Categories for Architecture

Software Requirement Specification Essay

Software Requirement Specification Essay

Students to several process modeling techniques for representing business processes. Although this chapter focuses primarily on data flow diagramming, brief overviews of functional hierarchy modeling and Oracle’s process modeler are given. After a brief introduction to process modeling, data flow diagramming techniques are introduced in a section called “Data Flow Diagramming Mechanics. ” This section demonstrates the basic DFD symbols, definitions, and rules.

The authors use the Gane and Sarson symbol set throughout the book, and these symbols are explained in this section.

Hoosier Burger, the food ordering system first mentioned in Chapter 2, is used to illustrate basic data flow diagramming concepts. This section also includes explanations of decomposition and balancing. Chapter 8’s third major section introduces four different types of DFDs: current physical, current logical, new logical, and new physical. Hoosier Burger’s inventory control system (which is manual) is used to illustrate the first three types of DFDs.

Current practice in using DFDs indicates that very little time should be spent on the current physical DFD.

The fourth major section in this chapter, “Using Data Flow Diagramming in the Analysis Process,” introduces guidelines for drawing and using DFDs. This is different from the mechanical rules presented earlier. Topics include completeness, consistency, timing, iterative development, primitive DFDs, and analyzing DFDs for system inefficiencies and discrepancies among DFDs that are supposed to be modeling the same system. A Hoosier Burger example helps illustrate these guidelines.

The “Oracle’s Process Modeler and Functional Hierarchy Diagrams” section introduces students to two other process modeling tools. These tools are Oracle Designer’s process modeler and functional hierarchy modeling, a tool found in several CASE products. In this section, the authors show how to prepare basic process models and functional hierarchy diagrams. Additionally, the authors compare and contrast Oracle’s process models to data flow diagramming. In the last section of this chapter, the authors’ overview process modeling for Internet-based electronic commerce applications.

As they explain, process modeling for Internet-based electronic commerce applications does not differ from more traditional applications development projects. Instructional Objectives Specific student learning objectives are included at the beginning of the chapter. From an instructor’s point of view, the objectives of this chapter are to: 1. Show how to logically model processes with data flow diagrams. 2. Teach students data flow diagram symbols and the mechanical rules necessary to create accurate, well-structured process models. 3. Show students how to decompose data flow diagrams into lower-level diagrams.

For people who are not familiar with data flow diagrams, the students should find that it is relatively easy to show them that data flow diagrams are a better way to model processes. Chances are that this person’s original picture already has many of the elements of a standard data flow diagram anyway. Research has found that process modeling is a very natural activity for most people, even when they are not formally trained in this technique.

Presentation Architecture in Renaissance and Baroque Essay

Presentation Architecture in Renaissance and Baroque Essay

All aspects of Renaissance culture, from art and architecture to philosophy, were influenced and inspired by Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Generally, architecture in the Renaissance can be described as symmetrical, harmonious and sober. Many buildings that were built in the Renaissance are perfect symmetrical, if you would draw a line through the middle of the building, it would have two exact same halves. Because it is so symmetrical, it looks very harmonious and static. However, it often also looks authorative probably because of the use of pediments and columns which make it look like Grecian temples.

Renaissance buildings are rarely very high or vertical in contrast to buildings in Gothic architecture. Furthermore, architecture in the Renaissance was very much about the details.

On many buildings, you can see lintels, which are the things above the window and you can also often see small sculptures of men, women, gods or other important people. The most important characteristic of the Renaissance is that shapes from the Greek and Roman times were reused in new designs.

Typical characteristics that returned in many designs are: columns, which are vertical pillars, pilasters, which is almost the same as a column except that a pilaster is connected to the wall sticking out and it is used as a decoration, vaults, which are arched roofs that support the weight of a roof, domes, which is a hollow sphere above a building and arches, which are structures that span a space while supporting weight, such as a doorway or window in a wall.

This is one example of a villa built in Renaissance style. The architect was Palladio, who designed the building in 1567. Palladio was asked to build a villa for Paolo Almerica, a high functionary of the Pope. Villa Almerica is better known as La Rotonda. It was used as a location for parties as well as a place to live in. It is made up of a cube centre part, where the owners of the villa lived, with on the 4 sides of the building the same set of columns and entablature built to it. In this picture, you can see that this building has a dome, pilasters, lintels and columns with Ionic capitals, which you can see here. A capital is the top of a column. It also has an entablature with a cornice and the architrave. The two middle columns are placed a bit to the sides to emphasize the door. This part looks a bit like a Grecian temple and that makes it look authorative.

Another example of a building made in the Renaissance is The Tempietto del San Pietro. It is a cylinder-shaped little church in Rome. The word “tempietto” means “small Temple” as it is one. The Tempietto is built at the court of the San pietro in Montorio church. It was built by Donato Bramante in 1502. The Spanish king Ferdinand ordered Bramante to build a church to remember the crucifixion of Petrus, one of the first apostles and the first pope. The little temple would be built on the spot where Petrus was crucified.

This is why the building is especially important in Rome. As you can see it looks very Greek again because of the columns with doric capitals. It also has a dome but it especially looks Greek because of the symmetry of the temple. The building expresses the balanced proportions of Renaissance architecture. The columns, the frieze and the decorative features all show the classical influence.

At the end of the 17th century, Baroque rose up and started to replace the Renaissance. This change was due to religious reasons. In the 1500s the Roman Catholic Church was under much pressure to reform. In this period, Protestantism was rising, especially in northern Europe. Protestantism was highly critical of the Roman Catholic Church and its abuses of its powerful position. Baroque can be seen as a cultural public relations movement started by the Roman Catholic Church to win back the support of the people. Protestantism is characterized by sober architecture. The roman-Catholics decided to go the opposite direction and promote architecture which was over the top, dramatic and extraordinary, to try and get the public back to re-interest in the Roman Catholic Church again.

Baroque is an architectural style, which evolved in the 16th century in Italy. During the 17th century, the style spread through Europe and Latin America. Baroque architecture is the opposite of Renaissance architecture. Renaissance architecture was very calm and balanced, symmetrical and harmonious while the baroque architecture was very extravagant and asymmetrical. Baroque style is all about drama, energy and rhythm. The grandiose buildings, sculptures and paintings were meant to inspire religious awe and excitement in the people. The Baroque architecture draws your attention. Baroque style is typical for breaking the limits for classic buildings and going in an extreme form. Most baroque buildings have bent asymmetrical shapes. Baroque architecture buildings are supposed to amaze people. It is supposed to look fantastic and over the top. Some people might think it is kitsch.

This is a picture of a kaisersal residence, which was used from 1719 to 1944. Johann Balthazar Neumann was the architect who designed this baroque style house for the Prince Bishops of Wuerzburg. In this room, the Bishop received important people. The over the top theme of baroque is shown in this room by the amount of decoration. It is really overwhelming because of all the gold and the decorations. You can see that this room was designed to receive important people as it would impress them. You can’t recognize any Renaissance architecture features in this room anymore. You can’t see any Ancient Greek or Roman architectural features.

This is another example of Baroque architecture. It is the Berlin Cathedral or Berliner Dom in Berlin, Germany. It is also called the Lutheran Cathedral. The people who went to Berlin might recognize it. Again, you can see that it is very extravagant and over the top. It has many details and decorative features such as all the sculptures. This building has some Renaissance features though such as the pilasters and the pediments and off course the domes.

The baroque spread through Europe but didn’t really spread in this form to northern Europe because Protestantism was too strong there. In Holland, which was also very protestant, the Baroque style developed in its own way. It had such a distinctive style that it got a different name: Dutch Classicism or Hollands Classicisme. It glorified the Dutch Republic of the 17th century, democracy and the new found wealth from colonialism.

Hindu religious architecture Essay

Hindu religious architecture Essay

In order to understand a kind of people and their behavior, it is important to understand their literature and art . Different people have different cultures and believe, but can sometime adapt to the cultures of those they come in contact with. In India, there have been many cultural developments that have taken place over several years. The rich cultural activities in India have been due to the influence of many settlers in the county. Furthermore, India’s culture has been enriched by the kind of language that people talk and the religion they practice.

Indian Architecture The Hindu architecture reflects the influence of various regions and dynasties. “With the Islamic style concentrating only on monuments and the Hindu style being more religious, thematically, Indian architecture is indeed a celebration of creatively of unsung artisans who dedicated their lives to bring to life such wondrous pieces of enviable beauty”, (India Travel Agents, N. d). The Hindu temple was built with the concept of four compartments i.

e. an entrance porch (the ardhamandap), the vestibule (antarala) and the Sanctum (garbhagriha).

In some large temples, was addition of mandap with liberal transepts for size and splendor (India Travel Agents, N. d). The coming of the Muslims in India brought about several changes that had not been experienced in the Hindu religion. One thing that the Hindu religion was not accustomed too was the architecture of the tomb. The Muslims build the “tomb as a form made modest beginning with small canopies over the graves of Sufi saints and soon led to the erection of increasingly complex structures culminating in India, in the monumental mausoleums of the Mughal emperors (Nangia, 2001).

The fusion of the cultures The most striking different between the Indo Islamic and the Hindu religion is the place of worship. The Hindus worship in the temple while the Muslims worship in the mosque. These different worshiping places precisely explain the different conciousness between the two communities. The temple building contains abode of mystery, the courts of the temple are open to light and air. It has got so many doorways which invites publicity. On the contrary, the mosque encloses a ‘phantasma’ of massive darkness with somber passages leading to the dim cells.

These places of the mosque are jealously guarded (Nangia 2001). According to Brown (1975), another different that can be spotted between the temple and the mosque is that, it is not infrequently introspective, complex and indeterminate (Nangia 2001). Furthermore, there were other stinking differences in the architectural work of the two religions. In the Hindu religion the temple had various carvings but this was prohibited to the Muslims. The Muslims also had decorations of letterings on the mosque and the tomb while the Hindu did not have such decorations.

Most of the architectural designs came because of the various believes that was excised between the two religions. For instance, the Hindu believed in reincarnation and therefore did not practice burying of the dead, rather they practiced cremation.

References

India Travel Agents (N. d): Indian Architecture retrieved on 20th Oct from http://www. india-travel-agents. com/cultural-heritage-tourism-india/architecture-heritage-tours/index. html Nangia. A (2001): Islamic Influence, retrieved on 20th Oct from http://www.boloji.com/architecture/00015.htm

Role of Computers in Architectural Design Process

Introduction

Outline Intentions

The intention of my research is to investigate the role computers play as a visualization and representational tool in the architectural design process. The thesis proposes to ascertain an appropriate understanding of our experience of the emergent digital realms.This involves investigating the ‘need’ to visualize a building before it is created in practice and the degree to which CAD programs are used as a design tool as a means of testing and evaluating architectural processes. As part of examining the benefits computers has in the field of architecture I assessed the degree to which they have distanced the practitioners in architecture from hand drawings and physical model making and how virtual architecture could be detrimental to the disciplinary field – Involving the emergence of ‘paper’ architecture showing theoretical proposals using visualizations. Many architects believe that the traditional hand renderings and conceptual sketches have now become a lost art to the cost of architectural design.

The research examines how these digital technologies help architects to design and how visualizations’ act as a way of communication between client and designer. This involves researching into architectural graphics as a marketing tool and looking into the future of computational methods as a visual and development tool for building design.

The question will therefore be proposed of whether architects and designers have maintained the ‘hands on’ approach associated with the discipline, or whether this has been abandoned in favor of computer graphics as a visual tool. Are computers taking away from the traditional methods and if so what are their advantages to the discipline?

Methodology

To assess the degree to which CAD software helps architectural design firms, I looked at two firms which rely heavily on CAD software as a design tool and one firm, which not only believe in a traditional approach, but use predominantly models and hand drawings for conceptual stages. This involved assessing critic’s views, personal judgment and analyzing the pathways they took in relation to initial brief and concepts to construction stages. The three case studies selected are intended to show the varied use of computing software and its adaption to various styles of office organization and philosophies. A description of the three firms working methods is analyzed and comparisons drawn against these case studies focusing on the diverse working methods. The study then formed the basis of a conclusion in which a summary of the results is documented.

Chapter 1:  Literature Review of Current Computation Trends

What should be the exact scope of the computer involvement within the architectural discourse? This question has been present since the beginning of the use of computer aided architecture software. It is notable that many of the designs we see in today’s architectural world could not have been achieved without use of computer visualizations and extensive 3D graphics, However the question of how much should computation techniques be used is always present. Will the age old two dimensional flattened image give way to the intelligent three dimensional digital models as a way of communication? As apparently simple as this question might be, the answers are considerably more complex.

An architect throughout the ages has communicated via a pen or pencil and a piece of paper. They have quick ability to identify their projects functioning and particularities with a simple doodle.  This method of working has not changed.  However according to Vesselin Gueorguiev (2008, p.6) ‘the architectural and design visualization industry is predicted to grow by 23% over the next 7 years'[2].  A new generation of structures and concepts is being created that recognizes the computer not only as a drafting and rendering tool, but also as a potentially powerful tool in the generation of designs themselves; in other words an intelligent drafting machine.  With the use of 3D modeling, renderings and visualizations, an architect has an excellent opportunity to play with your imaginations or thoughts, enabling the creation of pieces of architecture that could never have been rationalized with the use of pen and paper technique alone. 

An increasing number of digital designs are now being published and praised by critics as meaningful and influential to the architectural field.  This emergence of ‘paper’ and theoretical architecture is rapidly expanding with many architects adopting a research approach to practice, led dominantly by computers as a means of experimenting in forms, aesthetics and expressing the investigations achieved.  Helen Castle for instance describes how ‘cities shapes might be grown in digital laboratories in order to aid evolved urban design (2009, p.4)'[3].  Evidence of this is shown in Figure 1 showing a digitally produced master-plan for a carbon-neutral resort and residential development on Zira Island in the Caspian Sea. 

‘For a long time architecture was thought of as a solid reality and entity: buildings, objects, matter, place and a set of geometric relationships.  But recently, architects have begun to understand their products as liquid, animating their bodies, hyper-surfacing their walls, crossbreeding different locations, experimenting with new geometries.  And this is only the beginning’ (2005, p.22)[4].

It is undoubtedly evident that advanced rendering and 3D systems can help to envisage of what architecture might be, however the computer is not a human being and should not be treated as such.  Ultimately it is the architect who is controlling the ideas, programming and concepts and the computer merely facilitates instructions. Therefore the computer is just a way of copying, simulating or replacing manual methods of design, simply a tool to replace the pencil.  Kosta Terzidis concurs with the argument stating that ‘unlike humans, computers are not aware of their environment’ (2006, p.37)[5].  In this computer age, architects are constantly striving to generate and introduce a new way of thinking about design.  The problem is that often neither the designer is aware of the possibilities that conceptual schemes can produce nor the software packages are able to predict the moves or personality of individual designers.  The result therefore is that the computer is used more as a medium of expression rather than a structural foundation for architectural experimentation.  Has the emergence of digital realms as a result of computer formulated design led to architecture being produced as a mass media image rather than a piece of beautifully crafted, functional and creative architecture?

Architects such as Beatriz Colomina took the subject of media of architecture as an exhibition piece from the 1920’s to the 1950’s, therefore this fanciful image of architecture was not just brought to light by the digital age.  This notion of extremely visual 3D architecture has however been condemned by many critics, with many believing that the actual computer image is surpassing the reality of the building itself.  Branko Kolarevic points out the problem that;

‘There seems to be a sense among the generation of school leavers that because they have mastered a software they are sufficient as architects, and they almost immediately seem to be leaving to set up their own practice, which usually turns into a graphics company for websites’ (2005, p.70).[6]

The notion of using computers more as a marketing tool is very prominent in today’s culture.  This is especially important in times of economic recession where every niche a practice has will be exploited to offer a more attractive service to the client.  Images sell buildings.  As a result, many architecture graduates are employed solely to use their skills of computer renderings rather than their knowledge of design; in effect turning into ‘CAD monkeys’ and simply key based operators rather than architects.  The perception that computer graphics is enhancing buildings is viewed as a myth by many.  As [8] to simply draft the drawings required and preparing a project for construction and tender documentation.  

For many designers, the computer is just an advanced tool running programs that enable them to produce sophisticated forms and to better control the realization of a design.  Critic Kosta Terzidis states that, ‘whatever capabilities a computer may have it lacks any level of criticality and its visual effects are nothing but mindless connections to be interrupted by a human designer’ (2006, p.48).[9]  I agree with this point as to fully determine a solution; an architect should be intrinsically linked with their proposal via physical models, sketches and general hands on approaches.  A computer does not have the ability to reflect and respond to an environment set by the user; in other words the computer output is simply a response to the designers input.  Due to the nature of complexity in many 3D programs, architects can become lost in their designs with a loss of control over the fundamental solution to the problem. 

Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran from Ohio State University states ‘the very vagueness and ambiguity of sketches plays an important role in the early stages of design’ (2007, p.65),[10] see figure 2, which explains with the use of color to highlight the dominant architectural elements.

It is vitally important that we do not loose this affinity with sketching that our architectural discourse has been built on.  In this digital age the benefits computers can bring to the design process is profound however, we must not let computers control architecture.  Let humans control architecture and allow a combination of sketches, CAD or virtual models and computation control our future worlds.   

However the terms, concepts and processes that seem inconceivable, unpredictable and impossible by a designer can be explored, implemented and tested into new design strategies and solutions within the digital world.  This experimentation has given rise to new design processes and concepts such as genetic algorithms, parametric design and isomorphic surfaces.  Branko Kolarevic (2005) makes the argument that;

‘Digitally driven processes, characterized by dynamic open-ended and unpredictable but consistent transformations of three dimensional structures, are giving rise to new architectonic possibilities (2005, p. 2).[11]

CAD programs assist in helping an idea to be physically realizable creating a new dynamic solution.  Computers simply assist in reinforcing our creativity and making us capable of doing things, which would be considered impossible by traditional means.  This rise of algorithmic design as a result of digital design may be particularly beneficial to that of urban master planning for the future of our cities.  Michael Batty for example talks about algorithms stating:

‘This new species has mutated the way man perceives architecture and his place within it.  It has allowed a different thought process to be applied to how we exist in this world, and how we build up the world around us, and how the world builds itself’ (2009, p. 47).[12]

From this quote it can be said that 3D visual programs can help us understand and analyze our cities and enable the designers to navigate them in new ways and pave a better way for the future.  However this notion of a ‘digital city’ is merely conceptual at this point with Planners being unaware of the possibilities of new interventions derived from 3D analysis.  Therefore the spatial development of a digital city at this point in time is still untried, considered unresolved and unaware if the digital mutations emerging from our computers actually work functionally.

In conclusion this chapter has emphasized that;’all that is digital need not be a Trojan horse of marketisation and all theoreticians and designers that have embraced computer based design and manufacturing need not be neo-capitalistic zealots’; Anthony Vidler (2008, p.111).[13]

The emergence of computer simulation programs can open up new possibilities of design and push architectural skills in a direction previously not possible via pen and paper.  It is enlightening to know that new CAD programs have implemented change in the design discourse in terms of freedom of experimentation.  The seemingly impossible is now very much realizable thanks to the computer.  However the worry by many critics is that architecture becomes more about novelty as a result.  It has become apparent that the image produced on screen can often be misleading and act as a misrepresentation of the actual materiality.

To summarize Digital technologies act as almost organic rather than prosthetic and provide an extension to the hands of the maker, freeing up time for other important work to be done.  Problem solving is an action which we perceive in multiple modalities and so various methods should be encouraged to benefit the future of architecture.  However when and to what degree we should use ‘CAD’ as a form developer, visual agent and general helper to the design process?

The next chapters will use case studies to examine how three well known architect firms use CAD in their practices.  It will highlight the various positions and attitude towards the use of CAD software and determine the stages at which computer visualization software is used in the design process as a development tool.

