriers Scooters 84.2% 79.1%

Source: SIAM, Aranca Research

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

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Automotives

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2012

Exports have also grown strongly … (1/2)

Automobiles export volumes increased at a CAGR of 22.4 per cent over FY05–FY12 Over this period, the fastest growth was in the two wheeler segment (25.8 per cent) followed by three wheelers (21.9 per cent)

Exports of automobiles from India (million units)
2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2 0.5 0.6 0.8 1 0.5 1.1 0.5 1.5 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.03 0.1

0.2 0.04 0.1

0.2 0.05 0.1

0.2 0.06 0.1

0.04 0.2

0.04 0.2

0.08 0.3

FY05

FY06

FY07

FY08

FY09

FY10

FY11

FY12

Passenger Vehicle

Commercial Vehicle

Three Wheelers

Two Wheelers

Source: SIAM, Aranca Research

For updated information, please visit www.ibef.org

MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

0.1

0.4

12

Automotives

AUGUST

2012

Exports have also grown strongly … (2/2)

Two wheelers accounted for the largest share in exports (by volume) at 67 per cent in FY12 Passenger vehicles account for a sizeable 18 per cent of overall exports

Exports shares by volume (FY12)

18% Passenger Vehicle 3% 12% 67% Commercial Vehicle Three Wheelers Two Wheelers

Source: SIAM, Aranca Research

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

13

Automotives

AUGUST

2012

Presence of a clear leader in each segment of the market

The automotives industry is concentrated with market leaders in each segment commanding a share of over 40 per cent

Market Leader Passenger Vehicles MCVs & HCVs LCVs Three Wheelers 45% 16%

Others
15% 7%

63%

23%

7%

59%

30%

4%

4%

41%

40%

10%

Motorcycles
Scooters

59%

24%

7%

6%

51%

21%

14%
Source: SIAM, Aranca Research
Notes: Data is for FY10

10%

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

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Automotives

AUGUST

2012

Notable trends in the Indian automotives sector
• Large number of products available to consumers across various segments; this

New product launches

has gathered pace with the entry of a number of foreign players • Reduced overall product lifecycle have forced players to employ quick product

launches

Improving productdevelopment capabilities

• Increasing R&D investments from both the government and the private sector • Private sector innovation has been a key determinant of growth in the sector;

two good examples are Tata Nano and Tata Pixel – while the former has been a success in India, the latter is intended for foreign markets

• In FY11, the CNG market was worth more than USD330 million and CNG cars

Alternative fuels

and taxis are expected to register a CAGR of 28 per cent over FY11-FY14 • The CNG distribution network in India is expected to increase to 250 cities by

2018 from 30 cities in 2009

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MARKET OVERVIEW AND TRENDS

15

Automotives

AUGUST

2012

Contents
 Advantage India  Market overview and trends

 Growth drivers
 Success stories: Maruti, Tata Motors  Opportunities

 Useful information

For updated information, please visit www.ibef.org

16

Automotives

AUGUST

2012

Sector has been benefitting from strong demand and product innovation

Growing demand Growing demand

Policy support Strong government support

Increasing investments

Rising incomes, young population
Inviting Greater availability of credit and financing options

Goal of establishing India as an automanufacturing hub
R&D focus; GOI has set up technology modernisation fund Large domestic market Policy sops, FDI encouragement

Resulting in

Rising investments from domestic and foreign players Greater innovation in products; market segmentation

Strong growth in exports as well

Strong projected demand making returns attractive
Notes: GOI – Government of India;

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GROWTH DRIVERS

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Automotives

AUGUST

2012

Rising incomes and a growing middle class driving domestic demand growth Rising incomes; growing middle class

Changing income dynamics of India’s population
70 million households Aspirers: annual income INR90,000200,000 Seekers: annual income INR200,000500,000 Strivers: annual income INR500,0001,000,000 Globals: annual income >INR1,000,000

Personal (nominal) disposable income is expected to rise annually at 8.5 per cent over FY11-15 Rising middle class – size of the middle class expected to touch 550 million by 2025 from 50 million in 2010 Favourable demographics – a young population is also driving up the demand for cars Demand for commercial vehicles have got a boost due to development of roadways and greater market access

60
50 40 30 20 10 0 2005 Strivers 2010 Seekers 2015 Deprived

 

Deprived annual income

Automobile Essay

Automobile Essay

Experimental Question: What are the effects of different types of antifreeze on the physical appearance on pansy plants? Most people could not imagine there lives without some sort of motor vehicle transportation. Although motor vehicles are great for getting around and getting around quickly, they take a lot of maintenance and also have a permanent effect on the environment. Motor vehicles take a lot of different products to assure smooth travels. One of these products that help your motor vehicle run smoothly is antifreeze.

Antifreeze is made of substance called ethylene glycol. Although antifreeze is a very helpful product for humans there is a lack of its overall effects upon the environment. This is defiantly a problem, due to its lack of research we decided to conduct an experiment; what are the effects of different types of antifreeze on the physical appearance on a pansy plant? Ethylene glycol is actually metabolized in plants and plants have a hormone inside of them called ethylene.

Inside of plant cells this substance is turned into ethylene glycol and broken down again.

Most people believe that this substance cannot harm plants since it is already present within plants, but this belief is false. In large substance this substance can become deadly. One of the reasons why we decided to conduct this experiment is to show people the immediate effects there motor vehicle products can have upon the environment. Our goal is to inform vehicle owners of the harmful effects there products can have on the environment and what you can do to help improve our environment.

Think Twice about Texting and Driving Essay

Think Twice about Texting and Driving Essay

“In 2010, 3,092 people were killed in crashes involving a distracted driver and an estimated additional 416,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes involving a distracted driver” (Distracted Driving). Many people do not realize that texting and driving causes so many injuries and deaths. People believe that looking down at a phone for three seconds is okay and will not cause harm. They are wrong; texting while driving causes more accidents than other distractions while driving. There are also laws that forbid the use of a cell phone while operating a vehicle.

Texting and driving is an action that kills more people than expected. Due to the lack of concentration on the first-hand action; a slowed reaction is brought upon the driver. Texting and driving is a problem because of the delayed reaction time of someone who is driving a car. “Using a cell phone while driving, whether it’s handheld or hands-free, delays a driver’s reactions as much as having a blood alcohol concentration at the legal limit of .

08 percent” (2009, University of Utah).

Driving while texting is similar to driving while intoxicated because of the delayed reaction time, but texting while driving is much worse. When a person is driving under the influence of alcohol, they are, for the most part, still focusing on the road; whereas a person who is texting is paying more attention to their phone than on the road. Therefore, most accidents are caused from texting while driving. When going through Drivers Education, or a driving school, drivers are taught to keep their hands at the ”ten and two position” on the steering wheel and their eyes on the road. With texting being more common, now people try to multi-task texting while they are driving. “49% of drivers with cell phones under the age of thirty-five send or read text messages while driving” (2011, Harris Poll). Accidents from distraction can be caused by any person who owns a cell phone and drives. Everyone who owns a cell phone and has used it while driving is at fault.

