Categories for Aspirin

Bayer case2 Essay

Bayer case2 Essay

Supply chain factors must also be taken into account in the decision-making if substantial capacity changes are involved – like reintroducing Bayer Aspirin. Key questions include: What impact will the changes have on suppliers, warehousing, transportation, and distributors? If capacity will be increased, will these elements of the supply chain be able to handle the increase? Conversely, if capacity is to be decreased, what impact will the loss in business have on these elements of the supply chain?

Finally, customer and public opinion is very crucial to consider during decision-making.

Will they still accept the new reintroduced product as before? What would be the common sentiments of the people regarding the possible decision? In evaluating alternatives during decision-making, a manager must consider both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Quantitative analysis usually reflects economic factors, and qualitative considerations include intangibles such as public opinion and personal preferences of managers.

Thus, in deciding for the Bayer Aspirin case, is not solely dependent on economic factors because these are not the only things that would be affected when changes are being implemented.

As an organization, Bayer should draw out what are the quantitative and qualitative considerations at hand, in order to come up with efficient and effective decisions for their company. 4. ) In what ways is Aspirin Brand valuable for Bayer?

When aspirin first appeared in the spring of 1899 in a handful of articles in a few German medical journals, the author introduced it without fanfare as a serviceable substitute for the salicylic acid and sodium salicylate that had been in use for more than twenty years to treat rheumatic disorders. Aspirin reduced fever and inflammation quickly, but more importantly it did not appear to have an ill effect on the stomach. Side effects were minimal, so patients tolerated it quite well and they did not rebel against the treatment.

The doctors who tested it and the company that manufactured it therefore recommended the drug as a promising anti-rheumatic medication and no doubt expected respectable profits from its use in this modest market. No one, however, apparently anticipated that in less than two decades this new compound would become the manufacturer’s best-selling medicine and the world’s most widely used drug (a distinction it still holds), not so much because of its role in treating rheumatism but because of its effectiveness in managing minor pain, especially headaches.

And by the time Aspirin’s overall popularity was apparent, it was also apparent that it had achieved this exalted status not simply because of its considerable medical merits but also because of the deliberate business policies and practices of its manufacturer, the Farbenfabriken vormals Friedrich Bayer und Companie of Elberfeld, Germany, or simply known as Bayer. Headquartered in Leverkusen, Germany, Bayer is involved in 20 different business units that research, develop and manufacture products in the life sciences, polymers and specialty chemicals areas.

Considered as the “jewel” at the very center of the Bayer crown, Aspirin is more than just a brand name that Bayer acquired. It is without question the most successful over-the-counter drug in history. In fact, 1999 marked the 100th anniversary of Aspirin, it is still the number two analgesic drug in the world with net sales in 1998 of DM1. 1 billion (US$654. 8 million). Only Tylenol exceeds ASPIRIN in sales, but 95% of Tylenol’s sales are in the US; in the rest of the world, Bayer is still number one (Buchanan and Merker, 2002).

As a brand, its popularity is undeniable around the world. Exhibit 3 shows that the market of Aspirin covers 90 countries. At present, Bayer Aspirin is a family of well-known brands and products, which includes Children’s ASPIRIN®, ASPIRINProtect®, ASPIRIN Direct®, ASPIRIN+C®, and many others. All are geared for specific uses such as cough and cold, headache and pain, stroke and heart attack prevention. Many have unique delivery systems such as granules, effervescent tablets, and chewable forms. Of the US$654.

8 million in total worldwide net sales of all Aspirin products in 1998, US$37. 5 million (5. 8%) came from the sale of Children’s ASPIRIN®. In reality, Aspirin as brand propelled Bayer’s success all throughout its history. By promoting Aspirin (not acetylsalicylic acid), Bayer had foreseen that the brand name would be so firmly entrenched in the medical community that when the patent expired, rival manufacturers of ASA would be unable to compete in the American market. True enough that by 1909, Aspirin accounted for 31% of Bayer’s US sales.

Although Bayer continues to hold a trademark on the brand name in many countries of the world, it had once lost that right in several key countries like the United States. Bayer trademark was lost initially in the US at the end of World War I to Sterling Drug, Inc. as the result of the US government’s retaliatory practice of confiscating and then auctioning off the property of German companies with holdings in the United States. It wasn’t until 1994, 76 years after the expropriation of the trademark Bayer Aspirin, that Bayer Group finally reacquired the brand.