Chapter 2:  Caruso St. John Architects:  The attraction of tradition

Since their inception in 1990 established by Adam Caruso and Peter St John, Caruso St. John architects have strove to maintain traditional qualities of architecture such as ornament and decoration, texture and color.  Caruso and St. John have learned from figures like the Smithson’, Robert Venturi and Adolf Loos that architecture is good when it is enmeshed in the patterns of everyday reality and not ‘virtual reality’.  Over the last 20 years, the partnership has very much avoided the high tech, shiny newness associated with the modern world of architecture.  The trend of globalization and constant expansion is a route which this firm has not taken.  This non-heroic stance has involved rejecting new methods of technology engaging solely on the past as a generator for the future of the city.  As David Leatherbarrow states, ‘originality is only genuine when it is unsought’ (2009)[14].  This rationality and belief in the architect’s hand, calling upon memory and feelings is what makes Caruso St John’s work remarkable in a modern way.  It should become apparent in the following case study that computer digital aids can be used sparingly and effectively to produce emotional, human led architecture.

It is unrealistic and utterly frivolous to reject computer aided software completely and Caruso St John is no exception to this.  It is however more about the way in which they embrace the computer as an architectural design tool and at precise working stages that is of particular interest.  The computer does not rule their practice, rather the architect controls the decisions via skills intrinsically and traditionally linked with the architect.  Adam Caruso in a conversation with Paul Vermeulen states,

‘Foreign Office Architects say that new overlaid programmes and, more bizarrely, new ways of working with computers will allow you to have new spatial urban possibilities, and that architecture, rather than being resistant to the forces of global capitalism, should respond, should represent it.  I still believe that architecture should be resistant’ (2002, p. 88).[15]

It is clear that Caruso St John follow a framework of refraining from the extensive use of technology in a rhetorical way.  In their approach to a project, the firm use a lot of large models to visualize the projects internally, however they tend not to do many presentation drawings using CAD renderings.  Rather they take photos of models (evident in Figure 3), use sketches and perform verbal presentations with their clients. 

They avoid at all costs the shiny visualizations associated with computer visual programs. Even with the negative feelings towards computer led architecture, the firm use CAD software quite early as a design tool and as Adam Caruso in an Architect’s Journal article states, ‘we don’t think it changes the form of our architecture.  Our production drawings are much like what they were when we were hand drawing’ (2006).[16]  Inevitably the partnership still use the hand as a design tool in which the architect creates spaces to which they are emotionally linked, while a tangible connection is made in relation to the computer at the appropriate stage of the design.

Rowan Moore an architectural critic states the point that ‘where other architects give primacy to technology, or the image of modernity… or abstract form making, the consistency of Caruso St John’s work is in the attitudes behind it’ (2002).[17]  Caruso St John has no predetermined attitudes towards modern or traditional design methods but choose to select the appropriate at a particular moment in time.  The firm has carefully embraced CAD as a design tool within the office without it superseding their principles and beliefs where a pen and paper should sit comfortably beside a computer running CAD software.

CAD drawings, graphics and photos were translated into machine milling instructions, allowing positives to be cut from resin board and hard latex moulds then made to form the façade of the building.  Without the ability to produce a 3D computer model this would never have been achieved.  Caruso St John’s approach is not simply about knowing how to apply CAD techniques, but when to apply them to achieve the best response.  Models and sketch drawings will always lead the way within this office, however CAD software is consistently used to aid with ideas, facilitate construction drawings and to rationalize themes and ideas.  It’s all about moving between the two worlds of the real and the virtual to achieve a homogenous whole. 

Caruso St John often remark on how little computer technology has affected the development of architectural form and in their essay Frameworks the duo state they are ‘doubtful whether completely new forms can exist’ (1996, p.41)[18].  For them, it is cheating to muck around with algorithms and mapping programs to generate forms.  Adam Caruso in Tyranny of the New states his distaste for computers used in this way condemning how the forms:

‘lack the complexities and ambiguities that are held within the tradition of architectural form, these shapes quickly lose their shiny novelty and achieve a condition of not new, but also not old or ordinary enough to become a part of the urban background’ (1998, p.25)[19]. 

Effectively the belief is that computer generated forms have no place in our current urban context and lack any particular sense of place.  In Contemporary Architecture and the Digital Design Process Andrew Kane remarks that ‘there is an increased belief amongst experienced clients that digital representation of design proposals is essential to close the gap between their understanding of the conceptual ideas and the realized finished form (2005 p.vii)'[20].  This is not the case in Caruso St John’s practice.  A multitude of models and a close communicative relationship with their clients ensures complete understanding of the project on both without the need for extensive use of computer generated form.  Through a physical and verbal understanding of design elements, a computer can have no advantage over a close relationship developed with a client.

To summarize, it must be noted that this affiliation with traditional values and qualities is an admirable approach in the face of modernity in a high tech world.  The formulation of design within Caruso St John’s office involves a multitude of mediums with CAD software being one of those.  However, their use of it doesn’t restrict the design formalities but merely assists them in engaging with the project more intrinsically.  Computers are used frequently within the office like every other architect’s business; however they do not use its powers as a form, plan or aesthetic generator.  Caruso St John avoid the extensive use of the computer image generation path and the ‘stardom’ associated with this archetype in favor of being linked with the physicality, a model or a pen and paper can bring, rather than the autonomous production of a drawing filtered via a software program with no sense of personal touch.  To conclude it can be stated that Caruso St John have avoided the nostalgia of digital realms of visualization but have embraced the use of CAD software programs as a communicative tool with contractors, as an aid in production design and as an aid in visualizing their initial sketch idea in its contextual environment.

The next chapter is the second case study of a practice with a different approach to the use of CAD in their everyday work. 

Chapter 3:  Zaha Hadid:  Towards a new realm

This chapter will use the practice of Zaha Hadid to examine how they use CAD in their working methods and allow an examination of the effect it has had on their design philosophies and the work they produce.

Zaha Hadid has defined a radically new approach to architecture by creating buildings with imaginative geometry to evoke the hectic nature of modern life.  She transcends the realm of paper architecture to the built form creating archetypes never envisaged before.  Her work is known widely for the dramatic images produced of seemingly impossible pieces of architecture yet many of these complex images have been realized and built contrary to many beliefs. All of this would not have been impossible without the advent of computer-aided software to allow architects almost infinite freedom to create any shape they wanted.  In particular the use of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) has become increasingly popular in Hadid’s practice.  The ability to manufacture a physical model from a 3D computer model has allowed the firm to fabricate scale models using CAM technology and therefore allow an appreciation and review of what could be realized at full scale on site.  Subsequently full scale components are then created from the computer model.  It is through this extensive use of computers, that has enabled Zaha Hadid to minimize the need to dumb down her architectural wonders and requires contractors to build her works of complexity.  Her decision to virtually leave the drawing board in the 1980’s in favor of graphic paintings to express her visions was a bold statement.  One of her paintings displayed in Figure 5 demonstrates the complexity of her ideas.  

The emergence of computer visualizations simply begged Hadid to embrace it to express her bold, flowing spaces.

The critic Aaron Betsky remarks how ‘she does not invent forms of construction or technology; she shows us a world in new ways by representing it in a radical manner’ (2009, p6).[22]

The influence of the computer in Hadid’s working method is clearly visible in the Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, where the architects started the project at conceptual stages by deforming a hypothetical grid and depressing it at points using a 3D visualization program.  This push and pull of elements using CAD software is evident in Figure 6.  However often what happens in practice is that the more experienced architect such as Hadid will delegate the computer generative work to a younger colleague to visualize. 

As Aaron Betsky remarks;

‘she sketches and does all the precise lines that indicate her design objectives, her co-workers render the work at a larger scale and fill in the spaces between her gestures… she now produces paintings that are only white lines on black paper, ghosts of a future city’ (2009, p.11).[23] 

It is notable therefore that the perceived ‘heroes’ of the architectural world such as Hadid still will connect with their spaces and concepts via a pen and paper before ever conceiving any manifestations on a computer.  The question that keeps coming back to us therefore is whether all architecture still stems from the simplicity of the hand? 

Patrik Schumacher a partner in the office proclaims of the ‘primacy of the computer’, arguing that it is ‘the technologies that rely on its power that are allowing us to create what we consider to be truly modern structures’ (2009, p.14).[26]  As her paintings and sketches disappear into computer renderings and forms, their imaginative qualities begin to disappear too as a flattened, sterile computer visual image can never be a substitute for the emotion a hand drawing can bring.  The digitally produced image can often be a misrepresentation of the actual building product

The use of computer visualization programs in Hadid’s office however has enabled the emergence of reweaving reality.  Joseph Giovannini states that, ‘In Hadid’s laboratory, the mediums of design were not tethered to representation but instead encouraged ways of seeing released from convention’.(2006, p.23)[27]  Computers allowed Hadid’s office to break away from conventional architectural expression in favor of shifting simulations of representation.  The pedestrian bridge at Zaragoza, Spain is based on a computer procedure called ‘lofting’, a term used in the computer program Rhino.  It involves the continuous morphing of one architectural section into another as the initial shape transforms through the ends of its trajectory.  Figure 8 demonstrates this morphing shape achieved via this CAD process.  Something never possible via traditional means. 

As Aaron Betsky states, ‘The latest software allows her to take the existing landscape and unfold it, to pan, swoop, swerve, cut, slow down and speed up’ (2009, p.12).[28]  The software allows her to intertwine elements and shift forms too complicated to model quickly via conventional methods.  Therefore I would argue that the use of computational tools actually allows for speed of manipulation and not creation itself.

Zaha Hadid has an extraordinary ability to transform perceptions and dream like paintings and drawings into representations.  The firm quite clearly relies on computer software to create fully integrated, large scale buildings and manage the process from conceptual stage to practical completion however, whether or not she can pull off many of these virtual worlds as realized functional buildings remains to be seen.  Zaha Hadid has an enormous catalogue of conceptual designs but surprisingly a small number of developed projects. Therefore this tendency towards graphic representation in the conceptual stage via computer has yet to be truly tested at construction stage.  This pastiche of virtual worlds created in Hadid’s studios is very much intriguing to the architectural world however pursuing the elusive commissions remains another matter.  In Hadid’s office, the computer acts as an enabler to model on screen, pushing and pulling objects similar to a hands on approach and as Joseph Giovannini states, ‘like all tools she has used, the computer helps Hadid become more Hadid’ (2006, p.32).[29]

To summarize this chapter has shown that to create complex forms and shapes such as that of the work of Zaha Hadid, CAD modeling used in conjunction with CAM offers extraordinary benefits and acts as a communication tool to reassure clients and contractors that the design is possible.  It has emerged that computer software is more of a business tool, with the birth of a concept and design still stemming from the hands of the maker via a sketch or painting.  The problem identified is that the final computer images do not accurately reflect the finished product as the shiny, reflective and vibrant colors and textures viewed on the computer screen does not follow through in the finished building.

The next chapter is the third case study of a practice with another different approach to the use of CAD in their everyday work, where working methods, beliefs and outcomes in relation to computers will be assessed. 

Chapter 4:  Greg Lynn:  Architectural animation and the paperless office

The majority of architectural practices produce paper drawings, then use design visualization software to assess the form and produce a full repertoire of working drawings, however Greg Lynn’s paperless practice located in California brings computers into the design mix from the start.  He is considered one of the most influential figures in computer generated architecture and has been named in Times magazine ‘100 innovators of the next century’.  Considering he is the pioneer of computer designed architecture using biomorphic shapes and the creator of ‘blob’ architecture, the architectural critics of CAD software can undoubtedly be impressed with his merging of science, calculus, art, photography, film, organisms and architecture all into one futuristic idea.  He envisages ideas of science fiction as Mark Rappolt states:

‘Greg’s work has become a form of porn – pored over, leered at, and more or less successfully emulated – that’s resolutely hardcore in its use of the new digital technologies and pioneering exploration of new (architectural) positions in the latest special effects’ (2008, p.6).[30]  

His use of computers and other advanced digital technologies as a design tool has paved the way for the future of the architectural discourse.  Undoubtedly graphic content in architecture has opened up the discourse to popular media; however Greg’s use of visualization software goes beyond the mere formulated, repetitive and regular approaches to expand the possibilities of the building world.  For example in the design for Cabrini Green Urban Design Competition in 1993, Greg used adjustable triangles, a computer spreadsheet for dimensions, a ruler and a parallel bar.  Existing buildings in the Cabrini Green neighborhood were measured and drawn along a linear bar and then their shape and size averaged from one to another.  A technique subsequently adopted and used in new computer programs Alias and Maya 5 years later as blend shape tools.  The harmonious scales are shown in figure 9.

This project was also one of the last achieved in his office by hand initially on a drawing board and simply extruded by the computer.  Everything is now done digitally. 

His approach to projects involves the use of computers from the initial brief and one method adopted is testing the boundary of animation software called editing ‘spline’ functions.  As Greg Lynn points out, ‘the very first projects designed using animation software did operate through happy accidents:  the port authority competition and citron house, specifically’ (2008, p.280).[31]  Basically trial and error methods were used using basic CAD packages until a satisfactory outcome emerged from the screen.  In the port authority triple bridge gateway competition (1995) animation tools and spline’s were used as a design medium for the first time by any architect and was more a computer analysis outcome than a design project.  The project was produced in less than a week using dynamics and the pseudo-quantitative indexing of statistical data.  The outcome is shown in Figure 10.

This then became a primary technique for Greg’s future projects using ‘blebs'[34]  It must be stated that in Greg’s office computer design software is never simply used as a representative medium but more as an architectural tool to expand the possibilities and boundaries of architecture.  For example prototypes of concepts are built at Lynn’s office during the design phases using his own computer controlled 3D cutter known as Computer Numerical Control.  The intent as a result is to really focus on how these amorphical forms are created to achieve the maximum potential of a computer, as well as actual build-ability using CAM.  Full scale models are built of sections of buildings to allow a person to physically walk through and engage with a product not yet reality. 

Relationship Between Music and Architecture

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Research Overview

There have been some efforts that were made by a number of researcher vis-à-vis looking at the parallels of architecture and music in terms of rhythm, harmony and the inherent ability to provoke emotional responses of each discipline; however, those researches have not covered all genres of music. One of the types of music that have not attracted a lot of architectural critics, cabaret music, has captured my interest. Given the limited research in the area, this study intends to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between cabaret music and architecture.

Statement of the problem

Towards the end of the 19th century, Romanticism reached its limits of expression. Consequently, diverse and experimental music forms began to emerge, which broke away from the mainstream of Romanticism. These included the impressionism of Debussy and Ravel, and the surrealism of Erik Satie. The emphasis on irregular rhythms within Stravinski’s The Riot of Spring caused its first audience to riot in 1913. These followed the experimentation in scales and rhythms of Bartók. In the performing arts, cabaret songs were intentionally naturalistic in language, theme while certain of its devices, such as the shadow play, were both decadent and symbolist in their use of light, colour and evocative suggestion. Simultaneously, in this period, architects like Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier experimented with new approaches in composing architecture.

Purpose and importance of the research

This study is valuable in that it might contribute and add to the existing body of knowledge that has drawn out the parallels between architecture and music.

Structure of the report

The remaining of the report is organised into four chapters that will start from the known intersections between music and architecture to more specifically, the parallels between cabaret music and architecture. The report will then move to discuss the relationship between architecture and other related music disciplines like dance and Non-western musical.

CHAPTER 2: INTERSECTIONS OF MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE

The Chapter focuses on analysing selected architectural work that has used music as design inspirations as a way of introducing the topic.

Alberti, Palladio and the application of music in architectural design

Historically music was thought of as a mathematical science. The idea of harmonies sprung from the process of division. A string that produced a certain tone could be divided along exact proportions to create a note that would resonate in harmony with the first note, creating an overlapping of tones that could be considered beautiful both aesthetically and mathematically. These ideas were developed by the ancient Greeks, but brought into importance during the Renaissance. It was during this time that architecture was thought of as an art that needed a mathematical and therefore scientific basis to be considered objectively.

Palladio often looked to musical proportions as a means to achieve ideal proportions in his designs. Basic harmonies such as octaves and fifths were applied to room sizing in all three dimensions, and were also often overlooked to as ornamental guides.

The Palladian practice of applying basic harmonic ideas to basic room proportions is a starting point with what can be achieved by translating tonal ideas into the practice of architecture. Renaissance thinkers placed importance on the translation of audible proportions to the visual arts partly because they viewed musical composition as a mathematical science whereas architecture was thought of as a liberal art. In an attempt to give architecture a system of design method, it had to be referenced to a mathematical framework. Leonardo Da Vinci once said that music and painting are sisters, and both are used to convey harmonies. According to him, music achieved this through the use of chords and painting through the use of proportions.

Palladio noted within his illustration ideal proportions for room dimensions and other architectural devices. The numbers within the ratios are carefully chosen and are the result of his attempt to fulfill Vitruvian principles. The principle in question has to do with achieving an ideal design. The artists of the Renaissance believed that it was possible to obtain an absolute beauty by following the proportional principles found in nature. In the practice of architecture, this was achieved by allowing specific geometries to define certain forms. These forms then would act as modules that would define and govern the development of the entire structure. Palladio even stated that it was possible to achieve a harmonic building through the use of proportional principles and that it would be possible to explain and evaluate the success of the building using the terms of musical theory.

Leone Battista Alberti had taken the music scale and noted that musical theory is important to the practice of architecture because the numbers that are responsible for pleasing harmonies also evoke delight from man’s eyes and mind. Palladio took this idea and used this harmonic scale as a proportioning system in his buildings. He focused on the relationship found between four strings with lengths in a ratio of 6:8:9:12. When these strings were placed under equal amounts of tension and then vibrated they produced wavelengths of consonant tones, most importantly an octave, fourth and fifth. These proportions are noted in his plans published in the Quattro Libri.

Le Corbusier and the Phillips’s Pavilion

The growth of subjective judgment slowly did away with the Renaissance search for an absolute beauty, but this did not stop the intersection of musical and architectural ideas. It did change them, leading to new investigations and ideas. Of particular importance is the work of Le Corbusier on the Phillips’s Pavilion. He investigated both the translation of musical proportions to built form, but also the use of acoustics and sound to generate and convey a sense of space.

In 1958, Phillips Company, a producer of electronic speakers, hired Le Corbusier to design and build a pavilion for the Brussels World Fair. The Phillips Company’s goal was to show off the capabilities of their latest speakers and filled the pavilion with three hundreds of them. Le Corbusier proposed to give the Phillips Company an electronic poem with which to showcase their work. He worked with a team of Phillips’ engineers and two modern composers: Iannis Xenakis and Edgard Varase. Xenakis’s role in the Phillips Pavilion was focused on the exterior shell of the building. His task focused on translating the sketches and abstract ideas of Le Corbusier (mainly dealing with geometry and proportions) into a buildable, architectural form. The end result, a curved, hyperbolic not only fulfills the mathematical ideals of Le Corbusier, but also evokes the glissandi of Xenakis’s 1953-1954 composition Metastasis.

Steven Holl and the Stretto House

Steven Holl took the investigation of a more complex musical idea that of stretto, as a departure point for a house built in Texas. This project focused on using both the compositional and experiential qualities of a particular piece of music as a means to solve the architectural problems presented by the site and the client.

The Stretto House, a project by Steven Holl located in Dallas, Texas exemplifies a modern approach to marrying the ideas of architecture and music. While there is more to the project than just this aspect the ideas of music played an important part in the development and implementation of the design. The name of the house comes from the musical term ‘stretto’. ‘Stretto’ is most commonly used in the fugue and in this context it refers to the theme of the piece being repeated and overlapped by different voices. The decision to explore this musical idea as a mode of design occurs during the initial sketching phase. This phase explored some of the vernacular materials of Texan architecture, specifically metal roofs and concrete blocks. This combined with the need to create shade and producing this via overlapping led to the exploration of the overlapping that occurs in stretto.