There is not just one age group that uses their phones more than the next. Newspaper articles are showing more frequently, accidents are being caused from texting while operating a vehicle. In a newspaper article¸ New York Daily News, written by Charlie Wells stated that: Chance Bothe is a twenty-one year old man who spent six months in recovery from a horrific car accident that was caused by texting while driving. The last text he sent to his friend was, “If we keep doing this I’m going to wreck my truck, going to get in a car crash.” That is exactly what happened after he pressed send. Chance Bothe broke nearly every bone in his body. Bothe argues that texting while driving is not worth losing your life over. People need to be more informed of the harm texting and driving can cause. Chance knew that he could possibly be harmed by texting and driving, and he actually did. “But, because text messaging requires visual, manual, and cognitive attention from the driver, it is by far the most alarming distraction” (Distraction.gov).

Drinking and driving is an act that is highly frowned upon and multiple consequences are given if a person gets caught. Texting and driving is also an illegal act, but it is not enforced as much as it should be. Since it requires quite amount of attention from the driver, more consequences should be issued to individuals who get caught. Ten states throughout the United States, D.C., Guam, and the Virgin Islands ban all drivers from using handheld cell phones while operating a vehicle. An officer can actually cite a driver without any other citation present. Thirty-nine states, D.C., Guam, and the Virgin Islands all ban text messaging from all drivers, but allow talking on the phone.

In Indiana and multiple other states, they have a “Crash Data Collection” rule where they can include cell phone equipment distraction in accident reports (Ghsa.org). Even though many citizens are for the ban of cell phone use while operating a vehicle, some people are against it. Why a person would be against a law that would higher the safety of drivers and the people around them, is unknown. If police officers were more strict with the laws against cell phone use while driving, and giving citations, texting and driving may decrease; therefore, it would driving more safe.

The risks of texting and driving are rising each year and the amount of deaths is also rising. In 2011, at least 23% of automobile accidents were caused from texting and driving. That is an equivalent to 1.3 million crashes. While a person is texting and driving, they are twenty-three times more likely to get in an accident than if they were not using their phone. A lot of the time, teenagers get in an accident while texting, but they are not the only people that cause the accidents. Thirteen percent of drivers between the age of eighteen and twenty-one admitted to using their mobile device during the time they got in an accident. Eighty-two percent of drivers between the age of sixteen and eighteen have cell phones, fifty-two percent said they have talked on their phone while driving, and thirty-two percent have admitted to texting while driving. The numbers of young drivers are rising, and it needs to end (DWI: Driving while Intexticated).

“Stop the texts. Stop the wrecks,” is a webpage to show what can happen in result from texting and driving. It states that in the five second time frame that a person is driving fifty-five miles per hour, and their eyes are off the road while texting, a car can travel the length of a football field. Five seconds and even less, is all it can take to end a person’s life. Car accidents are four times more likely to happen if the person operating the vehicle is using their cell phone. The webpage also provides ways to get a person to break the habit of texting while driving. More people could receive awareness about texting and driving, and the harms it can cause by simply looking information up on the internet. Ways to eliminate texting and driving from happening is the driver could put the device in the backseat so that it out of sight.

“Out of sight, out of mind,” is a quote that could stop texting and driving. Also, a person could simply turn the volume of their phone to silent so that they do not hear it and then they will not think about it. There are multiple applications on smart phones that parents can use to lock the child’s phone while the vehicle is in motion. If the text is really important and the driver has a passenger in the car, designate that person to be the “texter” while the driver is operating the vehicle. (Stop the Texts, Stop the Wrecks). People cannot help the urge to pick up their phone when they hear the beep or vibration when they get a new text message or Facebook notification. It is a bad habit that needs to be broken, and it can be with a little effort.

In a Chicago newspaper, was a campaign that showed teenagers the real harms from texting and driving. Students at Taft High School got to witness the difficulty of texting and driving while driving with AAA’s distracted driving simulator, and most of the students crashed. “It’s taking your hands off the wheel so that you can hold the phone and text. It’s taking your eyes off of the road, and it’s taking your mind off the road,” said Nick Jarmunsz of AAA. (Chicago.Cbslocal.com). ““We have nothing left now,” said Teresa Breen” (Chicago.Cbslocal.com). Teresa Breen is the mother of a teenager, John, who crashed his car and killed himself while texting and driving. “He thought he was invincible, and these kids also think that,” Breen said. “They think they can do anything and it’s not going to catch up with them” (Teresa Breen on Chicago.Cbslocal.com).

Michael Inbar wrote a news article about a young woman who passed away from result of texting while driving. Taylor Sauer was driving home to visit her family, a four hour drive away. That drive fell short when she crashed into the back of a tanker truck. Her last text was, “I can’t discuss this right now. Driving and facebooking is not safe! Haha.” She was discussing the Denver Broncos football team with a friend. Just seconds after sending that last text message, traveling over than 80 mph, she crashed into the back of the truck. When her phone records were checked later on for the accident report and investigation, it showed that she was posting to Facebook every 90 seconds while driving (Msn.com). People really need make second thoughts before they pick of their phone while driving. A person may be sending a one word text message or a paragraph long message, and the result could be the same either way. A crash can happen, and it will.

There was a story about a teenage girl who had recently been broken up with by her boyfriend. She was overly depressed and became suicidal. The girl would always tell her ex-boyfriend that she wants to kill herself, but never actually did it. One afternoon she was texting her ex-boyfriend while driving down the interstate. She had been extremely upset that afternoon and told him that she was going to kill herself, and actually follow through with it. While sending that text, she drove over the middle of the road, not knowing, and crashed into an oncoming vehicle killing a mother and her two children. The girl texting survived. Police retrieved her phone records from the time of the accident and are now attempting to charge her with manslaughter saying she crashed into the other vehicle to kill herself.

When a person reaches for their phone while they are driving, what is going through their head is not the harms of texting and driving, they are thinking of what the text message will say, or what they will respond. People need to pause a second before they grab their phone while driving. They need to think twice before they do an action that could change their life forever. A person could be having an argument over text messaging and that could possibly cause an increase to getting in an accident. Not one text message is so important that a person should risk their life reading and replying to it. It can wait, and it should wait, but it does not always work that way.

Cell phone use while driving is becoming more and more common each day. It is a factor that is rising in injuries and deaths each year. One small text that takes a person’s eyes away from the road can result in a huge accident in under a minute. The outcome will not only affect the driver that is texting, but also others around them. The drivers’ reaction time is lowered if they using their phone while driving. Multiple laws forbid the use of texting and driving, and some laws prohibit cell phone use all together. Many people do not realize the outcome that texting while driving can happen. Lives have been taken because of texting and driving.