According to the Bayer Website, Bayer continues to look for new possibilities for Aspirin, being considered as the miracle or wonder drug. In 1988, Australian epidemiologist Professor G. Kune discovered that people who took Aspirin had a 40% lower incidence of colon cancer than those who did not. Later, a number of studies, including a large-scale study conducted by the American Cancer Society, confirmed that Aspirin is indeed effective in preventing colon cancer.

According to one estimate, Aspirin inhibits cell mutation, a theory that paves the way for future research and the promise of new developments. Research is also being conducted into Aspirin’s effects on Alzheimer’s Disease and diabetes. Thus, Aspirin’s value for Bayer do not just depend on the brand name itself, but all its hidden potentials that could benefit all sick people because of its low price and time-tested usefulness. 5. ) How is the pharmaceutical market and the market for Aspirin evolving?

Is it to the advantage or disadvantage of pharmaceutical companies? Originally prescribed for rheumatic disorders, aspirin has come a long way of just adrug marketed to reduce fever and inflammation quickly. As a drug, aspirin not only has the properties of an analgesic or painkiller, it is also an antipyretic (anti-fever), an anti-inflammatory and an anti-platelet (see Table 1). The first three qualities make it a headache, cold, and flu medication, but it is the fourth quality that makes Aspirin a preventive medication.

Interestingly, the anti-platelet effects of aspirin occur at a surprisingly low dosage: 30-50 mg. or so, and Children’s ASPIRIN is one of the lowest dose aspirin products on the market. It also happens to be the cheapest among the ASPIRIN family of products. The significance of these two characteristics gave Children’s ASPIRIN a new market, as doctors around the world started recommending and prescribing Children’s ASPIRIN to their middle-aged patients as a means of prevention.

Properties of Analgesics Essay

Properties of Analgesics Essay

The mass of three analgesics, aspirin, buffered aspirin, and acetaminophen is certainly different. The insoluble particles in each varied as well. If base is added to aspirin, it will neutralize. If it is added to buffered aspirin and acetaminophen, then the pH will increases. First, we found the masses of four tablets of each analgesic. Then, we ground them separately into a powder. Each was dissolved in water and filtered, leaving only the insoluble particles behind The mass of the uncrushed analgesics was compared to its insoluble parts.

On the next day, we found the pH of each analgesic, then added NaOH to each in 1mL increments, testing the pH each time. We compared the differing masses (of both the four pills and the insoluables) and the varying pH levels of each analgesic.

DATA TABLES:

table1

table2

Observation of the Filtering Paper:

When the first filtering took place (filtering of aspirin), it left powdered aspirin behind. This was the insoluble materials of aspirin.

The other two produced the same results, leaving behind insoluble particles. The buffered aspirin seemed to take longer to filter, followed closely by acetaminophen. The aspirin took the shortest amount of time.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

The masses of the four tablets for each analgesic was: aspirin tablets were 1.929g; buffered aspirin was 2.810g; and acetaminophen was 2.194g. After filtering, the mass of the insoluble material for aspirin was 0.637g; buffered aspirin was 0.676g; and acetaminophen was 0.733g. The pH change varied from each analgesic. For aspirin, the pH never changed when base was added. The buffered aspirin rose 1.5 on the pH scale after the NaOH was added. For the acetaminophen, the pH level raised by 4. Here is a graph of the pH data:

CONCLUSION

The acetaminophen had the highest mass of insoluble materials, followed by buffered aspirin and aspirin. But, the buffered aspirin had only 24% insoluble material, while the aspirin had 33% and the acetaminophen had 33.4%. The most acidic was aspirin, because it was unaffected by the NaOH. The acetaminophen, however, was affected most by the base. Aspirin is the most acidic of the three, so it should be avoided by those that have stomach coagulation or ulcers, as the acid could make its way into the lining aggravating the stomach. In this case, buffered aspirin could be used, since it contains the least amount of insoluble material. Acetaminophen could be used if one has an allergy to aspirin.

EXTENSIONS

A grain is a metric equivalent to 0.0649 grams. It is 1/7000 of a pound. So for a 300mg dosage of aspirin, one would be taking 4.61 grains of aspirin. For a 325mg dosage (standard Tylenol) of acetaminophen, one would take 5 grains. For 350mg of buffered aspirin, one would take 5.39 grains.