Holl narrowed the study of stretto to one particular piece of music, Bela Bartok’s Music for strings, percussions and Celeste. The feature of this work is the distinct separation between heavy and light by carefully dividing the percussion and string sections. Holl literally took the basic composition of the music and composed his building in the same way. Bartok’s work is divided into four movements and its most compelling feature is the aforementioned division of instruments into two models. Holl designed his structure to have four distinct spatial sections and focused the work on two distinct elements: masonry, which mimicked the heavy role of the percussion and curved metal, which played the light nature of the spring section. The result is an overlapping and intersection of several elements. The curved metal roofs overlap with the heavy masonry structure, referred to as spatial dams. The different planes of the building, roof, floor and wall, pull space from each other to continue the overlapping effect. The materials of the building follow suit, as do the actual design drawings. The orthogonal plan of the main house drawing stands in contrast to the curvilinear section while the drawings of the guest house reverse this pattern, mimicking the inversion found in Bartok’s composition. This project was designed around a cohesive idea that can organize and guide the experiential qualities of the space. Holl notes that ‘the concept that drives a design like the Stretto House disappears completely in the phenomena of the physical reality and yet intuitively the abundance of the idea may be felt’.

By combining the ideas of music and architecture Holl was able to create an analogue between the two practices. By treating music as something that has a materiality, one gained from its instrumentation, he was able to synthesize it with architecture through his use of light and space. The equation that Holl himself writes to explain this is ‘material multiplied by sound and divided by time equals material multiplied by light and divided by space.’ The key to success of this lies in the distinction that both architecture and music have a material aspect, and this common factor allows parallels to be drawn.

To summarize, the practice of architecture and the practice of music have intersected and impacted each other in a variety of ways throughout their histories. These instances can be divided into two distinct categories. The first category involves architecture taking proportional and compositional principles directly from musical theory. Palladio’s villas ?t into this category as many of the proportions that guided the design were taken from their era’s understanding of music and the nature of sound. The second category involves architecture learning from the experiential qualities of music and trying to replicate them in built form.

CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW

Writer Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe is famous for describing architecture as ‘frozen music’ in the 19th century. Music and architecture also share similar experiential aspirations. Architectural historian Sir John Summerson notes in his essay ‘The vision of J.M.Gandy’ that architecture is an art that is ‘constantly attempting to realize in solid, stable form those effects which music is able to conjure up in an instant’. He goes on to point out that music and architecture even use a similar vocabulary, specifically the use of mass, rhythm, texture and outline to achieve similar effects such as the colossal.

It was Pythagoras who discovered that a vibrating string, stopped at its centre, produced the ‘octave’; at two thirds of its length the ‘fifth’, and at three quarters, the ‘fourth’. From this he developed the series of ratios that result in the twelve tone scale used in western music today.

The ratio between the full length of the string and the length stopped, or the ratios between the lengths making different notes have their direct equivalents in the ratios between the sides of the rectangles that have made up much of western architecture in the intervening centuries.

Numerous aspects of this relationship between the underlying ratios of music and architecture have been developed and discussed and in this chapter we shall consider the aspects of rhythm, improvisation and emotional response in the light of some of these discussions, and the architecture of Palladio, Le Corbusier, Schindler and Holl.

Rhythm

Many architects have developed theories of proportion with which to govern and explain their work. These have generated in their turn a significant body of critical analysis and comment.

Palladio, like Alberti a century earlier, expounded theories which took up and developed those first proposed by Vitruvius in the 7th Century BC. These were particularly attractive to the spirit of the Renaissance.

‘To the minds of the men of the Renaissance musical consonances were the audible tests of a universal harmony which had a binding force for all the arts.’

In the 1930s R M Schindler, developed the ideas of module used by Frank Lloyd Wright in his Usonian houses. Here not only the architectural plans, but also the concrete floor slabs were inscribed with grids derived from the sizes of the materials to be used. Schindler took this pragmatic idea and incorporated it into a system of proportion which he described as ‘Reference Frames in Space’.

The appreciation of this relationship between the mathematics of the ratios and proportions that underlie both music and architecture is of course a purely intellectual exercise.

‘The analogy with music simply amounts to the transference of an established convention in one art to the purposes of another’

It does not help explain or evaluate the emotional responses that these media can evoke, which is a factor of how the underlying principles are used and manipulated to create the final work.

Stretto, the musical term for the overlapping of subjects, and the only strict rule in the formation of fugues, provided Steven Holl with the basis to explore the relationship beyond this intellectual analogy in his ‘Stretto House’.

The house is directly inspired by Music for Percussion, Strings and Celesta by Béla Bartók, in which stretto is used extensively. It is a choice which is particularly apposite as ‘… the chief feature of his [Bartók’s] chromatic technique is obedience to the Golden Section in every element.’

Improvisation

In music improvisation is the impromptu or ‘in the moment’ creation and performance of music as well as spontaneous response to other musicians. It is distinct from untutored or casual composition, in that it requires discipline and a rigorous understanding of the forms and rules in order to be sufficiently coherent to evoke an emotional response.

‘… improvisation is a performative (sic) act and depends on instrumental technique, improvisation is a skill.’

Because the creation of a work of architecture requires rigorous planning and control of all its elements, improvisation is not usually associated with it. The usual view is that architecture cannot be impromptu, it must be planned, detailed and explained thoroughly if all those involved in its production are to collaborate effectively.

In his BBC Proms lecture in 2002 Daniel Libeskind confirmed that it is difficult to have improvisation in architecture “ ‘to have rotating players, to have players interpret’. He suggested, however, that if the spatiality and materiality is open, then the public can ‘… form its own operation on the building.’ This being, perhaps, the closest that architecture can come to improvisation.

Certainly the villas of Palladio, with the proportions of their components controlled by a strict series of ratios, and their spaces assembled according to harmonic sequences, must be considered as careful exercises in composition rather than improvisations.

Le Corbusier’s villas too are compositions which follow a set of rules governing their proportions; Le Modulor. Within these cool, intellectual compositions, however, there are elements which are freer in form and which play off against, and highlight, the orthogonal correctness of the remainder.

Coming finally to Schindler, Sarnitz observes that as his work evolved ‘… the great importance attached to proportion in his early work gradually receded; he never repeats the complexity of the Lovell Beach House.’

This move away from strict adherence to the system of proportion that he himself developed, to more lyrical or spiritual values, is directly analogous to that of a musician who has learnt the disciplines of his instrument and the rules of music to the highest level but feels able to express himself more fully and coherently through improvisation. Schindler, having developed and established his competence in his early work, chose to follow this route after recognising the limitations that a purely intellectual approach can bring to a potentially lyrical art.

‘Most of the buildings which Corbusier and his followers offer us as ‘machines to live in’ … are crude ‘contraptions’ to serve a purpose. Mere instruments of production can never serve as a frame for life.’

Emotional response

The emotional impact of both music and architecture is generated not by the intellectual understanding and appreciation of the ratios and proportions that govern the relationships of their parts and overall composition. It is a response produced by the composer or architect or improviser by manipulating the ‘material multiplied by sound divided by time’ and the ‘material multiplied by light and divided by space’ which Holl proposes as the equivalent formulae for the creation of music and architecture respectively. The power of the piece to move the listener or viewer is in direct ratio to the skill of the creator.

Both music and architecture are immediate rather than mediate forms of communication. That is they do not require the intermediation of language. They affect the listener and viewer respectively, of all backgrounds and languages, directly with no need for translation or interpretation.

They also both have a physical element to their means of communication.

‘Music can recall the serenity and grandeur of a seascape; … so also, says Viollet, [le Duc] can architecture when it has occasion to give us long, unbroken, horizontal lines. Then he compares the emotional effect of a low broad crypt with that of a soaring knave; he notes the physical reactions of a man in these two settings, …’

And both directly affect the emotions and understanding.

‘The very same numbers that cause sounds to have that concinnitas [a certain harmony] pleasing to the ears, can also fill the eyes and mind with wondrous delight.’

The cool but powerful emotional response generated by the composed serenity and authority of Palladio’s villas is not simply the result of the principles of proportion that govern the elements of the elevations, but also the extension of these principles to the way that the spaces and volumes are arranged.
‘… the systematic linking of one room to the other by harmonic proportions was the fundamental novelty of Palladio’s architecture, …’

At the other end of the architectural scale, Holl’s fugue in the Stretto House generates a similar response in the viewer to that, which stretto in music evokes in the listener, namely ‘… excitement, acceleration, fuller realization, a certain indescribable ecstasy with the sensation of heightened simultaneity.’

Another aspect of emotional impact, which may be more mundane but is nevertheless worthy of consideration, is the cumulative effect of the music and architecture that surrounds us as distinct from the impact of a particular work. Emily Thompson posits the importance that advances in sound engineering made to the aural perception of life in the early years of the century, giving rise to the phenomenon that is sometimes referred to as the ‘soundtrack of our life’.

The idea of a parallel ‘stage set of our lives’ has been hinted at by author Will Self,
‘… if Brutalism is heavy metal, then what was Modernism, Schoenberg’s dodecaphony? … Clearly the Little Englander Palladian nostalgia of the Prince of Wales, the Quinlan Terry partnership, and even Barratt Homes, is of a piece with light classical music: Viennese waltzes, frozen in red brick, …’

Chapter 4: Improvisation after the Renaissance and after Modernism

In the earlier chapter I have established that improvisation in architecture can be considered as the departure of a skilled practitioner from the rules he has mastered in order to express himself more fully or to give coherent expression to new or developing ideas.

Alberti’s De Re Aedificatoria (written about 1450) may be seen as the theoretical foundation for the re-establishment of classical order and proportion in the Renaissance. A century or so later Palladio’s Quattro Libri (published in 1570), re stated these classical rules, and his buildings followed them strictly. At the same time, however, other architects were interpreting these established rules with varying degrees of freedom.

In his two villas on the Capitoline Hill in Rome Michaelangelo took the conventional Corinthian order, enlarged it and ran it through two stories; something that the Romans had never done.

Vignola, in his Castello Farnese at Caprarola, designed an entablature that,
‘[I]s a departure from the strict grammar of the antique “ a departure in the direction of inventive modelling, of designing a façade as a pattern in light and shade, a pattern through which runs a play of meaning rather than any precise series of statements.’

Giulio Romano was even freer in his interpretation of the rules of antiquity. His Palazzo del Te, with its affected dilapidation and ‘dropped’ stones in the entablature and his Cortile della Cavallerizza with its extravagant rustication and twisted Doric finds its equivalent in the developing mannerism of the music of the time.

‘In the late 16th century, as the Renaissance era closes, an extremely manneristic style develops. In secular music, especially in the madrigal, there was a trend towards complexity and even extreme chromaticism (as exemplified in madrigals of Luzzaschi, Marenzio, and Gesualdo).’

Chromaticism in particular is an essential characteristic of the mannerist style at this time. It demonstrates a departure from the rules regulating the fundamental ratios underlying musical theory which is directly equivalent to that executed by Romano upon the rules of classical architecture as restated by Alberti and Palladio.

‘The Pythagorean tone, with a ratio of 9:8, consists of a minor and a major semi-tone; … But only the minor semitone … can be used in actual music. For this reason, progressions between Bb “ B natural or F “ F#, or any other equivalent intervals, are forbidden. When the chromatic madrigal begins to abound in such progressions, it raises a flurry of controversy.’

The relationship between mannerism in architecture and in music may be illustrated by comparing the use of chromaticism by Guesaldo with Romano’s use of rustication in the Palazzo del Tè.

On the one hand, Guesaldo’s madrigals are, ‘…full of unresolved dissonances, “illogical” modulations, and chromatic progressions’. These are used to powerful effect to create, ‘disruptive and restless changes of mood, so that the end result is rather like eavesdropping on some unresolvable, private agony.’

On the other, Romano’s use of rustication gives the impression that, ‘Everything is a bit uneasy, a bit wrong.’ It also ‘[R]ecalls ruins [and] ancient buildings left half-finished. But it has great power and this is very largely because of the dramatic use of rustication.’

Just as Schindler developed a more ‘improvisational’ style in his later works as he became disillusioned or cynical about the ethos of the ‘Machine Age’,[38] so Le Corbusier may also be considered to have undergone a major shift following the Second World War. This is exemplified by the chapel at Ronchamp, the monastery at La Tourette and the Courts of Justice at Chandigarh, all of which may be considered to be improvisational, with regard to the strict principles of Le Modulor. Charles Jencks observes that this perceived change in direction was seen to condone a new turn for modern architecture. He lists a range of diverse range of architectural movements that drew inspiration from Le Corbusier’s later works.

CHAPTER 5: CABARET MUSIC and MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE

Architecture and cabaret music are closely affiliated, not least because both focus on creating unique atmospheres for a variety of purposes. During the early to mid twentieth century American architecture and cabaret were born out of and represented similar cultural concerns. This chapter considers some of the ways in which architecture and cabaret interact and how cabaret uses principles of architecture, such as the utilisation of space, the division of ‘stage’ space, the distinction between public and private space, and the use of synthesis in design. Examples of Modern architectural designs, including those of Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier, built during the thirties and forties will be considered with the aim of identifying shared cultural affiliation between cabaret music and architecture during the mid twentieth century.

Cabaret “ the trend of combining music, dance, comedy, and theatre in a public place “ was first established in France in 1881. Throughout both world wars and the Great Depression in America, Cabaret afforded a means of relaxation and the opportunity to celebrate, through shared performance, a variety of cultures, talents and tastes. Monmartre, in France, is recognised as the place where buildings were first constructed specifically for cabaret performance. The Moulin Rouge was built in Pigalle in 1889. At the time, the traditional Monmartre windmills were being pulled down at an alarming rate, which accounts for the construction of the large red windmill on the roof of the Moulin Rouge. The turn-of-the-century interior of Moulin rouge expresses the late Victorian Romantic sensibility, just before the introduction of the Modernist Art Nouveau movement. Elegantly and richly decorated, the cabaret setting was described in 1952 as possessing an ‘atmosphere of tawdry luxury [..] much like that of a bordello.’ At the time this would have befitted the styles of music which it was built to stage. Artists such as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec recorded in paint various scenes from this early era of cabaret, such as music-hall singers, women dancers, and women preparing themselves to take to the stage. The flamboyance of early cabaret and the suggestiveness of dances, such as the can-can, paved the way for a relationship between the architectural setting and the music. In the late Victorian era, when more sensual forms of entertainment tended only to be considered as an underground activity, cabaret legitimised more diverse forms of theatre, music and dance, allowing men and women to mingle freely in a public space specifically designed for that purpose.

At the time of the popularisation of Cabaret, the pursuit of pleasure had become a popular activity. During the twentieth century new dance halls were erected throughout Europe and in America in order to accommodate the rising popularity of the sociable and edgy form of cabaret entertainment. Cabaret music traditionally involves singing and orchestra, and American cabaret stars included artists such as Eartha Kitt, Nina Simone, and Bette Midler. However, as an art form cabaret declined in popularity during the sixties due to the rising popularity of alternative forms of music, such as rock. Due to the glamour of its beginnings the architectural setting of cabaret traditionally retained elements of luxury, wealth, and flamboyance. On the relationship between Romanticism “ which the late-Victorian introduction of cabaret was celebrating “ and the poetic sensibility, Geoffrey Scott observes that ‘Romanticism may be said to consist in a high development of poetic sensibility towards the remote,’ in that it ‘idealises the distant, both of time and place and ‘identifies beauty with strangeness’. The elaborate décor of cabaret stages, often including plush red or plum coloured velvet, idealise the sensual and were designed to encourage maximum comfort, pleasure and enjoyment of the entertainment. The designs of traditional cabaret stages were such that the audience area was only minimally lit, with the main focus being on the stage.

In Modernist architecture there is suggestion that the culture of cabaret at least crossed over into and was in part incorporated into design. With the introduction of jazz and Broadway style music, cabaret became recognised as being seedier than during the years of its Victorian beginnings.

We can explore the parallels between the responses of the two arts to the exigencies of the time by looking at three of the distinguishing qualities of cabaret music and architecture.

The popular appeal of cabaret

Cabaret deals with emotional or sentimental themes that easily evoke strong responses, rather than intellectual concepts that require esoteric knowledge to be fully appreciated.

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Usonian homes, built during the 1930’s and 1940’s, embody the cultural concerns and ideals of the Modern era, and reflect the complexities associated with the Great Depression of the thirties. During this time, many American families looked to cabaret and its music as the solution, albeit temporary, to the stresses of the quotidian drudge associated with the same economic, social and political forces.

Usonian houses were intended to deal with the day to day living requirements of the average American family. A large living room for family life, ‘with a big fireplace in It,’ a triplicate bathroom with sections for the man, the wife and the children and enough space for dressing rooms, closets and ‘perhaps a couch in each’, and airy bedrooms, all with easy access to a garden.

A significant aspect of popular appeal is the recognition afforded to the performer; the phenomenon of ‘stars’. In this regard Wright, at this time, was actively marketing himself as ‘the possessor of a unique, truly American architectural vision,’ and promoting his reputation as one of the great architects of the century.

Variations in cabaret

Cabaret offers variety. The subjects of its songs and dances range from tragedy to comedy and its forms from ballad to blues to jazz. It was popular for certain shows to be given to a select audience “ part of the growing consumer culture in which greater emphasis was to be placed on the needs of the patron.

In a similar way that cabaret performances were customised, Wright designed buildings with specific elements for patrons.

Scholars have already drawn parallels between the designs of Lloyd Wright and music. For example, as expressed by Brooks Pfeiffer and Nordland, Wright’s “unit system” was as an intrinsic part of the organic process of design and construction: ‘just as the warp is discipline for a woven textile, and as the scale and notes are disciplines for the composer of music, so Wright used the unit system as a discipline for design.’ The modular unit system, based on rectangular and square units, ‘unified’ and ‘simplified’ the construction process, and involved the repetition of components such as doors and windows, with an emphasis on geometric pattern and symmetry. Wright’s designs were remarkable for their unification of different component parts and ideas, whi

Relationship Between Museum and Cultural Identity

THE MUSEUM AND THE CITY: AN EMBODIMENT OF CULTURAL IDENTITY OF THE CITY IN WHICH IT STANDS

INTRODUCTION

As society enters a new century, many cultures have recond to an age of globalisation and, in turn, are embracing the idea of contemporary living. This results in the development of cutting-edge technology, new methods of communication, and the rapid growth of cities, causing indigenous culture of cities to increasingly blend. The desire to embrace this dynamic compels many architects to consider ways of creating architecture truly representative of a wide range of humanity. These new advances create city growth, impacting on urban form and the design process of the public institutions, including museums, which is what this dissertation will primarily explore. The result is to extend the range of materials, forms, cultural references and social thinking available to museum architecture. But does this create an uninspired sameness, where some identities are being ignored and/or distorted? Where the notion of cultures integrating really means the identity struggle between the dominants and the dominated? One could speculate that now, more rapidly than before, the architecture of the museum and the city simultaneously evolve to meet the cultural identity of the people. But are these buildings, in fact representative of the national identity of a city or the individuality of the architect?

This dissertation investigates the architect’s role in designing museums, establishing to what extent the design reflects or stems from the cultural identity of the city. The relationship between the museum and the city in which to belongs is complex. In order to establish an understanding, the study consults a wide range of resources that address issues of cultural identity within a museum’s national and civic perspective. Additionally, the research made reference to economic and political issues regarding museums, the study of how globalisation is reflected within a cultural and affects architecture, and case studies to support the statement that architects may intend for their museum designs to be representations of a cultural identity within the city.