Automobile and Swot Analysis Essay

Automobile and Swot Analysis Essay

1. Introduction This report is based on the company Mercedes Benz, and the chosen country is Singapore. The purpose of the report is to conduct an environmental and marketing analysis of Mercedes Benz in Singapore. Firstly, this report will state the company background. Next, it will state the country background. Thirdly, it will state the SWOT analysis. Fourthly, it will state the PEST analysis. After that, it will state the marketing strategy, new product development, and lastly the conclusion.

Company background Mercedes-Benz is a German car company, some sort of multinational department from the German company Daimler AG.

The company is used intended for high-class motor vehicles, buses, motor coachs, as well as vehicles. The particular brand made an appearance in 1926 within Daimler-Benz yet history the sources to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft’s 1901 Mercedes and to Karl Benz’s 1886 Benz Patent Motorwagen, which is commonly viewed as the first car.

Mercedes-Benz’s slogan is “Das Beste oder nichts” (English: “The best or nothing”). Mercedes-Benz is just about the most commonly known as well as set up car makes in the world, which is on the list of the world’s oldest car company nevertheless around the world today in 2014,possessing the first petrol-powered vehicle.

Country background Singapore is an affluent island nation, positioned in Southeast Asia within the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula.

The occupants of Singapore delight in one of the maximum standards associated on earth, with each capita GDP adequate to in which from the top international locations within American The european union. The particular economy would depend intensely upon exports, and the nation houses one of the busiest ports on earth. 2. SWOT analysis SWOT analysis is part of strategic planning. The SWOT analysis helps organizations assess issues within and outside the organization.

The SWOT analysis, made up of an assessment of strengths, weaknesses, external opportunities and threats from competition, provides an outline for strategic decision-making Table 1 From the table above it is seen that strong brand value measures that Mercedes is considered as a premium brand, such as BMW, Porsche, Audi and etc. There is no exception that Mercedes will stay in premium segment for a very long time.

Almost all the rich and old people prefer this particular car brand. Also, this company has an advantage over their competitors as increasing production hybrid cars because of environmental friendly and еру exact number of miles driven. To produce high quality cars and hire well – educated employees makes production expensive. That is why Mercedes is interested in upper class people who are able to buy such a car. It makes the brand attractive investment for people with high income (upper class).

PEST analysis Originally known as PEST Analysis, this is a macro environmental framework used to understand the impact of the external factors on the organization and is used as strategic analytical technique. Strengths Weakness Opportunities Threats Strong brand value High price cost Fast – growing company Government policy Leader in innovation Expensive service New products and services Increasing in competition High level safety of cars High fuel consumption Developing hybrid cars Decrease in demand Investment.

Stereotype that this car is for the rich people Fuel price rises Rising price of raw material High quality It is hard to find manual transmission in such a car Positive attitude towards “green” vehicles Unexpected problems A PEST analysis is looks at how those external factors can affect a business’s activities and performance, and it can be used in combination with other tools.

It helps to determine an organization’s overall outlook for success. Political Economic Socio – Cultural Technological Bureaucratic Interest rates Fast – growing society Modern technology Stable government law system High income level Diversity of cultures WI-FI zones Taxation system.

High power of the local currency Variety of language cultures Automation of work Law level of corruption Low level of economic freedom (-2) Most of the people are in advanced age Production of high quality medical equipment Foreigners investment Trade freedom Prevalence of upper class Investment in technology Table 2 From the table above let us take 3 characteristics for discussion.

Firstly, high income of Singapore measures that Mercedes – Benz is one of the most suitable brands for upper class. It is considered, that Mercedes – Benz is a car which is suitable for old population, especially for men.

Therefore, this car brand has a priority to take Singapore as a sales leader in the adult audience because of the prevalence of old population. Diversity of cultures of the populations shows that every single nation has different understanding of car design.

That is why this brand can offers cars such as “family car” like Sedan (C – class) to “celebrity car” as Crossovers (G – class) with the newest and technology to their customers. 1) Franki Colbert (n. d). Definition of a SWOT Analysis. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness. chron. com/definition-swot-analysis-43274.

html 2) Russ Heaps (n. d) 10 most expensive cars to own and drive. Retrieved from: http://www. bankrate. com/finance/auto/10-most-expensive-cars-to- own-and-drive-1. aspx 3) Chad Brooks (2013, November 22). PEST Analysis: Definition, Examples & Templates.

Retrieved from http://www. businessnewsdaily. com/5512-pest-analysis-definition- examples-templates. html 4) Abha Pandey (2011, 26 September). What is PESTLE Analysis? Retrieved from: http://bpmgeek. com/blog/what-pestle-analysis 5) Leading through innovation (n. d/ n. a) http://www. mbusa. com/mercedes/benz/innovation.

Automotive industry Essay

Automotive industry Essay

In compliance with the fulfillment of the requirements on the course “Writing in the Discipline” and in accordance with your oral instructions dated November 19, 2013, we are submitting our library research paper entitled “The Uses of Automobiles”. The main purpose of this research paper is to know automobiles and its uses, to explain the advantages and disadvantages that automobiles bring to the society, and to suggest ways on how to conserve energy using new technologies of automobiles. We hope that this paper will meet your approval.

Respectfully yours, Kenneth Llauderes and Mark Joseph Sueta BSME- 1 BSME- 1.

The Uses of Automobiles A Library Research Paper Presented to Mrs. Astrid O. Haresco Faculty, Department of Languages Western Institute of Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course ENGLISH 2- Writing in the Discipline By Kenneth Llauderes- BSME 1 Mark Joseph Sueta- BSME 1 February 2014 Table of Contents Page •Introduction 1 ?History 2 ?Contribution to the society 4 •Application of automobile as Transportation 5 ?Automobile Industry 5 ?Automobile Racing 6 ?Automobiles Business 9 •New Technologies of Automobiles 11 ?Antipollution Strategies 11 ?Safety Features 12 ?Hybrid- Electric Vehicles 13?

Computers and Navigation Devices 14 ?Eco- Friendly Automobile 16 ?Other Improvements 19 •Conclusion 20 •Recommendation 20 •Bibliography 21 Llauderes, K.

& Sueta, M. J. “The uses of automobiles”. Western Institute of Technology. 2014 Automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner. It is a propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surface. They are classified by size, style, number of doors and intended use. The typical automobile also called a car, auto, motorcar, and passenger car, has four wheels and can carry up to six people including a driver.

The researchers travelled and gathered information from the correct and truthful data from the internet and different libraries in Iloilo. The researchers conclude that automobiles change the world and the lives of the people because it has a profound impact on the society. As a whole it played a very important role in the society and it is one of the key elements of industrial economies and no doubt, it will continue to shape our culture and economy well into the next generations.

