Categories for Aristotle

Plato – Epistemology Essay

Plato – Epistemology Essay

? Plato was born in Athens in 428/27 BCE, one year after death of Pericles. ? His father traced his lineage to the old kings of Athens and before them to the god Posiedon. ? His, mother Perictione, was the sister of Chramides and the cousin of Critias. ? In such a family atmosphere, Plato learned much about public life and developed at an early age a sense of responsibility for public political service. ? Around 387 BCE, when he was about 40 yrs. Old, Plato founded the Academy at Athens.

THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE • The Cave • The Dividend Line ? Plato provides more detail about levels of knowledge that we can obtain ? These objects and their parallel types of thought can be diagram as follows: Types of Objects y Thought |The Good, Forms |Intelligence | |Mathematical |Thinking | |Objects | | |Things |Belief | |Images |Imagining | Imagining ? The most superficial form of mental activity is found at the lowest level of the line. ? The three levels of reality here are, then 1.

The form of Humanness 2.

The embodiment of this Form in Socrates 3. The image of Socrates as represented on canvass Belief ? The next stage after imagining is belief. ? It may strike us as strange that Plato should use the word believing instead of knowing to describe the state of mind induced by seeing actual objects. Thinking ? When we move from believing to thinking, we move from the visible world to the intelligible world and from the realm of opinion to the realm of knowledge Perfect Intelligence

? To have a perfect knowledge would require that we grasp the relation of everything to everything else-that we see the unity of the whole of reality. Plato Summary Statement: “Now you may take, a corresponding to the four sections, these four states of mind: intelligence for the highest, thinking for the second, belief for the third and for the last imagining. These you may arrange as the terms in a proportion, assigning to each a degree of clearness and certainty, corresponding to the measure in which their object possess truth and reality”.

THEORY OF FORMS ? Plato’s theory of the Forms is his most significant philosophical contribution. ? There are atleast five questions that we might ask about the forms: What are the forms? ? In his Symposium Plato states that we normally grasp beauty first of all in a particular object or person. But having discovered beauty in his limited form, we soon “perceive that the beauty of one form is akin to another”, and so we move from the beauty of a particular body to the recognition that beauty” in every form is one the same”.

Where do the forms Exist? ? Plato’s clearest suggestion on this problem is that the Forms are “separate” from concrete things, that they exist “ apart from the things we see. What Is the Relation of Forms to Each other? ? A Form can be related to a thing in three ways: o The Form is the cause of the essence of a thing. o A thing may be said to participate in a form. o A thing may be said to imitate or copy a form. What is the Relation of forms to each other?

? Plato says that “We can have discourse only through the weaving together of Forms. ” How do we know the forms? ? Plato mentions at least three different ways in which our minds discover the Forms. o There is recollection o People arrive to the knowledge of forms through the activity of dialectic. o There is a power of desire or love (eros) ———————– Intelligible World Visible World Knowledge Opinion.

Metaphysics: Ontology and Universal Conceptions Essay

Metaphysics: Ontology and Universal Conceptions Essay

Metaphysics has been given many definitions over the years, Aristotle says that it is the science of being as being, or the study of everything that can be. Another definition given to metaphysics is the science of the most universal conceptions. My personal favorite would be metaphysics is the science of the most abstract conceptions.

This, to me, is saying that metaphysics is the study of ideas real physics does not solve, things that cannot be measured by a gauge. Aristotle also said “The first science deals with things which are both separate (from matter) and unmovable.

” The study of things not made from any physical material, and cannot be removed from human life, such as: the human soul, or the existence of god. You can’t touch, see, taste, smell, or hear these things; they exist only in the state of mind.

There are three key ideas to metaphysics: being, substance, and cause. The most important thing about the idea of being is that it cannot be defined.

If it were given a definition “by proximate genus and ultimate difference”, the word itself, being, includes anything that ever was, and everything that ever will, so it cannot exclude anything, and therefore cannot be included in a genus or group. With this definition of being, it cannot be argued, “that any lower concepts will have a greater comprehension than being.”

There could not be anything added to being, if being includes everything, so the equation “Substance = Being + a” is incorrect. It could be said that one can use metaphysics to have a better understanding of religion, I know the bible seems kind of abstract to me.

Aristotle and Plato’s Concept of the Soul Essay

Aristotle and Plato’s Concept of the Soul Essay

Most individuals are interested in knowing and understanding the various phenomena that exist among their midst. It could be as simple as looking for information as to why the sun rises and sets or it could involve very trivial matters that deal with things that is not seen by the naked eye. This is why the field of philosophy exists in order to investigate the ideas of truth, existence, knowledge, and other subjects by means of logic and reason (Kemerling).

In relation to this, many famous philosophers have their respective theories that tend to explain various matters.

This could be exemplified by Aristotle and Plato’s ideas behind the existence of a soul. Aristotle wrote three books of De Anima wherein he elaborated a varying array of philosophical and scientific topics. In Book II, Chapter 1 of De Anima, Aristotle made a sketch or outline of the nature of the soul. He explained the concept of the soul by using a scientific perspective that uses elements of biology.

In relation to this, he also employed the idea of metaphysics that tackled everything such as substance, form, matter, potentiality, and actuality. Aristotle perceived that the soul is united with the living body. As such, the existence of the soul is also dependent upon the host. He deems that the soul is made simply for the purpose of development, which can only happen if it is connected with a body or some kind of container in the physical world. In this sense, the soul is assumed to exist as the form of the body.

The importance of the soul is greatly dependent upon the body or a type of entity that gives life to it. Since the soul designates life, Aristotle believed that it is also present in every living thing, including plants and animals. He also elaborated that different entities have various versions of the soul. The soul of a human being is unique from others because it has the ability to hold rational beliefs and use reason. It is regarded as the higher level of soul while the lowest ones are those that are found in plants and animals.

Moreover, Aristotle’s association of the soul to specific forms made the soul as the mover because it is the culmination of the various life forces (Davidson). On the other hand, Plato believes that the soul is made up of three basic energies, including reason, emotion, and appetite that are responsible in animating human beings. The energy of reason is regarded as having the greatest value, while emotion and most especially appetite are considered as the lower passions. Reason is responsible in governing the soul that controls the emotion and the appetite of an individual.

In relation to this, Plato deems that the soul is important in living a moral life. He explained that morality is the cause of happiness, which motivates an immoral person to behave righteously if he or she wants to be happy. Plato asserted that a happy person is a just person. Moreover, the psychic harmony of the soul is expressed in four cardinal virtues that are related to the three basic energies. In terms of reason, the just person has wisdom or prudence. In relation to emotion, the just person has the virtue of courage.

Lastly, when it comes to the energy of appetite, a just person has the value of temperance (“Plato theory of the Soul”). Aristotle and Plato’s respective theories of the soul have similarities in the sense that they both believe that the soul is responsible for the ability of human beings to think logically and rationally. Nevertheless, there are many differences in their concept of the soul. Since Aristotle employed the scientific topics in his theory, he perceived the soul as dependent upon the body. In relation to this, he also deemed that other living things have souls.

On the contrary, Plato merely focused on the existence of human beings’ soul. He explained his idea of the soul in the light of morality rather than biology. Furthermore, Plato argued that the soul is influenced by external force in order to move, while Aristotle asserted that the soul is the mover itself because it is an assortment of life forces. The varying theories of Aristotle and Plato with regards to the soul only show that philosophers have different perspective and understanding in the pursuit of understanding various matters of an individual’s existence.