There are now new ways of experiencing, interpreting and remembering. The contemporary architecture of museums are a strong medium of cultural memory, developing from the museum’s traditional forms as monuments symbolising the power of key individuals within a society, into an expressive entity that creates dialogue between its contents and urban context. The otherwise conventional manner of designing develops into a world of contradictions, assorted rhythms and new ideas of beauty in the design of museums. The physicality of the building represents that of theatrical effects, incorporating contemporary elements of architectural form as a method of entertainment, whilst engaging the interest of the city’s individuals and of those from further afield. Millions are drawn to what is no longer a dying institution, but a visual destination for the public, in a form that encompasses the society’s identity. One can assume this is influenced by the cultural pluralism within the building’s city context, and considering the many identities as a plural identity. The diverse elements are woven into a sustainable, integrated spatial fabric that contributes to the life of the city. An approach which allows architectural freedom for a building type that has been described by some sources as overlooked by the public.

Due to this study’s word restriction, it is not possible to evaluate in detail more than four relevant case studies. This limitation resulted in the careful consideration of case studies varying in terms of locality and architect. Furthermore, due to time restrictions, it was not possible to carry out additional primary research which could have entailed supplementary site visits to the investigated case studies and additional data found in initial research methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The dissertation’s methodology consists of individually exploring and studying four case studies against the dissertation’s argument, in order to then properly conclude whether it can be proven to be accurate. These case studies pose as cultural barometers, where during investigation they help assess the extent in which they fulfill a city’s cultural identity. The examination method entails drawing on a combination of primary research such as site visits to secondary research, drawing on existing written information from books, articles and online sources. The case studies follow a chronological order, beginning with Chapter One: Frank Gehry’s Bilbao Guggenheim, a museum which initiated an influence on the case studies that have followed such as Chapter Two: Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish War Museum, Chapter 3: Herzog and de Meuron’s Tate Modern London and Chapter 4: Zaha Hadid’s Contemporary Arts Centre. To further develop whether an architect’s design of contemporary museums truly reflect the city’s cultural identity, each case study is analysed in th light of the following issues:

Globalisation outlines whether certain cultural identities are lost or just changing within the museum’s civic context, especially as cities more than nations contend to draw global attention through these culturally significant public buildings. The sub-chapter concerning National and Civic Identity explores how culture influences in terms of the architectural context of the museum in a national and civic perspective. This provides a framework for exploring how architects use ideas about culture and cultural contradictions to create the structures and spaces to engage a society. The issue will discover how the design of the museum is a task of seeking an image essentially of ourselves. Style and Identity of the Architect briefly examines how the architect’s own identity, who themselves are either travelers or immigrants, insiders/outsiders of the city in which they design for, influences the ultimate design of the city’s museum along with their own architectural style. Economy and Politics is a sub-chapter concerning who pays, owns and benefits from the establishment of these institutions. How cities acquire signature museums in order to stimulate their economic and ultimately cultural development. The museum building boom has been accelerated by what has become known as The Bilbao Guggenheim Effect . The sub-chapter investigates how Frank Gehry’s museum has influenced these case studies to replicate their own “Bilbao Guggenheim Effect” within their cities. By putting up a museum with architectural credentials, Gehry revitalised a civic and cultural image, demonstrating that a single building could energise and enhance an entire city and region.

DISCUSSION

THE CONTEXT OF THE MUSEUM: INVENTION AND REINVENTION

Layer upon layer, past times preserve themselves in the city until life itself finally threatened with suffocation: then, in sheer defense, modern man invents the museum.

[Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities]

These words from Lewis Mumford’s The Culture of Cities depicts how the museum was manifested as a commodification of a city’s overpowering history (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 1). The design development of this building type has been changing since the museum was established in the 18th century, beginning as a space for private collections of wealthy individuals, only accessible by the middle and upper class (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 4). Presently, the museum is a response to contemporary social change, a space that wishes to connect within its urban fabric surroundings and open to all. A museum’s design acknowledges the way in which it can order, store and display its belongings, the institution’s relationship to a city and surrounding cultures lacks investigation, leaving questions about the museum’s role in an urban context (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 2). Culture surpasses the ways in which something can be represented and housed, it can be seen as an expression of us. Today, culture is challenged in a world struggling for established institutions such as schools, libraries etc., which often are said to lack in relation to the people (Zukin, 1995, p. 11). Museums are no longer seen as fixed frameworks, but a place for public interaction and exchange. One could consider that one of the building’s functions is to absorb the cultures within the city, and then reflect and shape this within an architectural form. The museum itself visually exemplifies its roles within a city, for instance unlocking urban memories, reconfiguring the past, aiding in touristic rediscovery and exploitation of a place to the whole urban environment, roles that challenge the museum’s attempt to reconnect culture and a city’s built form (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 2).

There is an ability to recon a city with the use of museums, from “systematically inserting them, to salvaging or reconstructing them” into the urban fabric (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 2). Therefore the museum’s cultural significance surpasses that of any other building types. In The Museum Transformed, by Douglas Davis (1990, p.14) asserts that, “no building type can match the museum for symbolic or architectural importance” because it is so often redefined due to its stimulation from cultural development. The museum can be considered as an entity that defines, represents and creates cultural trends ahead of its own place in time. As quoted from MacLeod (2005, p.1), “As museums have come to be consciously recognized as drivers for social and economic regeneration, the architecture of the museum has developed from its traditional forms into often-spectacular one off statements and architectural visions.” Architects persuasively argue for a new type of experience, aiming to appeal to a general audience rather than the scholarly advisors soughing to replicate tradition (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 3). This is an aspiration expressed from an analysis of contemporary society and its future direction, that being cultural diversity, resulting in the commissioning of strongly conceptualised museums to devote to multiplicity. As Relph (1976, p. 33) claims,

…for each setting and for each person there are a multiplicity of place identities reflecting different experiences and attitudes; these are molded out of the common elements of appearance…through the changing interactions of direct observation with preconceptions.

In the past however, the significance of museums were solely to serve a refined function, transcending the thinking of the scholars and academics, along with manifesting the power of a city (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 4). Relph (1976, p. 35) provides evidence to this claim in mentioning,

Public places which achieve their publicity through high imageability are not necessary innocent- their distinctive appearance or form maybe capitalised upon or even created as a statement of grandeur and authority to be regarded in awe by common people.

The museum was considered a monument, take examples such as The Louvre in Paris, or the Uffizi in Florence, they are models of the grandeur museums encompassed (Merkel, 2002, p. 66), significant in urban context, deliberately chosen to emphasise a city’s status, and drawing attention within a public space. Traditionally understood as temples of knowledge, the architecture itself could be said to represent the value of knowledge. This belief was prominent in the early period of museum founding where the scale of buildings also symbolised power, so much so that the museum evoked the metaphor of a cathedral. Historian Jayne Merkel (2002, p. 66) writes,

Not surprisingly, palace architecture-grand, classical, urban, and horizontal-was a principal influence when the first museums were designed. But like most public buildings at the time, they were built in the classical style for other reasons as well, including classicism’s associations with government, law (Roman basilicas), with the sacred (Greek temples and Italian Renaissance churches) and with the culture and art of the past.

Today, the museum could be considered as a building type that satisfies a city’s need for symbolic signification, and an indicator of metropolitan aspirations such as world-wide recognition. A desire to entertain and educate society, along with a “sensitivity that refuses to bore, alienate or pander to the public” (Zieger, 2005, p. 17). If this is the case, then the status of a great city can entail in encompassing several of these institutions, thus the spread of museums witnessed during the nineteenth and twentieth century indicating the start of city rivalry.

At the start of the twenty-first century, the museum as architecture has been reinstated as an evocative entity, as opposed to decades devoted to neutral, voided spaces lacking symbolic significance and strict functionality termed as “white box” (Lampugnani & Sachs, 1999, p. 15). Museums began to create dialogue with their content and urban context. They can be seen as similar in some ways to churches, to shopping centres and other places of gathering, but they have a function different from these examples, they contain things of enquiry. The museum has made a considerable contribution to a city, adding historic and cultural significance along with contributing to a city’s metropolitan status, presumably due to the transformative possibilities of museums (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 9). The city and its museum are in conjunction to one another, one could believe the museum is a city’s method of revealing cultural meaning through its architectural forms. This belief is an advancement from the words of the theorist Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, ridiculing museums as cemeteries, stating that they were “truly identical in their sinister juxtaposition of bodies that do not know each other,” along with a judgement that cultural institutions were dilapidating. (see Zieger, 2005, p. 7) A society today uses the museum to represent a new dynamic form of culture, reflected through an innovative physical form that is often considered a visual spectacle of the city, that one could believe draws visitors to it in theatre like fashion. Consequently it can be theorised that they are quickly becoming radical buildings constructed in a world driven by the need to address new concepts of diversity and equality (Zukin, 1995 p. 2). Rather than just “cultural cemeteries piling up gilt frame paintings” (Zeiger, 2005, p.11), they are spaces of social condensing- a space attempting to build a community rather than filling a city with volumes of emptiness. As Daniel Libeskind was quoted in saying “…it’s not just some sort of container, some abstract piece if glass and concrete, it is part of a communicative system.”

The design challenge in the multicultural growth of cities is to find an architectural expression that goes beyond the conventional, while something relevant to contemporary life. Contemporary museum design can be deemed as a physical entity of cultural trends developing within the city (Zukin, 1995 p. 2), either recognising which cultures are integrating or if the city epitomises a specific one. No matter what conclusions are drawn out from a city’s cultural make-up museums are a place where people go to mix with others unlike themselves, by having a broad appeal they must aim to please a vast variety of people. Libeskind confirms this in his words,

…(museum) architecture is what is common between people, and what a contribution it makes to the viability of a city, and to civic space. …we might as well make in inspiring environment, an environment that is more than just a shallow façade of something inauthentic. (Cathcart, 2001)

To avoid the idea of an undistinguished environment is by physically fitting in the cultural identity related to the city. The museum in a physical setting is a structural body of city understanding and city change. There can be no denying the importance of its architecture in the urban environment in terms of regeneration, tourism, symbolism and so on (Zukin, 1995, p.2). Society as a whole has been persuaded that museums are agents of social economic change. There has been an unprecedented period of radical reshaping, building, rebuilding in the design of these institutions that cannot be disassociated from the drive for cultural inclusiveness and diversity. A building with space that can be considered with endless possibilities for use when “escaping the straitjacket of conforming to a giving role and move into a sharing mode” (MacLeod, 2005, p.25). In other words, a diverse audience needs a diversity of spaces that reflect, provoke and thrill.

CHAPTER ONE : FRANK GEHRY’S BILBAO GUGGENHEIM

CHAPTER TWO: DANIEL LIBESKIND’S JEWISH WAR MUSEUM

CHAPTER 3: HERZOG AND DE MEURON’S TATE MODERN LONDON

CHAPTER 4: ZAHA HADID’S CONTEMPORARY ARTS CENTRE

CHAPTER ONE : FRANK GEHRY’S BILBAO GUGGENHEIM

Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim museum is acknowledged worldwide as a magnet for tourism, but can it be truly considered an expression of the Basque people’s cultural identity? Or is it just an architect’s expressionist gesture in an industrial city? The New York Times depicts The Bilbao Guggenheim as part of an ambitious plan to revise the city as an international centre of culture. The museum is not just a neutral container where art is stored and presented, but a place where the institution itself is in relation with the public.

GLOBALISATION

It could be said that globalisation creates struggle between the dominant and the dominated cultures within a society and the search for a reconstructed identity of a society. (AlSayyad, 2009, p. 22) Within the Spanish Basque region, it is evident that their identity has been burdened with tension in their attempt to stress their own regional identities and singularities from the rest of Spain (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 74). However one can argue that in this case globalisation has become a force in strengthening and proliferating a cultural identity, allowing the idea of identity to change into a more universal commodity represented by the museum itself.

But how do issues of globalisation affect the architecture itself, especially in terms of the Bilbao Guggenheim? The new advances of technology, communication and construction methods create interventions for local cultures and establish the identities of a place. Gehry’s use of cutting-edge computer design technology enabled him to translate his forms into reality (Chulvi, 2007) (see 1.1). Architectural statements such as the Guggenheim Bilbao are often questioned at times in whether or not they have relation to the place and identity. There could be two sides to this argument, one side could be seeking to safeguard and extend already established indigenous architectural traditions, promoting historical continuity and the preservation of identity through traditional decorative forms. The other side which is in more relation to the Guggenheim Bilbao, considers globalisation as a force that seeks to encourage invention and distribution of new forms using new materials and technology in response to changing needs to have relation to the place and identity. Gehry has been quotes in saying, “Democracy is good for architecture. Pluralistic ideas are what we want presented in architecture, the lead to a visual chaos is part of our lives” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 58). There is an opportunity for growth in unique architectural forms in all of its diversity and 2903687145_5cb25af9b6
inclusivity.

NATIONAL AND CIVIC IDENTITY

The Basque people have been able to preserve their distinct culture and language while flourishing in an environment of globalisation, post-modernity, and European integration (Castillo, 2008). Currently, integrating the two social collectives of nationalists and non-nationalists within the region is growing (Castillo, 2008). However how does a group of people who have never had a country to call their own continue to hold on to their own cultural identity? The Bilbao Guggenheim is a phenomenon of cultural development employing “the three successive phases posited by the theory of cultural epochs- a period of chaos, a period of adjustment, and a period of equilibrium in cultural change” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 74). All around the world culture operates as an engine for new regional and urban development, one could say that no strategic growth of a city would take place without the role of culture (Zukin, 1995, p.11). In the case of the Basque region, it was suffering deterioration caught up in a decline in inspiration along with cultural institutions progressively being abandoned. Simultaneously, the Guggenheim Foundation was in need of a new concept of the museum, capable to withstand the achievement of Guggenheim in New York, yet gaining its own recognition abroad. Co-operation between two considerably different cultures occurred in recovering the identity of a small society (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 77). As Frank Gehry himself explains , the museum embodies two different cultures, the Basque culture and American, which is considered as a melting pot used to extend its arms to everybody (Farnsworth, 1997). The Bilbao Guggenheim is proof of culture being a key strategy in not only providing a physical renewal but a new injection of self-esteem within a city and an entire region. (see 1.2) Culture in the case of the development of this building, can be seen as something essential to humankind and above all to a society in regaining values and providing a sense of identity.

Rather than ignoring the cultural context of the city entirely, the fabric is restored, connecting any form of cultural isolation with the new building. The curving forms of the building glide over the River Nervion, a main bridged entry to the Spanish city, shattering strict perpendicularity and ridged geometry regularly associated with museum architecture, providing a new model of collective identification (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005,p. 42). The rejection of these norms is emphasised by the titanium cladding, making the building appear as a single entity that intertwines the city around it. Like the Basque region the building is a place of “contested borders” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005,p. 42). (see 1.3) Whether Gehry’s building actually erases the city’s cultural heritage is debatable. Bilbao is famous for its maritime history, after Barcelona, it has Spain’s largest port. The Bilbao Guggenheim pays tribute to its own surroundings as it edges onto the riverfront. Its exterior sculpted out of steel, which is

traditionally the main industry of the city (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 154). The museum’s relationship with the city is conceived as the outcome of a perceived social need, as society changes and new social needs arise, new building forms will be produced in order to fulfill that need. The Bilbao Guggenhem facilitates a complete urban facelift, a driver for the city’s urban regeneration, communicating not only its importance to the city as a powerful foci, but the city’s mark in the cultural world. As a result, after Bilbao every city aspires to its own Guggenheim effect – the “build it and they will come” (Barreneche, 2005, p.6) belief is what cities have taken on for their museums after untitled

STYLE AND IDENTITY OF ARCHITECT

Frank Gehry is widely recognised as a North American architect whose combination of steel, high-tech and flowing designs have broken the rigid hold of rectilinear design that has dominated most of Modern architecture (Zieger, 2005, p. 8). However the question remains: is it a good idea for the city to have an international museum built by a foreign architect? Gehry was quoted as spending a lot of time trying to understand the culture and trying to understand the Basque people. He explains,

I related to them because I was raised in a Jewish upbringing in Toronto, Canada, so I was an outsider into the culture when I was a kid. And I understand–I empathized with this outsider role, and–but I can’t put my finger on a piece of the building and say this is Basque, but they seem to think I captured their spirit. I tried to use the materials of the region to build the building. The stone in Spanish. The steel structure is Spanish. All the work people were Basque. (Farnsworth, 1997)

One can assume to Gehry a rich piece of architecture would combine elements in a way that preserve the coherence of their origins. At its best, the process of gathering cultural elements and marrying them to the sensitivities of a gifted architect can result in a powerful work of architecture such as the Bilbao Guggenheim. According to the Bilbao Revitalization Plan, the natural slope running down to the riverfront was to be transformed into a green valley, but Gehry did not want to lose the industrial feel of the existing waterfront. (see 1.4 & 1.5) People say that the design of the museum’s architecture was inspired during Gehry climb up the Mundana, one of the highest mountains in the outskirts of Bilbao. “Seen from the river, the building appears to take the shape of a boat paying homage to the port city that has given its home. The museum’s bright, shining panels resemble fish scales, reflecting the influence of natural forms and shapes.” (Chulvi, 2007) One could argue that the architect’s use of abstract, free-form components from local materials are reminiscent of Modernist Spanish sculptures, a cultural aspect valued by the Basque, or how the architect’s design of the enormous boat-shaped gallery is a dedication toward Bilbao’s past as a centre of shipbuilding and trade (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 154). Many would argue that Gehry’s design for the Bilbao Guggenheim truly reflects the identity of the Basque people even though the architect himself has no relation to region. However, there is a degree of sensitivity to the region’s character that can be witnessed through the architecture. The city of Bilbao places an emphasis on the institution Gehry has designed, as having an important role in defining public culture. This has been achieved through the architect’s process of negotiating what architectural expressions could be accepted by the people.

ECONOMY AND POLITICS

Gehry’s museum was hailed an as instant landmark, bringing a sense of relevance to architecture in the transformation of cities. (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 7) The Basque region was in need of local development due to its rustic city appearance and distinct regional identity compared to the rest of Spain. Primarily, the Basque region was in need of distancing itself from the negativity that it was associated with, such as being recognised as a terrorist region. Bilbao, the largest city in the Basque country, is a stronghold for the separatist group ETA (Basque Fatherland and Liberty), which seeks independence from Spain through often violent behavior (Farnsworth, 1997). For the Guggenheim Foundation this was an opportunity to fund a centerpiece of huge urban renewal for Bilbao.

Previous museum concepts were of a private space for seekers of wisdom, philosophers and historians. Currently the museum’s directors are in favor of new futuristic architectural visions that were unimaginable years before, representing a museum’s city and forming the basis of urban regeneration such as Bilbao Guggenheim. The titanium shapes flourish through Bilbao’s dark cornices and nearby smokestacks, as Andrew Friedman (see Zieger, 2005, p. 9) explains,

…the nearby smokestacks and cranes; they seem…to be Gehry’s whimsical idea of visually rendering the tumultuous and violent process by which a once-working industrial waterfront is brought to heel-an actual enactment of the grim process that the Guggenheim makes a point of capitalising on.

The capitlisation Friedman mentions is the transformation of Bilbao from living city to an architectural destination. In other words the city acquires a signature building in order to stimulate a city’s makeover (Zeiger, 2005, p.9). The design of the museum is recognised as a drive for social and economic regeneration, from traditional forms, to, in this case, a spectacular one off statement that challenges architectural preconceptions and creates a visual feast while maintaining the integrity of the site. Why have contemporary museums become a favorite tool of urban regeneration and redevelopment schemes since the Bilbao Guggenheim? Referred to as the “miracle,” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 7) Frank Gehry’s Bilbao Guggenheim changed the face of the Bilbao city, and set up to give a new purpose to an abandoned industrial estate. “Since the Guggenheim was built, Bilbao has never been the same again – the museum has helped create pedestrianised areas that run from the town hall to the port on the shores of the river.” (Chulvi, 2007) The answer is that museums allow an opportunity for growth in unique architectural forms in all of its diversity and inclusivity.