The researchers recommend that the overnment agencies especially Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) support the production of automobiles that have antipollution features and they must impose rules and regulations, and build more highways and bridges in response on the increasing number of automobiles.

THESIS STATEMENT: Automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner. I. What is an automobile A. Definition B. History C. Contribution to the society II. Application of automobile as Transportation A. Automobile Industry B. Automobile Racing C. Automobiles Business III. New Technologies of Automobiles A. Antipollution Strategies B. Safety Features C. Hybrid- Electric Vehicles D. Computers and Navigation Devices E.

Eco- Friendly Automobile F. Other Improvements Introduction An automobile is a self- propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surfaces. They are classified by size, style, number of doors and intended use. The typical automobile also called a car, auto, motorcar, and passenger car, has four wheels and can carry up to six people including a driver. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans, minivans, omnibuses, or buses. In this paper, those used to carry cargo are called pickups or trucks, depending on their size and design.

Minivans are van- style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers. Sport- utility vehicles, also known as SUVs are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. The researchers chose automobile as their topic among all the topics because it is the one that people uses in their daily lives as transportation and because it is one of the key elements of industrial economies and no doubt it will continue to shape their culture and economy well into the next generations.

This paper is intended to analyze and examine how technology especially automobiles change the world and the lives of the people. This paper is all about automobiles, its history, uses and countries that produce automobiles. It also discusses about the advantages and disadvantages that automobiles bring to them. It also focuses on the manufacture and servicing of automobiles. 1 This paper is gathered from the correct and truthful data from different libraries in Iloilo and by the use of the internet, the researchers also gathered some data from different resources. They use the information from the latest resources of the library.

They also travelled in nearby provinces of Iloilo to collect knowledge that they apply in this paper. This paper is divided into three parts namely: what is an automobile; application of automobile as transportation and; new technologies of automobile to support the thesis statement: automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner. History The history of the automobile actually began about 4,000 years ago when the first wheel was used for transportation in India. In the early 15th century the Portuguese arrived in China and the interaction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies, including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power.

By the 1600s small steam-powered engine models had been developed, but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered vehicle was created. In 1769 French Army officer Captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built what has been called the first automobile. Cugnot’s three-wheeled, steam-powered vehicle carried four persons. Designed to move artillery pieces, it had a top speed of a little more than 3. 2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh head of steam 2 As early as 1801 successful but very heavy steam automobiles were introduced in England.

Laws barred them from public roads and forced their owners to run them like trains on private tracks. In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick journeyed more than 160 km (100 mi) from Cornwall to London. Steam power caught the attention of other vehicle builders. In 1804 American inventor Oliver Evans built a steam-powered vehicle in Chicago, Illinois. French engineer Onesiphore Pecqueur built one in 1828. British inventor Walter Handcock built a series of steam carriages in the mid-1830s that were used for the first omnibus service in London.

By the mid-1800s England had an extensive network of steam coach lines. Horse-drawn stagecoach companies and the new railroad companies pressured the British Parliament to approve heavy tolls on steam-powered road vehicles. The tolls quickly drove the steam coach operators out of business. During the early 20th century steam cars were popular in the United States. Most famous was the Stanley Steamer, built by American twin brothers Freelan and Francis Stanley. A Stanley Steamer established a world land speed record in 1906 of 205. 44 km/h (121. 573 mph).

Manufacturers produced about 125 models of steam-powered automobiles, including the Stanley, until 1932. 3 Contribution to the society The automobile has had a profound impact on the society. It has brought superhighways, paved bridges, motels, vacations, suburbia and economic growth which accompanied them. Automobiles provide a great deal of personal freedom to their owners. The article by journalist Kevin A. Wilson provides a history of automobile design and production in the United States, and surveys recent efforts to develop lower- and zero-emissions vehicles, such as electric cars and diesel-electric hybrid cars. As suburbs, generally without public transportation, grew, cars became necessary and auto sales increased.

Easy credit facilitated the purchase of cars. The number of cars on the road leaped from 40 million in 1950 to 60 million in 1960. The Federal Highway Act of 1956 created the Interstate Highway System, a 68,400-km (42,500-mi) network of limited-access highways. This system spurred further suburban growth. Technological advances transformed production. The new machine-tool industry, a trail of inventions, including the telephone, typewriter, linotype, phonograph, electric light, cash register, air brake, refrigerator car, and automobile, led to new industries.

Business leaders learned how to operate and coordinate many different economic activities across broad geographic areas. Businesses were thus able to become larger, and the modern corporation became an important form of business organization. 4 Application of Automobile as Transportation Automobile industry Automobile Industry is an industry that produces automobiles and other gasoline-powered vehicles, such as buses, trucks, and motorcycles. The automobile industry is one of the most important industries in the world, affecting not only the economy but also the cultures of the world.

It provides jobs for millions of people, generates billions of dollars in worldwide revenues, and provides the basis for a multitude of related service and support industries. Automobiles revolutionized transportation in the 20th century, changing forever the way people live, travel, and do business. The automobile has enabled people to travel and transport goods farther and faster, and has opened wider market areas for business and commerce.

The auto industry has also reduced the overall cost of transportation by using methods such as mass production (making several products at once, rather than one at a time), mass marketing (selling products nationally rather than locally), and globalization of production (assembling products with parts made worldwide). From 1886 to 1898, about 300 automobiles were built, but there was no real established industry. A century later, with automakers and auto buyers expanding globally, automaking became the world’s largest manufacturing activity, with nearly 58 million new vehicles built each year worldwide. 5 As a result of easier and faster transportation, the United States and world economies have become dependent on the mobility that automobiles, trucks, and buses provide.

This mobility allowed remote populations to interact with one another, which increased commerce. The transportation of goods to consumers and consumers to goods has become an industry in itself. The automobile has also brought related problems, such as air pollution, the emission of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming, congested traffic, and highway fatalities. Nevertheless, the automobile industry continues to be an important source of employment and transportation for millions of people worldwide. Automobile Racing Automobile Racing is a sport in which drivers race specially designed automobiles over tracks or courses of differing lengths, designs, and constructions.

The competition tests the skills of the drivers, the speed capabilities of the vehicles, and the endurance of both. Originally consisting of occasional challenges among wealthy individuals in the United States and continental Europe, automobile racing has evolved into an international year-round professional sport that is one of the most popular spectator attractions in the world. There are three basic types of race courses in automobile racing: (1) the oval track, (2) the road course, and (3) the straight-line course.

Oval tracks, which can be dirt, asphalt, or concrete, range in length from 0. 16 to 2. 5 mi 6 (0. 27 to 4 km). Some oval tracks, longer than 1 mi (1. 6 km) and highly banked (angled toward the ground), are called superspeedways. Road courses have either of two forms: courses that are created by temporarily closing city streets, and courses specially designed to duplicate the twists and turns of country roads but used only for racing. Road courses of both types are generally 1. 5 to 4 mi (2. 4 to 6. 4 km) long in the United States, sometimes longer in other countries. Straight-line courses consist of a simple strip of asphalt or concrete used for drag races between two vehicles.

Straight-line courses are generally 0. 25 mi (0. 4 km) long, but they can be 0. 125 mi (0. 2 km) long as well. There are five basic components of an automobile racing team: (1) the ownership, (2) the team manager, (3) the driver, (4) the support crew, and (5) the sponsors. The ownership of the car is in charge of the team but usually employs a manager to run operations on a day-to-day basis. The driver is always an independent contractor. Drivers usually compete in a variety of different cars for different owners throughout their careers. The support crew maintains the car before, during, and after races.

The driver and support crew work together during races to handle needed repairs, tire changes, and fuel refills (done during brief service breaks known as pit stops). Finally, sponsors, usually corporations, provide money to the racing team in exchange for promotional ties. The most obvious examples of this relationship are company and product logos, which are commonly seen on the outside of vehicles during races. 7 Although there are many categories of automobile racing—and many types and levels of competition within each category—the major forms of the sport differ in the United States and abroad.

In most parts of the world, the premier race series are those for Formula One (F1) vehicles and for sports cars. These competitions receive less attention in the United States, where the most important race series are those for Indianapolis (Indy) cars and for stock cars. Some drivers and teams move between American and overseas forms of racing, but this are uncommon. The coordinating committee for automobile racing in the United States is the Automobile Competition Committee for the United States (ACCUS), which serves as the U. S. representative on the Federation International de l’Automobile (FIA; International Automobile.

Federation), the worldwide governing body of the sport. ACCUS coordinates activities between FIA and six major sanctioning bodies for automobile racing in the United States—addressing rules, regulations, automotive specifications, safety, and related matters. The eight organizational members of ACCUS are Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART), National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), Indy Racing League (IRL), Grand American Road Racing Association (GRAND-AM), Professional Sports Car Racing (PSC), the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA), the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA), and the United States Auto Club (USAC).

8 Automobile Business Automobiles have changed and developed in response to consumer wishes, economic conditions, and advancing technology. The first gas-powered vehicles looked like horse buggies with engines mounted underneath because this was the style to which people were accustomed. By 1910, however, features like the front-mounted engine were already established, giving the automobile a look that was all its own. As public demand for cars increased, the vehicles became more stylized. The classic cars of the 1920s and 1930s epitomize the sleek, individually designed luxury cars called the “classic cars. ” During the 1940s and 1950s, automobiles generally became larger until the advent of the “compact” car, which immediately became a popular alternative.

The gasoline crisis is reflected in the fuel-efficient cars made in the 1970s and 1980s. Current designs continue to reflect economy awareness, although many different markets exist. In a turnaround economy like India, small can mean handsome returns. As auto makers Suzuki and Hyundai, focused on the sub-compact segment. It is thanks to buoyant small-car sales by their subsidiaries here that both Hyundai and Suzuki have posted record earnings growth, in the midst of a severe global downturn.

It suggests a growth-driver role for the domestic automobile industry, and not merely in terms of volumes and sales. 9 The auto companies and ancillary makers are confident of posting 10 percent rise in business, provided barriers to free movement of goods are removed. Over 80 percent of the players in the automobile industry, having units in north India, said business activities could grow by 10 per cent while 20 per cent of the respondents said business was likely to go beyond 10 percent, a survey conducted by the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry said.

Reeling under subdued demand for long, the domestic steel industry now hopes that the proposal to reduce excise duty on automobiles in the Interim Budget 2014-15 would spur demand for flat products. “The proposal to reduce excise duty on automobiles in the current economic environment is a welcome step, however it would have been more meaningful and impactful if the excise duty on steel would have been reduced,” Essar Steel. Leaving direct taxes untouched except for continuing the income tax surcharge on ‘super-rich’ individuals and corporate, the Interim Budget today slashed excise duty on cars and two-wheelers, and capital goods and consumer durables to boost manufacturing and growth.

10 New Technologies of Automobiles Antipollution Strategies Pollution-control laws adopted at the beginning of the 1990s in some of the United States and in Europe called for automobiles that produced better gas mileage with lower emissions. The California Air Resources Board required companies with the largest market shares to begin selling vehicles that were pollution free—in other words, electric. In 1996 General Motors became the first to begin selling an all-electric car, the EV1, to California buyers. The all-electric cars introduced so far have been limited by low range, long recharges, and weak consumer interest. Engines that run on hydrogen have been tested.

Hydrogen combustion produces only a trace of harmful emissions, no carbon dioxide, and a water-vapor by-product. However, technical problems related to the gas’s density and flammability remains to be solved. Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently, and produce fewer pollutants, but they are noisy. Popular in trucks and heavy vehicles, diesel engines are only a small portion of the automobile market. A redesigned, quieter diesel engine introduced by Volkswagen in 1996 may pave the way for more diesels, and less pollution, in passenger cars. 11 Safety Features.

Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car’s body from damage in minor collisions. Over the years, bumpers became stylish and, in some cases, not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. Eventually, government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2. 5-mph) collisions with no damage, while others can withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage.

Modern vehicles feature crumple zones, portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. Passenger compartments on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof, in case the vehicle overturns, and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically during an impact are now common. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint belts that slide into position automatically when the car’s doors close. 12.

An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the dash on the passenger’s side. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags, located in doors or seats. At impact, the bag inflates almost instantaneously. The inflated bag creates a cushion between the occupant and the vehicle’s interior. Air bags first appeared in the mid-1970s, available as an optional accessory. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars sold in the United States. Air bags inflate with great force, which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger.

Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat. Automakers continue to research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers, yet effective in collisions. Hybrid- Electric Vehicles While some developers searched for additional alternatives, others investigated ways to combine electricity with liquid fuels to produce low-emissions power systems. The hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) uses both an electric motor or motors and a gasoline or diesel engine that charges the batteries in order to extend the distance that the vehicle can travel without having to recharge the batteries.

An HEV at a stoplight typically sits silent, burning no fuel and making no pollution, if the batteries are sufficiently charged. If driven slowly, as in heavy traffic, the vehicle might move only on electric power. 13 Only when more power is demanded for acceleration or to move a heavy load, does the gasoline or diesel engine come into play. Two automobiles with such hybrid engines, the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight, became available in the late 1990s.

The Prius hit automobile showrooms in Japan in 1997, selling 30,000 models in its first two years of production. The Prius became available for sale in North America in 2000. The Honda Insight debuted in North America in late 1999. Both vehicles promised to double the fuel efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered cars while significantly reducing toxic emissions. The Ford Motor Company introduced the first U. S. -made hybrid when it began production for the Ford Escape Hybrid in August 2004. The 2005 model year Escape was also the first hybrid in the sport-utility vehicle (SUV) category. Electric Car.