CHAPTER ONE : FRANK GEHRY’S BILBAO GUGGENHEIM

CHAPTER TWO: DANIEL LIBESKIND’S JEWISH WAR MUSEUM

CHAPTER 3: HERZOG AND DE MEURON’S TATE MODERN

CHAPTER 4: ZAHA HADID’S CONTEMPORARY ARTS CENTRE

CHAPTER TWO: DANIEL LIBESKIND’S JEWISH WAR MUSEUM

The Jewish War Museum’s design is so powerful that it can be considered as an artifact in its own right. Even as it was unveiled in 1999 with nothing in it, the building was said to evoke a sense of loss and dislocation inflicted on Europe’s Jewish population the Holocaust in World War II (Barreneche, 2006, p.121). Through the building’s brief and urban site, Libeskind’s Jewish Museum echoes the history of Berlin creating an emotional effect on the visitor.

GLOBALISATION

Cultural identity is something people have, and a form of traditional inheritance that is shared, something that needs to be protected and preserved. In contemporary society, globalisation has been portrayed sweeping through diverse cultures, and bringing a homogenized cultural experience (Tomlinson, 2003, p. 270). However, one can argue that globalisation, instead of destroying, has become a force in creating and developing cultural identity, allowing the idea of identity to change into a more collective entity. In terms of how this relates to the Jewish Museum, the building is not just seen as a response to some traditions, it is also open to new ones, a link to the past and the future (see 2.1). The mission of the Jewish Museum, and for all new museums, is not just for the city themselves but for the wider public, in which it becomes a communal existence. Around the globe, in every corner, new museums have appeared, coming in every shape and size, appealing to various preferences (Barreneche, 2005, p. 6). As Victoria Newhouse notes (see Barreneche, 2005, p.6), “One intriguing aspect of the current proliferation of museums is the ‘museumfication’ of seemingly every phenomenon”. The Jewish Museum is an example of this, and one could assume that through the guidance of globalisation, there are Jewish Museums in cities from New York to Sydney stemming from Libeskind’s prominent Berlin museum. (Barreneche, 2005, p. 6).

NATIONAL AND CIVIC IDENTITY

Culture is cumulative and changing by additions of successive generations, reinterpreted from one individual or group to another. The designed environments of contemporary museums create a setting and representation of particular cultural identities. Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish War Museum in Berlin encompasses these attributes, it is a building that engrains Jewish history. The design is based on a process of connecting lines between the locations of historic events and the locations of Jewish culture in Berlin. This is evident from the building’s plan with the zigzag footprint, symbolically derived from a fragmented Star of David (Barreneche, 2006, p.121). (see 2.2) The architect has created metaphors for the absence of Jewish communities in Berlin where the lines slices the plan (Barreneche, 2005, p. 121). The concepts of absence, emptiness and the invisible express the disappearance of Jewish culture in the city. Libeskind proves there is a powerful faith in the ability of people to learn

Role of Computers in Architectural Design Process

Introduction

Outline Intentions

The intention of my research is to investigate the role computers play as a visualization and representational tool in the architectural design process. The thesis proposes to ascertain an appropriate understanding of our experience of the emergent digital realms.This involves investigating the ‘need’ to visualize a building before it is created in practice and the degree to which CAD programs are used as a design tool as a means of testing and evaluating architectural processes. As part of examining the benefits computers has in the field of architecture I assessed the degree to which they have distanced the practitioners in architecture from hand drawings and physical model making and how virtual architecture could be detrimental to the disciplinary field – Involving the emergence of ‘paper’ architecture showing theoretical proposals using visualizations. Many architects believe that the traditional hand renderings and conceptual sketches have now become a lost art to the cost of architectural design.

The research examines how these digital technologies help architects to design and how visualizations’ act as a way of communication between client and designer. This involves researching into architectural graphics as a marketing tool and looking into the future of computational methods as a visual and development tool for building design.

The question will therefore be proposed of whether architects and designers have maintained the ‘hands on’ approach associated with the discipline, or whether this has been abandoned in favor of computer graphics as a visual tool. Are computers taking away from the traditional methods and if so what are their advantages to the discipline?

Methodology

To assess the degree to which CAD software helps architectural design firms, I looked at two firms which rely heavily on CAD software as a design tool and one firm, which not only believe in a traditional approach, but use predominantly models and hand drawings for conceptual stages. This involved assessing critic’s views, personal judgment and analyzing the pathways they took in relation to initial brief and concepts to construction stages. The three case studies selected are intended to show the varied use of computing software and its adaption to various styles of office organization and philosophies. A description of the three firms working methods is analyzed and comparisons drawn against these case studies focusing on the diverse working methods. The study then formed the basis of a conclusion in which a summary of the results is documented.

Chapter 1:  Literature Review of Current Computation Trends

What should be the exact scope of the computer involvement within the architectural discourse? This question has been present since the beginning of the use of computer aided architecture software. It is notable that many of the designs we see in today’s architectural world could not have been achieved without use of computer visualizations and extensive 3D graphics, However the question of how much should computation techniques be used is always present. Will the age old two dimensional flattened image give way to the intelligent three dimensional digital models as a way of communication? As apparently simple as this question might be, the answers are considerably more complex.

An architect throughout the ages has communicated via a pen or pencil and a piece of paper. They have quick ability to identify their projects functioning and particularities with a simple doodle.  This method of working has not changed.  However according to Vesselin Gueorguiev (2008, p.6) ‘the architectural and design visualization industry is predicted to grow by 23% over the next 7 years'[2].  A new generation of structures and concepts is being created that recognizes the computer not only as a drafting and rendering tool, but also as a potentially powerful tool in the generation of designs themselves; in other words an intelligent drafting machine.  With the use of 3D modeling, renderings and visualizations, an architect has an excellent opportunity to play with your imaginations or thoughts, enabling the creation of pieces of architecture that could never have been rationalized with the use of pen and paper technique alone. 

An increasing number of digital designs are now being published and praised by critics as meaningful and influential to the architectural field.  This emergence of ‘paper’ and theoretical architecture is rapidly expanding with many architects adopting a research approach to practice, led dominantly by computers as a means of experimenting in forms, aesthetics and expressing the investigations achieved.  Helen Castle for instance describes how ‘cities shapes might be grown in digital laboratories in order to aid evolved urban design (2009, p.4)'[3].  Evidence of this is shown in Figure 1 showing a digitally produced master-plan for a carbon-neutral resort and residential development on Zira Island in the Caspian Sea. 

‘For a long time architecture was thought of as a solid reality and entity: buildings, objects, matter, place and a set of geometric relationships.  But recently, architects have begun to understand their products as liquid, animating their bodies, hyper-surfacing their walls, crossbreeding different locations, experimenting with new geometries.  And this is only the beginning’ (2005, p.22)[4].

It is undoubtedly evident that advanced rendering and 3D systems can help to envisage of what architecture might be, however the computer is not a human being and should not be treated as such.  Ultimately it is the architect who is controlling the ideas, programming and concepts and the computer merely facilitates instructions. Therefore the computer is just a way of copying, simulating or replacing manual methods of design, simply a tool to replace the pencil.  Kosta Terzidis concurs with the argument stating that ‘unlike humans, computers are not aware of their environment’ (2006, p.37)[5].  In this computer age, architects are constantly striving to generate and introduce a new way of thinking about design.  The problem is that often neither the designer is aware of the possibilities that conceptual schemes can produce nor the software packages are able to predict the moves or personality of individual designers.  The result therefore is that the computer is used more as a medium of expression rather than a structural foundation for architectural experimentation.  Has the emergence of digital realms as a result of computer formulated design led to architecture being produced as a mass media image rather than a piece of beautifully crafted, functional and creative architecture?

Architects such as Beatriz Colomina took the subject of media of architecture as an exhibition piece from the 1920’s to the 1950’s, therefore this fanciful image of architecture was not just brought to light by the digital age.  This notion of extremely visual 3D architecture has however been condemned by many critics, with many believing that the actual computer image is surpassing the reality of the building itself.  Branko Kolarevic points out the problem that;

‘There seems to be a sense among the generation of school leavers that because they have mastered a software they are sufficient as architects, and they almost immediately seem to be leaving to set up their own practice, which usually turns into a graphics company for websites’ (2005, p.70).[6]

The notion of using computers more as a marketing tool is very prominent in today’s culture.  This is especially important in times of economic recession where every niche a practice has will be exploited to offer a more attractive service to the client.  Images sell buildings.  As a result, many architecture graduates are employed solely to use their skills of computer renderings rather than their knowledge of design; in effect turning into ‘CAD monkeys’ and simply key based operators rather than architects.  The perception that computer graphics is enhancing buildings is viewed as a myth by many.  As [8] to simply draft the drawings required and preparing a project for construction and tender documentation.  

For many designers, the computer is just an advanced tool running programs that enable them to produce sophisticated forms and to better control the realization of a design.  Critic Kosta Terzidis states that, ‘whatever capabilities a computer may have it lacks any level of criticality and its visual effects are nothing but mindless connections to be interrupted by a human designer’ (2006, p.48).[9]  I agree with this point as to fully determine a solution; an architect should be intrinsically linked with their proposal via physical models, sketches and general hands on approaches.  A computer does not have the ability to reflect and respond to an environment set by the user; in other words the computer output is simply a response to the designers input.  Due to the nature of complexity in many 3D programs, architects can become lost in their designs with a loss of control over the fundamental solution to the problem. 

Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran from Ohio State University states ‘the very vagueness and ambiguity of sketches plays an important role in the early stages of design’ (2007, p.65),[10] see figure 2, which explains with the use of color to highlight the dominant architectural elements.

It is vitally important that we do not loose this affinity with sketching that our architectural discourse has been built on.  In this digital age the benefits computers can bring to the design process is profound however, we must not let computers control architecture.  Let humans control architecture and allow a combination of sketches, CAD or virtual models and computation control our future worlds.   

However the terms, concepts and processes that seem inconceivable, unpredictable and impossible by a designer can be explored, implemented and tested into new design strategies and solutions within the digital world.  This experimentation has given rise to new design processes and concepts such as genetic algorithms, parametric design and isomorphic surfaces.  Branko Kolarevic (2005) makes the argument that;

‘Digitally driven processes, characterized by dynamic open-ended and unpredictable but consistent transformations of three dimensional structures, are giving rise to new architectonic possibilities (2005, p. 2).[11]

CAD programs assist in helping an idea to be physically realizable creating a new dynamic solution.  Computers simply assist in reinforcing our creativity and making us capable of doing things, which would be considered impossible by traditional means.  This rise of algorithmic design as a result of digital design may be particularly beneficial to that of urban master planning for the future of our cities.  Michael Batty for example talks about algorithms stating:

‘This new species has mutated the way man perceives architecture and his place within it.  It has allowed a different thought process to be applied to how we exist in this world, and how we build up the world around us, and how the world builds itself’ (2009, p. 47).[12]

From this quote it can be said that 3D visual programs can help us understand and analyze our cities and enable the designers to navigate them in new ways and pave a better way for the future.  However this notion of a ‘digital city’ is merely conceptual at this point with Planners being unaware of the possibilities of new interventions derived from 3D analysis.  Therefore the spatial development of a digital city at this point in time is still untried, considered unresolved and unaware if the digital mutations emerging from our computers actually work functionally.

In conclusion this chapter has emphasized that;’all that is digital need not be a Trojan horse of marketisation and all theoreticians and designers that have embraced computer based design and manufacturing need not be neo-capitalistic zealots’; Anthony Vidler (2008, p.111).[13]

The emergence of computer simulation programs can open up new possibilities of design and push architectural skills in a direction previously not possible via pen and paper.  It is enlightening to know that new CAD programs have implemented change in the design discourse in terms of freedom of experimentation.  The seemingly impossible is now very much realizable thanks to the computer.  However the worry by many critics is that architecture becomes more about novelty as a result.  It has become apparent that the image produced on screen can often be misleading and act as a misrepresentation of the actual materiality.

To summarize Digital technologies act as almost organic rather than prosthetic and provide an extension to the hands of the maker, freeing up time for other important work to be done.  Problem solving is an action which we perceive in multiple modalities and so various methods should be encouraged to benefit the future of architecture.  However when and to what degree we should use ‘CAD’ as a form developer, visual agent and general helper to the design process?

The next chapters will use case studies to examine how three well known architect firms use CAD in their practices.  It will highlight the various positions and attitude towards the use of CAD software and determine the stages at which computer visualization software is used in the design process as a development tool.

Chapter 2:  Caruso St. John Architects:  The attraction of tradition

Since their inception in 1990 established by Adam Caruso and Peter St John, Caruso St. John architects have strove to maintain traditional qualities of architecture such as ornament and decoration, texture and color.  Caruso and St. John have learned from figures like the Smithson’, Robert Venturi and Adolf Loos that architecture is good when it is enmeshed in the patterns of everyday reality and not ‘virtual reality’.  Over the last 20 years, the partnership has very much avoided the high tech, shiny newness associated with the modern world of architecture.  The trend of globalization and constant expansion is a route which this firm has not taken.  This non-heroic stance has involved rejecting new methods of technology engaging solely on the past as a generator for the future of the city.  As David Leatherbarrow states, ‘originality is only genuine when it is unsought’ (2009)[14].  This rationality and belief in the architect’s hand, calling upon memory and feelings is what makes Caruso St John’s work remarkable in a modern way.  It should become apparent in the following case study that computer digital aids can be used sparingly and effectively to produce emotional, human led architecture.

It is unrealistic and utterly frivolous to reject computer aided software completely and Caruso St John is no exception to this.  It is however more about the way in which they embrace the computer as an architectural design tool and at precise working stages that is of particular interest.  The computer does not rule their practice, rather the architect controls the decisions via skills intrinsically and traditionally linked with the architect.  Adam Caruso in a conversation with Paul Vermeulen states,

‘Foreign Office Architects say that new overlaid programmes and, more bizarrely, new ways of working with computers will allow you to have new spatial urban possibilities, and that architecture, rather than being resistant to the forces of global capitalism, should respond, should represent it.  I still believe that architecture should be resistant’ (2002, p. 88).[15]

It is clear that Caruso St John follow a framework of refraining from the extensive use of technology in a rhetorical way.  In their approach to a project, the firm use a lot of large models to visualize the projects internally, however they tend not to do many presentation drawings using CAD renderings.  Rather they take photos of models (evident in Figure 3), use sketches and perform verbal presentations with their clients. 

They avoid at all costs the shiny visualizations associated with computer visual programs. Even with the negative feelings towards computer led architecture, the firm use CAD software quite early as a design tool and as Adam Caruso in an Architect’s Journal article states, ‘we don’t think it changes the form of our architecture.  Our production drawings are much like what they were when we were hand drawing’ (2006).[16]  Inevitably the partnership still use the hand as a design tool in which the architect creates spaces to which they are emotionally linked, while a tangible connection is made in relation to the computer at the appropriate stage of the design.

Rowan Moore an architectural critic states the point that ‘where other architects give primacy to technology, or the image of modernity… or abstract form making, the consistency of Caruso St John’s work is in the attitudes behind it’ (2002).[17]  Caruso St John has no predetermined attitudes towards modern or traditional design methods but choose to select the appropriate at a particular moment in time.  The firm has carefully embraced CAD as a design tool within the office without it superseding their principles and beliefs where a pen and paper should sit comfortably beside a computer running CAD software.

CAD drawings, graphics and photos were translated into machine milling instructions, allowing positives to be cut from resin board and hard latex moulds then made to form the façade of the building.  Without the ability to produce a 3D computer model this would never have been achieved.  Caruso St John’s approach is not simply about knowing how to apply CAD techniques, but when to apply them to achieve the best response.  Models and sketch drawings will always lead the way within this office, however CAD software is consistently used to aid with ideas, facilitate construction drawings and to rationalize themes and ideas.  It’s all about moving between the two worlds of the real and the virtual to achieve a homogenous whole. 

Caruso St John often remark on how little computer technology has affected the development of architectural form and in their essay Frameworks the duo state they are ‘doubtful whether completely new forms can exist’ (1996, p.41)[18].  For them, it is cheating to muck around with algorithms and mapping programs to generate forms.  Adam Caruso in Tyranny of the New states his distaste for computers used in this way condemning how the forms:

‘lack the complexities and ambiguities that are held within the tradition of architectural form, these shapes quickly lose their shiny novelty and achieve a condition of not new, but also not old or ordinary enough to become a part of the urban background’ (1998, p.25)[19]. 

Effectively the belief is that computer generated forms have no place in our current urban context and lack any particular sense of place.  In Contemporary Architecture and the Digital Design Process Andrew Kane remarks that ‘there is an increased belief amongst experienced clients that digital representation of design proposals is essential to close the gap between their understanding of the conceptual ideas and the realized finished form (2005 p.vii)'[20].  This is not the case in Caruso St John’s practice.  A multitude of models and a close communicative relationship with their clients ensures complete understanding of the project on both without the need for extensive use of computer generated form.  Through a physical and verbal understanding of design elements, a computer can have no advantage over a close relationship developed with a client.

To summarize, it must be noted that this affiliation with traditional values and qualities is an admirable approach in the face of modernity in a high tech world.  The formulation of design within Caruso St John’s office involves a multitude of mediums with CAD software being one of those.  However, their use of it doesn’t restrict the design formalities but merely assists them in engaging with the project more intrinsically.  Computers are used frequently within the office like every other architect’s business; however they do not use its powers as a form, plan or aesthetic generator.  Caruso St John avoid the extensive use of the computer image generation path and the ‘stardom’ associated with this archetype in favor of being linked with the physicality, a model or a pen and paper can bring, rather than the autonomous production of a drawing filtered via a software program with no sense of personal touch.  To conclude it can be stated that Caruso St John have avoided the nostalgia of digital realms of visualization but have embraced the use of CAD software programs as a communicative tool with contractors, as an aid in production design and as an aid in visualizing their initial sketch idea in its contextual environment.

The next chapter is the second case study of a practice with a different approach to the use of CAD in their everyday work. 

Chapter 3:  Zaha Hadid:  Towards a new realm

This chapter will use the practice of Zaha Hadid to examine how they use CAD in their working methods and allow an examination of the effect it has had on their design philosophies and the work they produce.

Zaha Hadid has defined a radically new approach to architecture by creating buildings with imaginative geometry to evoke the hectic nature of modern life.  She transcends the realm of paper architecture to the built form creating archetypes never envisaged before.  Her work is known widely for the dramatic images produced of seemingly impossible pieces of architecture yet many of these complex images have been realized and built contrary to many beliefs. All of this would not have been impossible without the advent of computer-aided software to allow architects almost infinite freedom to create any shape they wanted.  In particular the use of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) has become increasingly popular in Hadid’s practice.  The ability to manufacture a physical model from a 3D computer model has allowed the firm to fabricate scale models using CAM technology and therefore allow an appreciation and review of what could be realized at full scale on site.  Subsequently full scale components are then created from the computer model.  It is through this extensive use of computers, that has enabled Zaha Hadid to minimize the need to dumb down her architectural wonders and requires contractors to build her works of complexity.  Her decision to virtually leave the drawing board in the 1980’s in favor of graphic paintings to express her visions was a bold statement.  One of her paintings displayed in Figure 5 demonstrates the complexity of her ideas.  

The emergence of computer visualizations simply begged Hadid to embrace it to express her bold, flowing spaces.

The critic Aaron Betsky remarks how ‘she does not invent forms of construction or technology; she shows us a world in new ways by representing it in a radical manner’ (2009, p6).[22]

The influence of the computer in Hadid’s working method is clearly visible in the Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, where the architects started the project at conceptual stages by deforming a hypothetical grid and depressing it at points using a 3D visualization program.  This push and pull of elements using CAD software is evident in Figure 6.  However often what happens in practice is that the more experienced architect such as Hadid will delegate the computer generative work to a younger colleague to visualize. 