Computers and Navigation Devices Computer control of automobile systems increased dramatically during the 1990s. The central processing unit (CPU) in modern engines manages overall engine performance. Microprocessors regulating other systems share data with the CPU. Computers manage fuel and air mixture ratios, ignition timing, and exhaust-emission levels. They adjust the antilock braking and traction control systems. In many models, computers also control the air conditioning and heating, the sound system, and the information displayed in the vehicle’s dashboard.

14 Expanded use of computer technology, development of stronger and lighter materials, and research on pollution control will produce better, “smarter” automobiles. In the 1980s the notion that a car would “talk” to its driver was science fiction; by the 1990s it had become reality. Onboard navigation was one of the new automotive technologies in the 1990s. By using the satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS), a computer in the automobile can pinpoint the vehicle’s location within a few meters. The onboard navigation system uses an electronic compass, digitized maps, and a display screen showing where the vehicle is relative to the destination the driver wants to reach.

After being told the destination, the computer locates it and directs the driver to it, offering alternative routes if needed. Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons, enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle, map its location, and if necessary, direct repair or emergency workers to the scene. Cars equipped with computers and cellular telephones can link to the Internet to obtain constantly updated traffic reports, weather information, route directions, and other data. Future built-in computer systems may be used to automatically obtain business information over the Internet and manage personal affairs while the vehicle’s owner is driving. 15.

Eco- Friendly Automobile Eight decades after the American auto industry turned away from the electric car in favor of gas-powered vehicles, the giant General Motors Corporation (GM) made a heralded return to the market with the first mass-produced version in the modern era, the EV1. The completely battery-powered $34,000 car, in development by GM since the late 1980s, was delivered amid fanfare to select dealerships in Arizona and southern California on December 5, 1996. Boasting a 137-horsepower engine that can silently accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in less than nine seconds, the EV1.

(Electric Vehicle 1) is hailed by some observers as an automotive breakthrough. With few moving. parts there is little regular maintenance required and no tailpipe emissions at all. Engineered to be ultralight and extremely aerodynamic to conserve energy, the EV1 is the first electric car to be made entirely from scratch as a battery-powered vehicle since the early years of the century, when as many as one-third of automobiles were electric. Most current electric cars are converted gas-powered vehicles, such as an electricity-powered Ford Ranger introduced in the summer of 1996.

The EV1 was first shown to the public as a prototype model called Impact at the 1990 Los Angeles Auto Show. Consumer trials followed, as GM worked to overcome the challenges posed by an electric car: the limited travel range before needing a recharge, size and weight restrictions, power-draining auxiliaries 16 (such as heating systems), and the lack of an infrastructure of charging stations—the “gas stations” of the 21st century, according to electric vehicle backers. But there are also critics of the EV1, who point to the automobile’s relatively high cost and its limited range of 113 to 145 km (70 to 90 m) before its lead-acid batteries must be recharged.

The special device that can recharge the EV1 in about three hours costs an extra $2000. (Fully charging from a regular household outlet takes about 15 hours. ) Many of the doubters believe that battery technology is still too limited and that the EV1 risks ultimately hurting the cause of alternative-fuel vehicles. The more advanced nickel-metal hydride battery, which can hold a greater charge than a lead-acid battery, is just now becoming commercially available. Others argue that hybrid cars—combining electric power with internal-combustion technology— hold the best promise for the future of the automobile.

Other criticisms of the EV1 include the fact that the sporty vehicle is small, holding just two people. Because electric cars generally do not perform well in cold weather, the EV1 is available only in a few warm-climate cities to start out—Los Angeles and San Diego in California, and Phoenix and Tucson in Arizona. GM plans to make and lease—rather than sell—only a few thousand cars in the initial rollout. Critics of electric cars achieved a victory in March 1996, when California’s Air Resources Board (ARB) pulled back its controversial regulations that would have forced major auto companies to make zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) account for at least 2 percent of their sales in the state starting in 1998.

While the 17 ARB backed down on the first restriction, after being heavily lobbied by auto company representatives who argued that the technology was not adequately advanced, it retained the ambitious requirement that 10 percent of all new car fleets be ZEVs by 2003. The air quality of California’s urban areas is among the worst in the United States, and other pollution-plagued regions around the country are beginning to pass similar electric-car measures to address the problem. Beyond the threat of air quality regulations, General Motors is eyeing the electric vehicle as an important new product.

They believe that consumers concerned about air pollution levels and rising gasoline prices will be interested in purchasing electric cars. The world’s largest automobile manufacturer, GM was able to devote the resources necessary for such a costly, large-scale project—an estimated $350 million in development costs. The company has made the EV1 such a priority that it created a special division for the vehicle and bestowed the corporate name of General Motors on a car for the first time in history (although it is being marketed and distributed by GM’s Saturn division).

The EV1 is only the first of a variety of low- and zero-emission vehicles that are expected from auto manufacturers in the next several years. The Honda EV, powered by nickel-metal hydride batteries, is expected in 1997, and electric cars from automakers such as Ford, Toyota, and Chrysler are planned for release no later than 1998. GM also hopes to expand its line of electric cars in the near future, including an electric Chevrolet pickup truck targeted at commercial vehicle fleets in 1997. 18 Other Improvements During the 1980s and 1990s, manufacturers trimmed 450 kg.

(1,000 lb) from the weight of the typical car by making cars smaller. Less weight, coupled with more efficient engines, doubled the gas mileage obtained by the average new car between 1974 and 1995. Further reductions in vehicle size are not practical, so the emphasis has shifted to using lighter materials, such as plastics, aluminum alloys, and carbon composites, in the engine and the rest of the vehicle. Looking ahead, engineers are devising ways to reduce driver errors and poor driving habits. Systems already exist in some locales to prevent intoxicated drivers from starting their vehicles.

The technology may be expanded to new vehicles. Anticollision systems with sensors and warning signals are being developed. In some, the car’s brakes automatically slow the vehicle if it is following another vehicle too closely. New infrared sensors or radar systems may warn drivers when another vehicle is in their “blind spot. ” Catalytic converters work only when they are warm, so most of the pollution they emit occurs in the first few minutes of operation. Engineers are working on ways to keep the converters warm for longer periods between drives, or heat the converters more rapidly. 19 Conclusion.

Based on the data presented in this paper, the researchers conclude that automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner because it is used in the daily lives of the people as transportation and it is also good for business. The researchers further conclude that the automobile has had a profound impact on the society. It has brought superhighways, paved bridges, motels, vacations, suburbia and economic growth which accompanied them. As a whole, the creation of automobile has played a very important role in the society and in the daily lives of the people because it is one of the key elements of industrial economies and no doubt, it will continue to shape the culture and economy well into the next generations.

Recommendation Based on the conclusion, the researchers recommend the following: (1) That government agencies especially Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) support the production of hybrid- electric vehicles, and eco- friendly automobiles because these have antipollution features. (2) That the government should conduct further research about automobiles because the researchers only comply the library research paper having limited information. (3)

That the government agencies should impose rules and regulations on the increasing number of automobiles; and or they should build more highways and bridges in response to this problem.

Bibliography

Bellis, Mary. (N. D. ). “Automobile history”. Retrieved on December 20, 2013 at www. about. com. Coffey, Frank. 2003. America on wheels: the first 100 years. United States of America: General Publishing. Crouse, William Harry. Automotive mechanics. United States of America: McGraw- Hill Inc. Grant, Alex. January, 2013. “Entrepreneur Philippines”. Covering all bases. Page 27. Inolino, Leth. July, 2013. “Entrepreneur Philippines”. Pushing.

Last Product Purchased Essay

Last Product Purchased Essay

Think for a moment about the last product you purchased. What was the product? What is the brand name of the product? How would you describe the customer for this product? What is the product’s closest brand competitor? Explain why you chose this brand rather than the competitor’s brand. How did the marketing for the product influence your purchase?

The last product I purchased was my new car. It is a 2012 Chevrolet Malibu. The customer for this product would be a young adult to middle aged adult.

The customer for this car wants a car that is smaller in size but one that also has plenty of room for at least 4 people. The closest brand to this car would be, in my opinion, the Pontiac G8. When I purchased my Malibu I went to test drive the G8. It was a 2011 and had only a few miles on it. It was traded in for a different car because the car was too small for the current owner.

I loved the G8 and it was everything I wanted. It was only a couple thousand dollars less than the Malibu and the Malibu was brand new with only 20 miles on it. My husband is the one who really liked the Malibu and talked me into test driving it. Needless to say that is the car I choose.

I chose this particular car because with the FREE extended warranty and the rebates on this car it turned out to be a cheaper car than the G8 but also a better car. Honestly the marketing on this car did not influence my opinion at all. I never thought about this specific car until at the dealership that day. When I purchased this car Chevrolet has awesome rebates and interest on their new vehicles. After my purchase I stared seeing, or paying attention, to the commercials on this car and I am positive I made the right decision. If I would have paid attention to the commercials on this car it would have been the car I chose anyway.

Fourth Amendment Exceptions Summary Essay

Fourth Amendment Exceptions Summary Essay

The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution requires that no search or seizure shall be carried out unless a warrant has been issued. The exceptions are: searches with consent, frisks, plain feel/plain view, incident to arrest, automobile exceptions, exigent circumstances and open fields, abandoned property and public place exceptions (Harr, Hess, 2006, p. 219). Consent to search any property must be given by t actual owners or, as set forth in the United States v Matlock (1974) by a person in charge of that property.

If, for instance more than one person owns a property, only one of those individuals must give consent. There are exceptions to that rule as well. Only commonly shared areas of that property may be searched (Harr,Hess, 2006). Take for instance a family living in an apartment which comprises of a husband, wife and sister to the man. The sister would give consent for common areas, such as the living room, den, kitchen, and bathroom, to be searched and she cannot give consent to allowing the bedroom of the brother and sister in-law to be searched.

The husband, on the other hand, could consent to having the bedroom searched because it is there joint bedroom and is not off-limits to him. Other conditions on the searches incident to arrest exception include the use of force, the search of other individuals with the arrested individual, searching the vehicle of an arrest person, contemporaneousness and inventory searches “if a government agent has probable cause to believe the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of a crime without a warrant” because “in the time it would take to get a warrant, the car, driver and contraband or evidence could be long gone” (Harr, Hess, 2006. p. 231). The 1981 case of Robbins v. California saw the justifications for searching without a warrant. Those specifications include that the mobility of vehicles produce exigent circumstances.

Balloon Car Essay

Balloon Car Essay

Our first idea was to make a paper Lamborghini. We looked on many websites to find ways to make an origami-type Lamborghini. All of the instructional videos that we found were at least an hour-and-a-half, or did not even look like a car. As we got to school I had the idea to look up paper models of Lamborghinis, the kind where it has the dotted lines and you cut it out, fold it where it says to, and tape it together.

We printed it out and we could not get it big enough on a standard-sized piece of printer paper.

There were five basic shapes on the model so we just decided to take five pieces of paper and draw the shapes much bigger and duplicate the design. After we drew the design and cut it all out we decided to cut out pieces of cardboard the same shape and put it behind the paper so it was more stable and added some weight.

For our balloon, we put a hole in the back of the car that we could put a straw through, and taped the balloon to the straw. We taped the straw up on the back part of the car so when we blew up the balloon it would go straight up.

Our wheel idea came to mind when I was drawing out an idea for our car. I was using a blue highlighter, accidentally dropped it, and we discovered how fast it rolled. We decided to try to pop out the center part of the highlighter so we could put a piece of wire through the center through the two ends and hook the wire through the bottom part of the sides of the car. We were going to use two highlighters, one in the front and one in the back, instead of “4 wheels”. However, we could not get the center out of the highlighters. We went “dumpster diving” around the school and ending up getting pop caps from Ms.

Chambers. Since our idea was to use highlighters and the wire, once we hammered a hold through each of the caps, we couldn’t figure out how to make them turn because we did not have a good axle. We tried to use just a straw for the axle and that did not work. We then tried to compact the straw so it was not as big around and that did not work either. We also tried to put nails through the caps and stick the nails into the side of the car but that did not work either. Our next idea was to go to the band room and put four timpani wheels on the bottom of our car, but they were way too heavy.

Eventually we smashed the straws to make them thinner and put it inside a hollowed-out pen. This made a good axle and we used this for our car. As we tested our car to see if it would move, it did not. We realized that our car may be too heavy so we had to think of a Plan B. We decided to take five kabob sticks and hot glue them side-by-side so it was pretty much flat. We then put our Pepsi cap wheels on the bottom, and taped the straw and balloon on top. We tested it and it moved over five meters and the path it took was fairly straight. The speed of our car is 2. 37 Meters/second.

We found our speed because it took 2. 37 seconds to travel one meter. Our car is a good example of inertia. It keeps moving until its “power source” (balloon) runs out of air. It stops it because if the balloon never ran out of air, and if there was nothing in its path, our car would never stop moving. It’s also an example of acceleration because it starts off slow, gets a little faster, and as the balloon starts to run out of air, it slows down again. It’s also an example of every action has an equal and opposite reaction, because as the balloon releases air the car moves.