As Aaron Betsky remarks;

‘she sketches and does all the precise lines that indicate her design objectives, her co-workers render the work at a larger scale and fill in the spaces between her gestures… she now produces paintings that are only white lines on black paper, ghosts of a future city’ (2009, p.11).[23] 

It is notable therefore that the perceived ‘heroes’ of the architectural world such as Hadid still will connect with their spaces and concepts via a pen and paper before ever conceiving any manifestations on a computer.  The question that keeps coming back to us therefore is whether all architecture still stems from the simplicity of the hand? 

Patrik Schumacher a partner in the office proclaims of the ‘primacy of the computer’, arguing that it is ‘the technologies that rely on its power that are allowing us to create what we consider to be truly modern structures’ (2009, p.14).[26]  As her paintings and sketches disappear into computer renderings and forms, their imaginative qualities begin to disappear too as a flattened, sterile computer visual image can never be a substitute for the emotion a hand drawing can bring.  The digitally produced image can often be a misrepresentation of the actual building product

The use of computer visualization programs in Hadid’s office however has enabled the emergence of reweaving reality.  Joseph Giovannini states that, ‘In Hadid’s laboratory, the mediums of design were not tethered to representation but instead encouraged ways of seeing released from convention’.(2006, p.23)[27]  Computers allowed Hadid’s office to break away from conventional architectural expression in favor of shifting simulations of representation.  The pedestrian bridge at Zaragoza, Spain is based on a computer procedure called ‘lofting’, a term used in the computer program Rhino.  It involves the continuous morphing of one architectural section into another as the initial shape transforms through the ends of its trajectory.  Figure 8 demonstrates this morphing shape achieved via this CAD process.  Something never possible via traditional means. 

As Aaron Betsky states, ‘The latest software allows her to take the existing landscape and unfold it, to pan, swoop, swerve, cut, slow down and speed up’ (2009, p.12).[28]  The software allows her to intertwine elements and shift forms too complicated to model quickly via conventional methods.  Therefore I would argue that the use of computational tools actually allows for speed of manipulation and not creation itself.

Zaha Hadid has an extraordinary ability to transform perceptions and dream like paintings and drawings into representations.  The firm quite clearly relies on computer software to create fully integrated, large scale buildings and manage the process from conceptual stage to practical completion however, whether or not she can pull off many of these virtual worlds as realized functional buildings remains to be seen.  Zaha Hadid has an enormous catalogue of conceptual designs but surprisingly a small number of developed projects. Therefore this tendency towards graphic representation in the conceptual stage via computer has yet to be truly tested at construction stage.  This pastiche of virtual worlds created in Hadid’s studios is very much intriguing to the architectural world however pursuing the elusive commissions remains another matter.  In Hadid’s office, the computer acts as an enabler to model on screen, pushing and pulling objects similar to a hands on approach and as Joseph Giovannini states, ‘like all tools she has used, the computer helps Hadid become more Hadid’ (2006, p.32).[29]

To summarize this chapter has shown that to create complex forms and shapes such as that of the work of Zaha Hadid, CAD modeling used in conjunction with CAM offers extraordinary benefits and acts as a communication tool to reassure clients and contractors that the design is possible.  It has emerged that computer software is more of a business tool, with the birth of a concept and design still stemming from the hands of the maker via a sketch or painting.  The problem identified is that the final computer images do not accurately reflect the finished product as the shiny, reflective and vibrant colors and textures viewed on the computer screen does not follow through in the finished building.

The next chapter is the third case study of a practice with another different approach to the use of CAD in their everyday work, where working methods, beliefs and outcomes in relation to computers will be assessed. 

Chapter 4:  Greg Lynn:  Architectural animation and the paperless office

The majority of architectural practices produce paper drawings, then use design visualization software to assess the form and produce a full repertoire of working drawings, however Greg Lynn’s paperless practice located in California brings computers into the design mix from the start.  He is considered one of the most influential figures in computer generated architecture and has been named in Times magazine ‘100 innovators of the next century’.  Considering he is the pioneer of computer designed architecture using biomorphic shapes and the creator of ‘blob’ architecture, the architectural critics of CAD software can undoubtedly be impressed with his merging of science, calculus, art, photography, film, organisms and architecture all into one futuristic idea.  He envisages ideas of science fiction as Mark Rappolt states:

‘Greg’s work has become a form of porn – pored over, leered at, and more or less successfully emulated – that’s resolutely hardcore in its use of the new digital technologies and pioneering exploration of new (architectural) positions in the latest special effects’ (2008, p.6).[30]  

His use of computers and other advanced digital technologies as a design tool has paved the way for the future of the architectural discourse.  Undoubtedly graphic content in architecture has opened up the discourse to popular media; however Greg’s use of visualization software goes beyond the mere formulated, repetitive and regular approaches to expand the possibilities of the building world.  For example in the design for Cabrini Green Urban Design Competition in 1993, Greg used adjustable triangles, a computer spreadsheet for dimensions, a ruler and a parallel bar.  Existing buildings in the Cabrini Green neighborhood were measured and drawn along a linear bar and then their shape and size averaged from one to another.  A technique subsequently adopted and used in new computer programs Alias and Maya 5 years later as blend shape tools.  The harmonious scales are shown in figure 9.

This project was also one of the last achieved in his office by hand initially on a drawing board and simply extruded by the computer.  Everything is now done digitally. 

His approach to projects involves the use of computers from the initial brief and one method adopted is testing the boundary of animation software called editing ‘spline’ functions.  As Greg Lynn points out, ‘the very first projects designed using animation software did operate through happy accidents:  the port authority competition and citron house, specifically’ (2008, p.280).[31]  Basically trial and error methods were used using basic CAD packages until a satisfactory outcome emerged from the screen.  In the port authority triple bridge gateway competition (1995) animation tools and spline’s were used as a design medium for the first time by any architect and was more a computer analysis outcome than a design project.  The project was produced in less than a week using dynamics and the pseudo-quantitative indexing of statistical data.  The outcome is shown in Figure 10.

This then became a primary technique for Greg’s future projects using ‘blebs'[34]  It must be stated that in Greg’s office computer design software is never simply used as a representative medium but more as an architectural tool to expand the possibilities and boundaries of architecture.  For example prototypes of concepts are built at Lynn’s office during the design phases using his own computer controlled 3D cutter known as Computer Numerical Control.  The intent as a result is to really focus on how these amorphical forms are created to achieve the maximum potential of a computer, as well as actual build-ability using CAM.  Full scale models are built of sections of buildings to allow a person to physically walk through and engage with a product not yet reality. 

Relationship Between Music and Architecture

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Research Overview

There have been some efforts that were made by a number of researcher vis-à-vis looking at the parallels of architecture and music in terms of rhythm, harmony and the inherent ability to provoke emotional responses of each discipline; however, those researches have not covered all genres of music. One of the types of music that have not attracted a lot of architectural critics, cabaret music, has captured my interest. Given the limited research in the area, this study intends to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between cabaret music and architecture.

Statement of the problem

Towards the end of the 19th century, Romanticism reached its limits of expression. Consequently, diverse and experimental music forms began to emerge, which broke away from the mainstream of Romanticism. These included the impressionism of Debussy and Ravel, and the surrealism of Erik Satie. The emphasis on irregular rhythms within Stravinski’s The Riot of Spring caused its first audience to riot in 1913. These followed the experimentation in scales and rhythms of Bartók. In the performing arts, cabaret songs were intentionally naturalistic in language, theme while certain of its devices, such as the shadow play, were both decadent and symbolist in their use of light, colour and evocative suggestion. Simultaneously, in this period, architects like Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier experimented with new approaches in composing architecture.

Purpose and importance of the research

This study is valuable in that it might contribute and add to the existing body of knowledge that has drawn out the parallels between architecture and music.

Structure of the report

The remaining of the report is organised into four chapters that will start from the known intersections between music and architecture to more specifically, the parallels between cabaret music and architecture. The report will then move to discuss the relationship between architecture and other related music disciplines like dance and Non-western musical.

CHAPTER 2: INTERSECTIONS OF MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE

The Chapter focuses on analysing selected architectural work that has used music as design inspirations as a way of introducing the topic.

Alberti, Palladio and the application of music in architectural design

Historically music was thought of as a mathematical science. The idea of harmonies sprung from the process of division. A string that produced a certain tone could be divided along exact proportions to create a note that would resonate in harmony with the first note, creating an overlapping of tones that could be considered beautiful both aesthetically and mathematically. These ideas were developed by the ancient Greeks, but brought into importance during the Renaissance. It was during this time that architecture was thought of as an art that needed a mathematical and therefore scientific basis to be considered objectively.

Palladio often looked to musical proportions as a means to achieve ideal proportions in his designs. Basic harmonies such as octaves and fifths were applied to room sizing in all three dimensions, and were also often overlooked to as ornamental guides.

The Palladian practice of applying basic harmonic ideas to basic room proportions is a starting point with what can be achieved by translating tonal ideas into the practice of architecture. Renaissance thinkers placed importance on the translation of audible proportions to the visual arts partly because they viewed musical composition as a mathematical science whereas architecture was thought of as a liberal art. In an attempt to give architecture a system of design method, it had to be referenced to a mathematical framework. Leonardo Da Vinci once said that music and painting are sisters, and both are used to convey harmonies. According to him, music achieved this through the use of chords and painting through the use of proportions.

Palladio noted within his illustration ideal proportions for room dimensions and other architectural devices. The numbers within the ratios are carefully chosen and are the result of his attempt to fulfill Vitruvian principles. The principle in question has to do with achieving an ideal design. The artists of the Renaissance believed that it was possible to obtain an absolute beauty by following the proportional principles found in nature. In the practice of architecture, this was achieved by allowing specific geometries to define certain forms. These forms then would act as modules that would define and govern the development of the entire structure. Palladio even stated that it was possible to achieve a harmonic building through the use of proportional principles and that it would be possible to explain and evaluate the success of the building using the terms of musical theory.

Leone Battista Alberti had taken the music scale and noted that musical theory is important to the practice of architecture because the numbers that are responsible for pleasing harmonies also evoke delight from man’s eyes and mind. Palladio took this idea and used this harmonic scale as a proportioning system in his buildings. He focused on the relationship found between four strings with lengths in a ratio of 6:8:9:12. When these strings were placed under equal amounts of tension and then vibrated they produced wavelengths of consonant tones, most importantly an octave, fourth and fifth. These proportions are noted in his plans published in the Quattro Libri.

Le Corbusier and the Phillips’s Pavilion

The growth of subjective judgment slowly did away with the Renaissance search for an absolute beauty, but this did not stop the intersection of musical and architectural ideas. It did change them, leading to new investigations and ideas. Of particular importance is the work of Le Corbusier on the Phillips’s Pavilion. He investigated both the translation of musical proportions to built form, but also the use of acoustics and sound to generate and convey a sense of space.

In 1958, Phillips Company, a producer of electronic speakers, hired Le Corbusier to design and build a pavilion for the Brussels World Fair. The Phillips Company’s goal was to show off the capabilities of their latest speakers and filled the pavilion with three hundreds of them. Le Corbusier proposed to give the Phillips Company an electronic poem with which to showcase their work. He worked with a team of Phillips’ engineers and two modern composers: Iannis Xenakis and Edgard Varase. Xenakis’s role in the Phillips Pavilion was focused on the exterior shell of the building. His task focused on translating the sketches and abstract ideas of Le Corbusier (mainly dealing with geometry and proportions) into a buildable, architectural form. The end result, a curved, hyperbolic not only fulfills the mathematical ideals of Le Corbusier, but also evokes the glissandi of Xenakis’s 1953-1954 composition Metastasis.

Steven Holl and the Stretto House

Steven Holl took the investigation of a more complex musical idea that of stretto, as a departure point for a house built in Texas. This project focused on using both the compositional and experiential qualities of a particular piece of music as a means to solve the architectural problems presented by the site and the client.

The Stretto House, a project by Steven Holl located in Dallas, Texas exemplifies a modern approach to marrying the ideas of architecture and music. While there is more to the project than just this aspect the ideas of music played an important part in the development and implementation of the design. The name of the house comes from the musical term ‘stretto’. ‘Stretto’ is most commonly used in the fugue and in this context it refers to the theme of the piece being repeated and overlapped by different voices. The decision to explore this musical idea as a mode of design occurs during the initial sketching phase. This phase explored some of the vernacular materials of Texan architecture, specifically metal roofs and concrete blocks. This combined with the need to create shade and producing this via overlapping led to the exploration of the overlapping that occurs in stretto.

Holl narrowed the study of stretto to one particular piece of music, Bela Bartok’s Music for strings, percussions and Celeste. The feature of this work is the distinct separation between heavy and light by carefully dividing the percussion and string sections. Holl literally took the basic composition of the music and composed his building in the same way. Bartok’s work is divided into four movements and its most compelling feature is the aforementioned division of instruments into two models. Holl designed his structure to have four distinct spatial sections and focused the work on two distinct elements: masonry, which mimicked the heavy role of the percussion and curved metal, which played the light nature of the spring section. The result is an overlapping and intersection of several elements. The curved metal roofs overlap with the heavy masonry structure, referred to as spatial dams. The different planes of the building, roof, floor and wall, pull space from each other to continue the overlapping effect. The materials of the building follow suit, as do the actual design drawings. The orthogonal plan of the main house drawing stands in contrast to the curvilinear section while the drawings of the guest house reverse this pattern, mimicking the inversion found in Bartok’s composition. This project was designed around a cohesive idea that can organize and guide the experiential qualities of the space. Holl notes that ‘the concept that drives a design like the Stretto House disappears completely in the phenomena of the physical reality and yet intuitively the abundance of the idea may be felt’.

By combining the ideas of music and architecture Holl was able to create an analogue between the two practices. By treating music as something that has a materiality, one gained from its instrumentation, he was able to synthesize it with architecture through his use of light and space. The equation that Holl himself writes to explain this is ‘material multiplied by sound and divided by time equals material multiplied by light and divided by space.’ The key to success of this lies in the distinction that both architecture and music have a material aspect, and this common factor allows parallels to be drawn.

To summarize, the practice of architecture and the practice of music have intersected and impacted each other in a variety of ways throughout their histories. These instances can be divided into two distinct categories. The first category involves architecture taking proportional and compositional principles directly from musical theory. Palladio’s villas ?t into this category as many of the proportions that guided the design were taken from their era’s understanding of music and the nature of sound. The second category involves architecture learning from the experiential qualities of music and trying to replicate them in built form.

CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW

Writer Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe is famous for describing architecture as ‘frozen music’ in the 19th century. Music and architecture also share similar experiential aspirations. Architectural historian Sir John Summerson notes in his essay ‘The vision of J.M.Gandy’ that architecture is an art that is ‘constantly attempting to realize in solid, stable form those effects which music is able to conjure up in an instant’. He goes on to point out that music and architecture even use a similar vocabulary, specifically the use of mass, rhythm, texture and outline to achieve similar effects such as the colossal.

It was Pythagoras who discovered that a vibrating string, stopped at its centre, produced the ‘octave’; at two thirds of its length the ‘fifth’, and at three quarters, the ‘fourth’. From this he developed the series of ratios that result in the twelve tone scale used in western music today.

The ratio between the full length of the string and the length stopped, or the ratios between the lengths making different notes have their direct equivalents in the ratios between the sides of the rectangles that have made up much of western architecture in the intervening centuries.

Numerous aspects of this relationship between the underlying ratios of music and architecture have been developed and discussed and in this chapter we shall consider the aspects of rhythm, improvisation and emotional response in the light of some of these discussions, and the architecture of Palladio, Le Corbusier, Schindler and Holl.

Rhythm

Many architects have developed theories of proportion with which to govern and explain their work. These have generated in their turn a significant body of critical analysis and comment.

Palladio, like Alberti a century earlier, expounded theories which took up and developed those first proposed by Vitruvius in the 7th Century BC. These were particularly attractive to the spirit of the Renaissance.

‘To the minds of the men of the Renaissance musical consonances were the audible tests of a universal harmony which had a binding force for all the arts.’

In the 1930s R M Schindler, developed the ideas of module used by Frank Lloyd Wright in his Usonian houses. Here not only the architectural plans, but also the concrete floor slabs were inscribed with grids derived from the sizes of the materials to be used. Schindler took this pragmatic idea and incorporated it into a system of proportion which he described as ‘Reference Frames in Space’.

The appreciation of this relationship between the mathematics of the ratios and proportions that underlie both music and architecture is of course a purely intellectual exercise.

‘The analogy with music simply amounts to the transference of an established convention in one art to the purposes of another’

It does not help explain or evaluate the emotional responses that these media can evoke, which is a factor of how the underlying principles are used and manipulated to create the final work.

Stretto, the musical term for the overlapping of subjects, and the only strict rule in the formation of fugues, provided Steven Holl with the basis to explore the relationship beyond this intellectual analogy in his ‘Stretto House’.

The house is directly inspired by Music for Percussion, Strings and Celesta by Béla Bartók, in which stretto is used extensively. It is a choice which is particularly apposite as ‘… the chief feature of his [Bartók’s] chromatic technique is obedience to the Golden Section in every element.’

Improvisation

In music improvisation is the impromptu or ‘in the moment’ creation and performance of music as well as spontaneous response to other musicians. It is distinct from untutored or casual composition, in that it requires discipline and a rigorous understanding of the forms and rules in order to be sufficiently coherent to evoke an emotional response.

‘… improvisation is a performative (sic) act and depends on instrumental technique, improvisation is a skill.’

Because the creation of a work of architecture requires rigorous planning and control of all its elements, improvisation is not usually associated with it. The usual view is that architecture cannot be impromptu, it must be planned, detailed and explained thoroughly if all those involved in its production are to collaborate effectively.

In his BBC Proms lecture in 2002 Daniel Libeskind confirmed that it is difficult to have improvisation in architecture “ ‘to have rotating players, to have players interpret’. He suggested, however, that if the spatiality and materiality is open, then the public can ‘… form its own operation on the building.’ This being, perhaps, the closest that architecture can come to improvisation.

Certainly the villas of Palladio, with the proportions of their components controlled by a strict series of ratios, and their spaces assembled according to harmonic sequences, must be considered as careful exercises in composition rather than improvisations.

Le Corbusier’s villas too are compositions which follow a set of rules governing their proportions; Le Modulor. Within these cool, intellectual compositions, however, there are elements which are freer in form and which play off against, and highlight, the orthogonal correctness of the remainder.

Coming finally to Schindler, Sarnitz observes that as his work evolved ‘… the great importance attached to proportion in his early work gradually receded; he never repeats the complexity of the Lovell Beach House.’

This move away from strict adherence to the system of proportion that he himself developed, to more lyrical or spiritual values, is directly analogous to that of a musician who has learnt the disciplines of his instrument and the rules of music to the highest level but feels able to express himself more fully and coherently through improvisation. Schindler, having developed and established his competence in his early work, chose to follow this route after recognising the limitations that a purely intellectual approach can bring to a potentially lyrical art.

‘Most of the buildings which Corbusier and his followers offer us as ‘machines to live in’ … are crude ‘contraptions’ to serve a purpose. Mere instruments of production can never serve as a frame for life.’

Emotional response

The emotional impact of both music and architecture is generated not by the intellectual understanding and appreciation of the ratios and proportions that govern the relationships of their parts and overall composition. It is a response produced by the composer or architect or improviser by manipulating the ‘material multiplied by sound divided by time’ and the ‘material multiplied by light and divided by space’ which Holl proposes as the equivalent formulae for the creation of music and architecture respectively. The power of the piece to move the listener or viewer is in direct ratio to the skill of the creator.