You may also be interested in the following: balloon powered car hypothesis, balloon powered car conclusion

The Automobile Sector Essay

The Automobile Sector Essay

The automobiles sector is divided into four segments – two-wheelers (mopeds, scooters, motorcycles, electric two-wheelers), passenger vehicles (passenger cars, utility vehicles, multi-purpose vehicles), commercial vehicles (light and medium-heavy vehicles), and three wheelers (passenger carriers and good carriers). The industry is one of the key drivers of economic growth of the nation. Since the delicensing of the sector in 1991 and the subsequent opening up of 100 percent FDI through automatic route, Indian automobile sector has come a long way. Today, almost every global auto major has set up facilities in the country.

The world standings for the Indian automobile sector, as per the Confederation of Indian Industry, are as follows: * Largest three-wheeler market * Second largest two-wheeler market * Tenth largest passenger car market * Fourth largest tractor market * Fifth largest commercial vehicle market * Fifth largest bus and truck segment The auto sector reported a robust growth rate of 26 percent in the last two years (2010-2012). The BSE AUTO Index outperformed the benchmark Nifty by 79%, 12% and 19% in FY10, FY11 and FY12, respectively.

However, the sector has shown a sluggish growth of 12 percent in 2012.

The trend is likely to stay with a 10 percent growth outlined for 2013 citing high ownership costs (fuel costs, cost of registration, excise duty, road tax) and slow rural income growth. Solid but cautious growth is expected over the next few years. However, from a long-term perspective, rising incomes, improved affordability and untapped markets present promising opportunities for automobile manufactures in India. According to Macquaire equities research, sale of passenger vehicles is expected to double in the next four years and growth anticipated is higher than the 16 percent achieved in the past 10 years.

Two-wheeler vehicle segment is expected to show slow growth of 10 percent CAGR over the period of 2012-2016, suggests the report. The Government recognizes the impact of the sector on the nation’s economy, and consequently, the Automotive Mission Plan 2016 launched by it seeks to grow the industry to a size of US $145bn by 2016 and make it contribute 10 percent to the nation’s GDP. The ICRA analysis of the Indian market projects heavy growth for competitively priced sports-utility-vehicles or SUVs and two wheelers.

A number of major global brands like Honda, Suzuki, General Motors and Hyundai have launched their products in the SUV segment of the Indian automobile market. An average of 11. 5% growth in the two-wheelers sales in 2004-2007 has kept a number of global companies interested in this segment as well. The market has been moreover bolstered by a healthy rise in the sales of heavy commercial vehicles, and the presence of a strong auto component industry that now ranks 2nd in the world. One of the best things to happen for the Indian automobile market in the recent years was its telling improvement in the export sector.

There was a 56% growth in exports from 2003 to 2004. Although economy cars continue to hold the lion’s share of the export market, vehicles worth more than USD 1 billion were also exported in 2004, for the first time in history. This increasing demand for Indian cars on the foreign shores has helped the country’s automobile industry in two significant ways. First, it has decidedly contributed to the economic growth of the industry. Secondly, it has helped to improve the image of the Indian manufacturing infrastructure at a global level.

This increased confidence has resulted in more and more foreign brands opening manufacturing units in India, directly contributing to economy and employment. With a number of foreign brands joining ranks with the domestic manufacturers, the Indian consumer is now flooded with choice. An average Indian can now select from a wide range of Indian and foreign products. Some of the major Indian players are Maruti Udyog, Tata Motors, Mahindra, Ashok Leyland, Hero Honda and Bajaj. Toyota, GM Honda, Daimler Chrysler, Ford, Volvo and Hyundai Suzuki are the key international players in the Indian Automobile market.

However, despite the presence of foreign brands, the domestic companies are still the biggest players. Maruti Udyog and Tata vehicles share the top honors for passenger and commercial vehicles respectively. The Indian automobile industry is now riding high on success, and the bright picture does tend to obscure the problems and challenges that lay on the track of its growth. Poor road conditions, heavy pollution and large scale traffic related accidents are serious impediments in the way of the industry’s growth.

However, steps are being initiated by the government to address these problems at various levels, and solutions are being worked out at a steady pace. Indian Automobile Industry SWOT Analysis Job opportunities in automobile sector The economy is booming and salaries are zooming. With an increase in purchasing power of people in our country, India’s automobile industry has become one of the fastest-growing in the world right now. With more disposable income and affordable cars like Nano hitting the road, car sales have touched new heights. To capitalise on this opportunity, many foreign companies are expanding their operations in India.

It is for this reasons that there are plenty of job openings in automobile industry. For the right candidates, the salary is big. Jobs are available across almost all fields – engineering, research and development, finance, human resources, and information technology. According to the Confederation of Indian Industry, auto sector currently employs 787, 7702 people, 58 percent of who are in the passenger car segment. However, there is an increasing demand for skilled professionals in the domain of effective service delivery, spares management and support functions.

ITIs and Polytechnics provide 530,000 graduates every year, but there is an urgent need for updating courses to keep up with changing trends in technology, manufacturing, and processes. 2 most popular career options for MBA (at top level) in automobile industry-: Marketing Head: How is BMW different from Toyota? A marketing head is responsible for building the brand of the company. He has to position the company’s brand, promote it at both domestic and international level, then see its performance in the market vis-a-vis other competitors.

Qualifications: MBA with specialisation in Marketing and minimum work experience of 10 years. Expected Pay: Salaries range from Rs 800,000 rupees to Rs 5 million ($111,000). Some major multinational companies pay as much as 10 million rupees ($224,000). Financial Analyst: A financial analyst plays a key role in preparing the company’s business plans, and is involved in the vehicle’s pricing and suggesting ways to reduce cost of production. He will also evaluate the progress of the product and reports its financial performance. He will also keep a check on the performance of competitors’ products.

Qualifications: Companies typically look for candidates with a post-graduate degree in commerce, or master’s in business administration with a major in finance. At least an experience of 15 years is required. Expected Pay: According to a report in Wall Street Journal, the salary of a financial analyst ranges from $67,000 to $156,000. Upcoming trends India is emerging as a strong automotive R&D hub with foreign players like Hyundai, Suzuki, General Motors setting up base in India. This move is further enhanced by Government’s support towards setting up centres for development and innovation.

Tata Nano’s successful entry in the Indian market has steamed up the opportunities of growth available in alternative segments like electric cars, vehicles run on natural gas, etc. Factors that will drive growth in the sector * Rising incomes among Indian population will lead to increased affordability, increasing domestic demand for vehicles, especially in the small car segment. * Fuel economy and demand for greater fuel efficiency is a major factor that affects consumer purchase decision that will bring leading companies across two-wheeler and four-wheeler segment to focus on delivering performance-oriented products.

* Product innovation and market segmentation will channelize growth. Vehicles based on alternative fuels will be an area of interest for both consumers and auto makers. * Focus on establishing India as auto-manufacturing hub is reigning in policy support in form of Government’s technology modernisation fund. * Industry will seek to augment sales by tapping into rural markets, youth, women and luxury segments.