Both music and architecture are immediate rather than mediate forms of communication. That is they do not require the intermediation of language. They affect the listener and viewer respectively, of all backgrounds and languages, directly with no need for translation or interpretation.

They also both have a physical element to their means of communication.

‘Music can recall the serenity and grandeur of a seascape; … so also, says Viollet, [le Duc] can architecture when it has occasion to give us long, unbroken, horizontal lines. Then he compares the emotional effect of a low broad crypt with that of a soaring knave; he notes the physical reactions of a man in these two settings, …’

And both directly affect the emotions and understanding.

‘The very same numbers that cause sounds to have that concinnitas [a certain harmony] pleasing to the ears, can also fill the eyes and mind with wondrous delight.’

The cool but powerful emotional response generated by the composed serenity and authority of Palladio’s villas is not simply the result of the principles of proportion that govern the elements of the elevations, but also the extension of these principles to the way that the spaces and volumes are arranged.
‘… the systematic linking of one room to the other by harmonic proportions was the fundamental novelty of Palladio’s architecture, …’

At the other end of the architectural scale, Holl’s fugue in the Stretto House generates a similar response in the viewer to that, which stretto in music evokes in the listener, namely ‘… excitement, acceleration, fuller realization, a certain indescribable ecstasy with the sensation of heightened simultaneity.’

Another aspect of emotional impact, which may be more mundane but is nevertheless worthy of consideration, is the cumulative effect of the music and architecture that surrounds us as distinct from the impact of a particular work. Emily Thompson posits the importance that advances in sound engineering made to the aural perception of life in the early years of the century, giving rise to the phenomenon that is sometimes referred to as the ‘soundtrack of our life’.

The idea of a parallel ‘stage set of our lives’ has been hinted at by author Will Self,
‘… if Brutalism is heavy metal, then what was Modernism, Schoenberg’s dodecaphony? … Clearly the Little Englander Palladian nostalgia of the Prince of Wales, the Quinlan Terry partnership, and even Barratt Homes, is of a piece with light classical music: Viennese waltzes, frozen in red brick, …’

Chapter 4: Improvisation after the Renaissance and after Modernism

In the earlier chapter I have established that improvisation in architecture can be considered as the departure of a skilled practitioner from the rules he has mastered in order to express himself more fully or to give coherent expression to new or developing ideas.

Alberti’s De Re Aedificatoria (written about 1450) may be seen as the theoretical foundation for the re-establishment of classical order and proportion in the Renaissance. A century or so later Palladio’s Quattro Libri (published in 1570), re stated these classical rules, and his buildings followed them strictly. At the same time, however, other architects were interpreting these established rules with varying degrees of freedom.

In his two villas on the Capitoline Hill in Rome Michaelangelo took the conventional Corinthian order, enlarged it and ran it through two stories; something that the Romans had never done.

Vignola, in his Castello Farnese at Caprarola, designed an entablature that,
‘[I]s a departure from the strict grammar of the antique “ a departure in the direction of inventive modelling, of designing a façade as a pattern in light and shade, a pattern through which runs a play of meaning rather than any precise series of statements.’

Giulio Romano was even freer in his interpretation of the rules of antiquity. His Palazzo del Te, with its affected dilapidation and ‘dropped’ stones in the entablature and his Cortile della Cavallerizza with its extravagant rustication and twisted Doric finds its equivalent in the developing mannerism of the music of the time.

‘In the late 16th century, as the Renaissance era closes, an extremely manneristic style develops. In secular music, especially in the madrigal, there was a trend towards complexity and even extreme chromaticism (as exemplified in madrigals of Luzzaschi, Marenzio, and Gesualdo).’

Chromaticism in particular is an essential characteristic of the mannerist style at this time. It demonstrates a departure from the rules regulating the fundamental ratios underlying musical theory which is directly equivalent to that executed by Romano upon the rules of classical architecture as restated by Alberti and Palladio.

‘The Pythagorean tone, with a ratio of 9:8, consists of a minor and a major semi-tone; … But only the minor semitone … can be used in actual music. For this reason, progressions between Bb “ B natural or F “ F#, or any other equivalent intervals, are forbidden. When the chromatic madrigal begins to abound in such progressions, it raises a flurry of controversy.’

The relationship between mannerism in architecture and in music may be illustrated by comparing the use of chromaticism by Guesaldo with Romano’s use of rustication in the Palazzo del Tè.

On the one hand, Guesaldo’s madrigals are, ‘…full of unresolved dissonances, “illogical” modulations, and chromatic progressions’. These are used to powerful effect to create, ‘disruptive and restless changes of mood, so that the end result is rather like eavesdropping on some unresolvable, private agony.’

On the other, Romano’s use of rustication gives the impression that, ‘Everything is a bit uneasy, a bit wrong.’ It also ‘[R]ecalls ruins [and] ancient buildings left half-finished. But it has great power and this is very largely because of the dramatic use of rustication.’

Just as Schindler developed a more ‘improvisational’ style in his later works as he became disillusioned or cynical about the ethos of the ‘Machine Age’,[38] so Le Corbusier may also be considered to have undergone a major shift following the Second World War. This is exemplified by the chapel at Ronchamp, the monastery at La Tourette and the Courts of Justice at Chandigarh, all of which may be considered to be improvisational, with regard to the strict principles of Le Modulor. Charles Jencks observes that this perceived change in direction was seen to condone a new turn for modern architecture. He lists a range of diverse range of architectural movements that drew inspiration from Le Corbusier’s later works.

CHAPTER 5: CABARET MUSIC and MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE

Architecture and cabaret music are closely affiliated, not least because both focus on creating unique atmospheres for a variety of purposes. During the early to mid twentieth century American architecture and cabaret were born out of and represented similar cultural concerns. This chapter considers some of the ways in which architecture and cabaret interact and how cabaret uses principles of architecture, such as the utilisation of space, the division of ‘stage’ space, the distinction between public and private space, and the use of synthesis in design. Examples of Modern architectural designs, including those of Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier, built during the thirties and forties will be considered with the aim of identifying shared cultural affiliation between cabaret music and architecture during the mid twentieth century.

Cabaret “ the trend of combining music, dance, comedy, and theatre in a public place “ was first established in France in 1881. Throughout both world wars and the Great Depression in America, Cabaret afforded a means of relaxation and the opportunity to celebrate, through shared performance, a variety of cultures, talents and tastes. Monmartre, in France, is recognised as the place where buildings were first constructed specifically for cabaret performance. The Moulin Rouge was built in Pigalle in 1889. At the time, the traditional Monmartre windmills were being pulled down at an alarming rate, which accounts for the construction of the large red windmill on the roof of the Moulin Rouge. The turn-of-the-century interior of Moulin rouge expresses the late Victorian Romantic sensibility, just before the introduction of the Modernist Art Nouveau movement. Elegantly and richly decorated, the cabaret setting was described in 1952 as possessing an ‘atmosphere of tawdry luxury [..] much like that of a bordello.’ At the time this would have befitted the styles of music which it was built to stage. Artists such as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec recorded in paint various scenes from this early era of cabaret, such as music-hall singers, women dancers, and women preparing themselves to take to the stage. The flamboyance of early cabaret and the suggestiveness of dances, such as the can-can, paved the way for a relationship between the architectural setting and the music. In the late Victorian era, when more sensual forms of entertainment tended only to be considered as an underground activity, cabaret legitimised more diverse forms of theatre, music and dance, allowing men and women to mingle freely in a public space specifically designed for that purpose.

At the time of the popularisation of Cabaret, the pursuit of pleasure had become a popular activity. During the twentieth century new dance halls were erected throughout Europe and in America in order to accommodate the rising popularity of the sociable and edgy form of cabaret entertainment. Cabaret music traditionally involves singing and orchestra, and American cabaret stars included artists such as Eartha Kitt, Nina Simone, and Bette Midler. However, as an art form cabaret declined in popularity during the sixties due to the rising popularity of alternative forms of music, such as rock. Due to the glamour of its beginnings the architectural setting of cabaret traditionally retained elements of luxury, wealth, and flamboyance. On the relationship between Romanticism “ which the late-Victorian introduction of cabaret was celebrating “ and the poetic sensibility, Geoffrey Scott observes that ‘Romanticism may be said to consist in a high development of poetic sensibility towards the remote,’ in that it ‘idealises the distant, both of time and place and ‘identifies beauty with strangeness’. The elaborate décor of cabaret stages, often including plush red or plum coloured velvet, idealise the sensual and were designed to encourage maximum comfort, pleasure and enjoyment of the entertainment. The designs of traditional cabaret stages were such that the audience area was only minimally lit, with the main focus being on the stage.

In Modernist architecture there is suggestion that the culture of cabaret at least crossed over into and was in part incorporated into design. With the introduction of jazz and Broadway style music, cabaret became recognised as being seedier than during the years of its Victorian beginnings.

We can explore the parallels between the responses of the two arts to the exigencies of the time by looking at three of the distinguishing qualities of cabaret music and architecture.

The popular appeal of cabaret

Cabaret deals with emotional or sentimental themes that easily evoke strong responses, rather than intellectual concepts that require esoteric knowledge to be fully appreciated.

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Usonian homes, built during the 1930’s and 1940’s, embody the cultural concerns and ideals of the Modern era, and reflect the complexities associated with the Great Depression of the thirties. During this time, many American families looked to cabaret and its music as the solution, albeit temporary, to the stresses of the quotidian drudge associated with the same economic, social and political forces.

Usonian houses were intended to deal with the day to day living requirements of the average American family. A large living room for family life, ‘with a big fireplace in It,’ a triplicate bathroom with sections for the man, the wife and the children and enough space for dressing rooms, closets and ‘perhaps a couch in each’, and airy bedrooms, all with easy access to a garden.

A significant aspect of popular appeal is the recognition afforded to the performer; the phenomenon of ‘stars’. In this regard Wright, at this time, was actively marketing himself as ‘the possessor of a unique, truly American architectural vision,’ and promoting his reputation as one of the great architects of the century.

Variations in cabaret

Cabaret offers variety. The subjects of its songs and dances range from tragedy to comedy and its forms from ballad to blues to jazz. It was popular for certain shows to be given to a select audience “ part of the growing consumer culture in which greater emphasis was to be placed on the needs of the patron.

In a similar way that cabaret performances were customised, Wright designed buildings with specific elements for patrons.

Scholars have already drawn parallels between the designs of Lloyd Wright and music. For example, as expressed by Brooks Pfeiffer and Nordland, Wright’s “unit system” was as an intrinsic part of the organic process of design and construction: ‘just as the warp is discipline for a woven textile, and as the scale and notes are disciplines for the composer of music, so Wright used the unit system as a discipline for design.’ The modular unit system, based on rectangular and square units, ‘unified’ and ‘simplified’ the construction process, and involved the repetition of components such as doors and windows, with an emphasis on geometric pattern and symmetry. Wright’s designs were remarkable for their unification of different component parts and ideas, whi

Relationship Between Museum and Cultural Identity

THE MUSEUM AND THE CITY: AN EMBODIMENT OF CULTURAL IDENTITY OF THE CITY IN WHICH IT STANDS

INTRODUCTION

As society enters a new century, many cultures have recond to an age of globalisation and, in turn, are embracing the idea of contemporary living. This results in the development of cutting-edge technology, new methods of communication, and the rapid growth of cities, causing indigenous culture of cities to increasingly blend. The desire to embrace this dynamic compels many architects to consider ways of creating architecture truly representative of a wide range of humanity. These new advances create city growth, impacting on urban form and the design process of the public institutions, including museums, which is what this dissertation will primarily explore. The result is to extend the range of materials, forms, cultural references and social thinking available to museum architecture. But does this create an uninspired sameness, where some identities are being ignored and/or distorted? Where the notion of cultures integrating really means the identity struggle between the dominants and the dominated? One could speculate that now, more rapidly than before, the architecture of the museum and the city simultaneously evolve to meet the cultural identity of the people. But are these buildings, in fact representative of the national identity of a city or the individuality of the architect?

This dissertation investigates the architect’s role in designing museums, establishing to what extent the design reflects or stems from the cultural identity of the city. The relationship between the museum and the city in which to belongs is complex. In order to establish an understanding, the study consults a wide range of resources that address issues of cultural identity within a museum’s national and civic perspective. Additionally, the research made reference to economic and political issues regarding museums, the study of how globalisation is reflected within a cultural and affects architecture, and case studies to support the statement that architects may intend for their museum designs to be representations of a cultural identity within the city.

There are now new ways of experiencing, interpreting and remembering. The contemporary architecture of museums are a strong medium of cultural memory, developing from the museum’s traditional forms as monuments symbolising the power of key individuals within a society, into an expressive entity that creates dialogue between its contents and urban context. The otherwise conventional manner of designing develops into a world of contradictions, assorted rhythms and new ideas of beauty in the design of museums. The physicality of the building represents that of theatrical effects, incorporating contemporary elements of architectural form as a method of entertainment, whilst engaging the interest of the city’s individuals and of those from further afield. Millions are drawn to what is no longer a dying institution, but a visual destination for the public, in a form that encompasses the society’s identity. One can assume this is influenced by the cultural pluralism within the building’s city context, and considering the many identities as a plural identity. The diverse elements are woven into a sustainable, integrated spatial fabric that contributes to the life of the city. An approach which allows architectural freedom for a building type that has been described by some sources as overlooked by the public.

Due to this study’s word restriction, it is not possible to evaluate in detail more than four relevant case studies. This limitation resulted in the careful consideration of case studies varying in terms of locality and architect. Furthermore, due to time restrictions, it was not possible to carry out additional primary research which could have entailed supplementary site visits to the investigated case studies and additional data found in initial research methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The dissertation’s methodology consists of individually exploring and studying four case studies against the dissertation’s argument, in order to then properly conclude whether it can be proven to be accurate. These case studies pose as cultural barometers, where during investigation they help assess the extent in which they fulfill a city’s cultural identity. The examination method entails drawing on a combination of primary research such as site visits to secondary research, drawing on existing written information from books, articles and online sources. The case studies follow a chronological order, beginning with Chapter One: Frank Gehry’s Bilbao Guggenheim, a museum which initiated an influence on the case studies that have followed such as Chapter Two: Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish War Museum, Chapter 3: Herzog and de Meuron’s Tate Modern London and Chapter 4: Zaha Hadid’s Contemporary Arts Centre. To further develop whether an architect’s design of contemporary museums truly reflect the city’s cultural identity, each case study is analysed in th light of the following issues:

Globalisation outlines whether certain cultural identities are lost or just changing within the museum’s civic context, especially as cities more than nations contend to draw global attention through these culturally significant public buildings. The sub-chapter concerning National and Civic Identity explores how culture influences in terms of the architectural context of the museum in a national and civic perspective. This provides a framework for exploring how architects use ideas about culture and cultural contradictions to create the structures and spaces to engage a society. The issue will discover how the design of the museum is a task of seeking an image essentially of ourselves. Style and Identity of the Architect briefly examines how the architect’s own identity, who themselves are either travelers or immigrants, insiders/outsiders of the city in which they design for, influences the ultimate design of the city’s museum along with their own architectural style. Economy and Politics is a sub-chapter concerning who pays, owns and benefits from the establishment of these institutions. How cities acquire signature museums in order to stimulate their economic and ultimately cultural development. The museum building boom has been accelerated by what has become known as The Bilbao Guggenheim Effect . The sub-chapter investigates how Frank Gehry’s museum has influenced these case studies to replicate their own “Bilbao Guggenheim Effect” within their cities. By putting up a museum with architectural credentials, Gehry revitalised a civic and cultural image, demonstrating that a single building could energise and enhance an entire city and region.

DISCUSSION

THE CONTEXT OF THE MUSEUM: INVENTION AND REINVENTION

Layer upon layer, past times preserve themselves in the city until life itself finally threatened with suffocation: then, in sheer defense, modern man invents the museum.

[Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities]

These words from Lewis Mumford’s The Culture of Cities depicts how the museum was manifested as a commodification of a city’s overpowering history (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 1). The design development of this building type has been changing since the museum was established in the 18th century, beginning as a space for private collections of wealthy individuals, only accessible by the middle and upper class (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 4). Presently, the museum is a response to contemporary social change, a space that wishes to connect within its urban fabric surroundings and open to all. A museum’s design acknowledges the way in which it can order, store and display its belongings, the institution’s relationship to a city and surrounding cultures lacks investigation, leaving questions about the museum’s role in an urban context (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 2). Culture surpasses the ways in which something can be represented and housed, it can be seen as an expression of us. Today, culture is challenged in a world struggling for established institutions such as schools, libraries etc., which often are said to lack in relation to the people (Zukin, 1995, p. 11). Museums are no longer seen as fixed frameworks, but a place for public interaction and exchange. One could consider that one of the building’s functions is to absorb the cultures within the city, and then reflect and shape this within an architectural form. The museum itself visually exemplifies its roles within a city, for instance unlocking urban memories, reconfiguring the past, aiding in touristic rediscovery and exploitation of a place to the whole urban environment, roles that challenge the museum’s attempt to reconnect culture and a city’s built form (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 2).

There is an ability to recon a city with the use of museums, from “systematically inserting them, to salvaging or reconstructing them” into the urban fabric (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 2). Therefore the museum’s cultural significance surpasses that of any other building types. In The Museum Transformed, by Douglas Davis (1990, p.14) asserts that, “no building type can match the museum for symbolic or architectural importance” because it is so often redefined due to its stimulation from cultural development. The museum can be considered as an entity that defines, represents and creates cultural trends ahead of its own place in time. As quoted from MacLeod (2005, p.1), “As museums have come to be consciously recognized as drivers for social and economic regeneration, the architecture of the museum has developed from its traditional forms into often-spectacular one off statements and architectural visions.” Architects persuasively argue for a new type of experience, aiming to appeal to a general audience rather than the scholarly advisors soughing to replicate tradition (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 3). This is an aspiration expressed from an analysis of contemporary society and its future direction, that being cultural diversity, resulting in the commissioning of strongly conceptualised museums to devote to multiplicity. As Relph (1976, p. 33) claims,

…for each setting and for each person there are a multiplicity of place identities reflecting different experiences and attitudes; these are molded out of the common elements of appearance…through the changing interactions of direct observation with preconceptions.

In the past however, the significance of museums were solely to serve a refined function, transcending the thinking of the scholars and academics, along with manifesting the power of a city (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 4). Relph (1976, p. 35) provides evidence to this claim in mentioning,

Public places which achieve their publicity through high imageability are not necessary innocent- their distinctive appearance or form maybe capitalised upon or even created as a statement of grandeur and authority to be regarded in awe by common people.

The museum was considered a monument, take examples such as The Louvre in Paris, or the Uffizi in Florence, they are models of the grandeur museums encompassed (Merkel, 2002, p. 66), significant in urban context, deliberately chosen to emphasise a city’s status, and drawing attention within a public space. Traditionally understood as temples of knowledge, the architecture itself could be said to represent the value of knowledge. This belief was prominent in the early period of museum founding where the scale of buildings also symbolised power, so much so that the museum evoked the metaphor of a cathedral. Historian Jayne Merkel (2002, p. 66) writes,

Not surprisingly, palace architecture-grand, classical, urban, and horizontal-was a principal influence when the first museums were designed. But like most public buildings at the time, they were built in the classical style for other reasons as well, including classicism’s associations with government, law (Roman basilicas), with the sacred (Greek temples and Italian Renaissance churches) and with the culture and art of the past.

Today, the museum could be considered as a building type that satisfies a city’s need for symbolic signification, and an indicator of metropolitan aspirations such as world-wide recognition. A desire to entertain and educate society, along with a “sensitivity that refuses to bore, alienate or pander to the public” (Zieger, 2005, p. 17). If this is the case, then the status of a great city can entail in encompassing several of these institutions, thus the spread of museums witnessed during the nineteenth and twentieth century indicating the start of city rivalry.

At the start of the twenty-first century, the museum as architecture has been reinstated as an evocative entity, as opposed to decades devoted to neutral, voided spaces lacking symbolic significance and strict functionality termed as “white box” (Lampugnani & Sachs, 1999, p. 15). Museums began to create dialogue with their content and urban context. They can be seen as similar in some ways to churches, to shopping centres and other places of gathering, but they have a function different from these examples, they contain things of enquiry. The museum has made a considerable contribution to a city, adding historic and cultural significance along with contributing to a city’s metropolitan status, presumably due to the transformative possibilities of museums (Giebelhausen, 2003 p. 9). The city and its museum are in conjunction to one another, one could believe the museum is a city’s method of revealing cultural meaning through its architectural forms. This belief is an advancement from the words of the theorist Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, ridiculing museums as cemeteries, stating that they were “truly identical in their sinister juxtaposition of bodies that do not know each other,” along with a judgement that cultural institutions were dilapidating. (see Zieger, 2005, p. 7) A society today uses the museum to represent a new dynamic form of culture, reflected through an innovative physical form that is often considered a visual spectacle of the city, that one could believe draws visitors to it in theatre like fashion. Consequently it can be theorised that they are quickly becoming radical buildings constructed in a world driven by the need to address new concepts of diversity and equality (Zukin, 1995 p. 2). Rather than just “cultural cemeteries piling up gilt frame paintings” (Zeiger, 2005, p.11), they are spaces of social condensing- a space attempting to build a community rather than filling a city with volumes of emptiness. As Daniel Libeskind was quoted in saying “…it’s not just some sort of container, some abstract piece if glass and concrete, it is part of a communicative system.”

The design challenge in the multicultural growth of cities is to find an architectural expression that goes beyond the conventional, while something relevant to contemporary life. Contemporary museum design can be deemed as a physical entity of cultural trends developing within the city (Zukin, 1995 p. 2), either recognising which cultures are integrating or if the city epitomises a specific one. No matter what conclusions are drawn out from a city’s cultural make-up museums are a place where people go to mix with others unlike themselves, by having a broad appeal they must aim to please a vast variety of people. Libeskind confirms this in his words,

…(museum) architecture is what is common between people, and what a contribution it makes to the viability of a city, and to civic space. …we might as well make in inspiring environment, an environment that is more than just a shallow façade of something inauthentic. (Cathcart, 2001)

To avoid the idea of an undistinguished environment is by physically fitting in the cultural identity related to the city. The museum in a physical setting is a structural body of city understanding and city change. There can be no denying the importance of its architecture in the urban environment in terms of regeneration, tourism, symbolism and so on (Zukin, 1995, p.2). Society as a whole has been persuaded that museums are agents of social economic change. There has been an unprecedented period of radical reshaping, building, rebuilding in the design of these institutions that cannot be disassociated from the drive for cultural inclusiveness and diversity. A building with space that can be considered with endless possibilities for use when “escaping the straitjacket of conforming to a giving role and move into a sharing mode” (MacLeod, 2005, p.25). In other words, a diverse audience needs a diversity of spaces that reflect, provoke and thrill.

CHAPTER ONE : FRANK GEHRY’S BILBAO GUGGENHEIM

CHAPTER TWO: DANIEL LIBESKIND’S JEWISH WAR MUSEUM

CHAPTER 3: HERZOG AND DE MEURON’S TATE MODERN LONDON

CHAPTER 4: ZAHA HADID’S CONTEMPORARY ARTS CENTRE

CHAPTER ONE : FRANK GEHRY’S BILBAO GUGGENHEIM

Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim museum is acknowledged worldwide as a magnet for tourism, but can it be truly considered an expression of the Basque people’s cultural identity? Or is it just an architect’s expressionist gesture in an industrial city? The New York Times depicts The Bilbao Guggenheim as part of an ambitious plan to revise the city as an international centre of culture. The museum is not just a neutral container where art is stored and presented, but a place where the institution itself is in relation with the public.

GLOBALISATION

It could be said that globalisation creates struggle between the dominant and the dominated cultures within a society and the search for a reconstructed identity of a society. (AlSayyad, 2009, p. 22) Within the Spanish Basque region, it is evident that their identity has been burdened with tension in their attempt to stress their own regional identities and singularities from the rest of Spain (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 74). However one can argue that in this case globalisation has become a force in strengthening and proliferating a cultural identity, allowing the idea of identity to change into a more universal commodity represented by the museum itself.

But how do issues of globalisation affect the architecture itself, especially in terms of the Bilbao Guggenheim? The new advances of technology, communication and construction methods create interventions for local cultures and establish the identities of a place. Gehry’s use of cutting-edge computer design technology enabled him to translate his forms into reality (Chulvi, 2007) (see 1.1). Architectural statements such as the Guggenheim Bilbao are often questioned at times in whether or not they have relation to the place and identity. There could be two sides to this argument, one side could be seeking to safeguard and extend already established indigenous architectural traditions, promoting historical continuity and the preservation of identity through traditional decorative forms. The other side which is in more relation to the Guggenheim Bilbao, considers globalisation as a force that seeks to encourage invention and distribution of new forms using new materials and technology in response to changing needs to have relation to the place and identity. Gehry has been quotes in saying, “Democracy is good for architecture. Pluralistic ideas are what we want presented in architecture, the lead to a visual chaos is part of our lives” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 58). There is an opportunity for growth in unique architectural forms in all of its diversity and 2903687145_5cb25af9b6
inclusivity.

NATIONAL AND CIVIC IDENTITY

The Basque people have been able to preserve their distinct culture and language while flourishing in an environment of globalisation, post-modernity, and European integration (Castillo, 2008). Currently, integrating the two social collectives of nationalists and non-nationalists within the region is growing (Castillo, 2008). However how does a group of people who have never had a country to call their own continue to hold on to their own cultural identity? The Bilbao Guggenheim is a phenomenon of cultural development employing “the three successive phases posited by the theory of cultural epochs- a period of chaos, a period of adjustment, and a period of equilibrium in cultural change” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 74). All around the world culture operates as an engine for new regional and urban development, one could say that no strategic growth of a city would take place without the role of culture (Zukin, 1995, p.11). In the case of the Basque region, it was suffering deterioration caught up in a decline in inspiration along with cultural institutions progressively being abandoned. Simultaneously, the Guggenheim Foundation was in need of a new concept of the museum, capable to withstand the achievement of Guggenheim in New York, yet gaining its own recognition abroad. Co-operation between two considerably different cultures occurred in recovering the identity of a small society (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 77). As Frank Gehry himself explains , the museum embodies two different cultures, the Basque culture and American, which is considered as a melting pot used to extend its arms to everybody (Farnsworth, 1997). The Bilbao Guggenheim is proof of culture being a key strategy in not only providing a physical renewal but a new injection of self-esteem within a city and an entire region. (see 1.2) Culture in the case of the development of this building, can be seen as something essential to humankind and above all to a society in regaining values and providing a sense of identity.

Rather than ignoring the cultural context of the city entirely, the fabric is restored, connecting any form of cultural isolation with the new building. The curving forms of the building glide over the River Nervion, a main bridged entry to the Spanish city, shattering strict perpendicularity and ridged geometry regularly associated with museum architecture, providing a new model of collective identification (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005,p. 42). The rejection of these norms is emphasised by the titanium cladding, making the building appear as a single entity that intertwines the city around it. Like the Basque region the building is a place of “contested borders” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005,p. 42). (see 1.3) Whether Gehry’s building actually erases the city’s cultural heritage is debatable. Bilbao is famous for its maritime history, after Barcelona, it has Spain’s largest port. The Bilbao Guggenheim pays tribute to its own surroundings as it edges onto the riverfront. Its exterior sculpted out of steel, which is

traditionally the main industry of the city (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 154). The museum’s relationship with the city is conceived as the outcome of a perceived social need, as society changes and new social needs arise, new building forms will be produced in order to fulfill that need. The Bilbao Guggenhem facilitates a complete urban facelift, a driver for the city’s urban regeneration, communicating not only its importance to the city as a powerful foci, but the city’s mark in the cultural world. As a result, after Bilbao every city aspires to its own Guggenheim effect – the “build it and they will come” (Barreneche, 2005, p.6) belief is what cities have taken on for their museums after untitled

STYLE AND IDENTITY OF ARCHITECT

Frank Gehry is widely recognised as a North American architect whose combination of steel, high-tech and flowing designs have broken the rigid hold of rectilinear design that has dominated most of Modern architecture (Zieger, 2005, p. 8). However the question remains: is it a good idea for the city to have an international museum built by a foreign architect? Gehry was quoted as spending a lot of time trying to understand the culture and trying to understand the Basque people. He explains,

I related to them because I was raised in a Jewish upbringing in Toronto, Canada, so I was an outsider into the culture when I was a kid. And I understand–I empathized with this outsider role, and–but I can’t put my finger on a piece of the building and say this is Basque, but they seem to think I captured their spirit. I tried to use the materials of the region to build the building. The stone in Spanish. The steel structure is Spanish. All the work people were Basque. (Farnsworth, 1997)

One can assume to Gehry a rich piece of architecture would combine elements in a way that preserve the coherence of their origins. At its best, the process of gathering cultural elements and marrying them to the sensitivities of a gifted architect can result in a powerful work of architecture such as the Bilbao Guggenheim. According to the Bilbao Revitalization Plan, the natural slope running down to the riverfront was to be transformed into a green valley, but Gehry did not want to lose the industrial feel of the existing waterfront. (see 1.4 & 1.5) People say that the design of the museum’s architecture was inspired during Gehry climb up the Mundana, one of the highest mountains in the outskirts of Bilbao. “Seen from the river, the building appears to take the shape of a boat paying homage to the port city that has given its home. The museum’s bright, shining panels resemble fish scales, reflecting the influence of natural forms and shapes.” (Chulvi, 2007) One could argue that the architect’s use of abstract, free-form components from local materials are reminiscent of Modernist Spanish sculptures, a cultural aspect valued by the Basque, or how the architect’s design of the enormous boat-shaped gallery is a dedication toward Bilbao’s past as a centre of shipbuilding and trade (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 154). Many would argue that Gehry’s design for the Bilbao Guggenheim truly reflects the identity of the Basque people even though the architect himself has no relation to region. However, there is a degree of sensitivity to the region’s character that can be witnessed through the architecture. The city of Bilbao places an emphasis on the institution Gehry has designed, as having an important role in defining public culture. This has been achieved through the architect’s process of negotiating what architectural expressions could be accepted by the people.

ECONOMY AND POLITICS

Gehry’s museum was hailed an as instant landmark, bringing a sense of relevance to architecture in the transformation of cities. (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 7) The Basque region was in need of local development due to its rustic city appearance and distinct regional identity compared to the rest of Spain. Primarily, the Basque region was in need of distancing itself from the negativity that it was associated with, such as being recognised as a terrorist region. Bilbao, the largest city in the Basque country, is a stronghold for the separatist group ETA (Basque Fatherland and Liberty), which seeks independence from Spain through often violent behavior (Farnsworth, 1997). For the Guggenheim Foundation this was an opportunity to fund a centerpiece of huge urban renewal for Bilbao.

Previous museum concepts were of a private space for seekers of wisdom, philosophers and historians. Currently the museum’s directors are in favor of new futuristic architectural visions that were unimaginable years before, representing a museum’s city and forming the basis of urban regeneration such as Bilbao Guggenheim. The titanium shapes flourish through Bilbao’s dark cornices and nearby smokestacks, as Andrew Friedman (see Zieger, 2005, p. 9) explains,

…the nearby smokestacks and cranes; they seem…to be Gehry’s whimsical idea of visually rendering the tumultuous and violent process by which a once-working industrial waterfront is brought to heel-an actual enactment of the grim process that the Guggenheim makes a point of capitalising on.

The capitlisation Friedman mentions is the transformation of Bilbao from living city to an architectural destination. In other words the city acquires a signature building in order to stimulate a city’s makeover (Zeiger, 2005, p.9). The design of the museum is recognised as a drive for social and economic regeneration, from traditional forms, to, in this case, a spectacular one off statement that challenges architectural preconceptions and creates a visual feast while maintaining the integrity of the site. Why have contemporary museums become a favorite tool of urban regeneration and redevelopment schemes since the Bilbao Guggenheim? Referred to as the “miracle,” (Guasch and Zulaika, 2005, p. 7) Frank Gehry’s Bilbao Guggenheim changed the face of the Bilbao city, and set up to give a new purpose to an abandoned industrial estate. “Since the Guggenheim was built, Bilbao has never been the same again – the museum has helped create pedestrianised areas that run from the town hall to the port on the shores of the river.” (Chulvi, 2007) The answer is that museums allow an opportunity for growth in unique architectural forms in all of its diversity and inclusivity.

CHAPTER ONE : FRANK GEHRY’S BILBAO GUGGENHEIM

CHAPTER TWO: DANIEL LIBESKIND’S JEWISH WAR MUSEUM

CHAPTER 3: HERZOG AND DE MEURON’S TATE MODERN

CHAPTER 4: ZAHA HADID’S CONTEMPORARY ARTS CENTRE

CHAPTER TWO: DANIEL LIBESKIND’S JEWISH WAR MUSEUM

The Jewish War Museum’s design is so powerful that it can be considered as an artifact in its own right. Even as it was unveiled in 1999 with nothing in it, the building was said to evoke a sense of loss and dislocation inflicted on Europe’s Jewish population the Holocaust in World War II (Barreneche, 2006, p.121). Through the building’s brief and urban site, Libeskind’s Jewish Museum echoes the history of Berlin creating an emotional effect on the visitor.

GLOBALISATION

Cultural identity is something people have, and a form of traditional inheritance that is shared, something that needs to be protected and preserved. In contemporary society, globalisation has been portrayed sweeping through diverse cultures, and bringing a homogenized cultural experience (Tomlinson, 2003, p. 270). However, one can argue that globalisation, instead of destroying, has become a force in creating and developing cultural identity, allowing the idea of identity to change into a more collective entity. In terms of how this relates to the Jewish Museum, the building is not just seen as a response to some traditions, it is also open to new ones, a link to the past and the future (see 2.1). The mission of the Jewish Museum, and for all new museums, is not just for the city themselves but for the wider public, in which it becomes a communal existence. Around the globe, in every corner, new museums have appeared, coming in every shape and size, appealing to various preferences (Barreneche, 2005, p. 6). As Victoria Newhouse notes (see Barreneche, 2005, p.6), “One intriguing aspect of the current proliferation of museums is the ‘museumfication’ of seemingly every phenomenon”. The Jewish Museum is an example of this, and one could assume that through the guidance of globalisation, there are Jewish Museums in cities from New York to Sydney stemming from Libeskind’s prominent Berlin museum. (Barreneche, 2005, p. 6).

NATIONAL AND CIVIC IDENTITY

Culture is cumulative and changing by additions of successive generations, reinterpreted from one individual or group to another. The designed environments of contemporary museums create a setting and representation of particular cultural identities. Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish War Museum in Berlin encompasses these attributes, it is a building that engrains Jewish history. The design is based on a process of connecting lines between the locations of historic events and the locations of Jewish culture in Berlin. This is evident from the building’s plan with the zigzag footprint, symbolically derived from a fragmented Star of David (Barreneche, 2006, p.121). (see 2.2) The architect has created metaphors for the absence of Jewish communities in Berlin where the lines slices the plan (Barreneche, 2005, p. 121). The concepts of absence, emptiness and the invisible express the disappearance of Jewish culture in the city. Libeskind proves there is a powerful faith in the ability of people to learn

Utilisation of Wind Energy for High Rise Building Power

Introduction

The price of conventional energy is on the rise, due to the ever-widening gap between demands and supply. The main reason for such shortages is the depletion in natural resources, such as coal, which is the main fuel used for electrical energy generation. Since these fuels are made up of carbon compounds, burning them has rapidly increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the last 100 years. This has brought about a chain reaction of hazards such as global warming, climate change, destruction of ecosystems, etc with predictions for adverse outcomes in the future. In response to this threat and to initiate an end to such processes, the UN agreed the Kyoto Protocol in Japan in 1997. This requires industrialised nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5% of 1990 levels by 2008-2012.
The UK has agreed to meet this target and furthered its promise by setting a goal of 50% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050[ ]. Part of its government energy policy is to increase the contribution of electricity supplied by renewable energy to 10% by 2010 (Blackmore P, 2004). A similar promise has been undertaken by many world nations, which has led to a plethora of new and innovative methods for power generation.

Renewable is the key to climate friendly forms of energy, due to the absence of emissions detrimental to the environment (Stiebler M, 2008). It includes energy derived from sunlight, wind, wave, tides and geothermal heat. Out of the afore mentioned resources, geothermal heat is restricted to only limited locations on the globe while wave and tidal power is still in its research stage. Thus sunlight and wind are the key elements that can be tapped for energy generation. However, on comparison between the two systems, wind energy systems are more advantageous both in availability of resources and cost of generation.

This report mainly focuses on wind energy, with a keen interest on harvesting it for ventilation and power generation purposes in high-rise buildings. Plan forms that aid this purpose will be studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics to understand the flow of wind in and around a thirty-storey structure and the building configuration well suited for natural ventilation and wind turbine integration would be identified at the end of the test. To obtain a complete picture of wind flow patterns and to closely mimic real life situations, the wind will be simulated from different directions at different wind speeds.

Wind energy

Wind is the term used for air in motion and is usually applied to the natural horizontal motion of the atmosphere (Taranath Bungale S, 2005). It is brought about by the movement of atmospheric air masses that occur due to variations in atmospheric pressure, which in turn are the results of differences in the solar heating of different parts of the earth’s surface (Boyle G, 2004). At a macro level wind profile differs from place to place depending on geographic location and climatic conditions while in a microstate the immediate physical environment of a particular place modifies the nature of the winds. For example, the velocity of the wind recorded in the countryside which has acres of unobstructed grassland would be greater than that recorded in a city dominated by skyscrapers.

Hence to obtain a clear idea of the wind characteristic corresponding to a particular area the wind rose is utilized. They are based on metrological observations and depict the varying wind speeds experienced by a site at different times of the year together with the frequency of different wind directions [ ]. It is the first tool consulted to judge the wind resources of a site and its ability to support power generation.

The winds have been tapped from ancient times by means of ship sails, windmills, wind catchers, etc. The history of windmills goes back more than 2000 years (Stiebler M, 2008) when they were predominantly used for grinding grain and pumping water. However, the breakthrough occurred when Charles.F.Brush erected the first automatically operating wind turbine at Ohio in 1888 [ ]. It was fabricated using wood and had a rotor diameter of 17m with 144 blades. The system recorded very low efficiency and was mainly used to charge batteries. The reason behind the poor efficiency was due to the large number of blades, which was later discovered by Poul la Cour who introduced fewer blades into his wind turbine. Though such developments were achieved at an early stage in innovation, it was not until 1980 that the prominent application of renewable energies was sought after (Boyle G, 2004).

Wind energy is the harnessing of the kinetic energy prevalent in moving air masses. This kinetic energy for any particular mass of moving air (Boyle G, 2004) is given by the formula:
K.E = 0.5mV²
where,
m – mass of the air (kg) and
V – wind velocity (m/s).
However this mass of moving air per second is:
m = air density x volume of air flowing per second
m = air density x area x velocity
 Thus,
m = rAV
where,
r – density of air at sea level = 1.2256 kg/m³ and
A – area covered by the flowing air (m²)
Substituting this value of m in the former equation,
K.E. = 0.5rAV³ (J/s)

But energy per unit of time is power and hence the above equation is the power available from the wind. It is also evident that the power is directly proportional to thrice the wind velocity. In other words even a marginal increase in wind speed would yield three folds of the nominal power. This is the critical fact based on which the whole energy process is evolved. However not all of this power can be exhausted since it would lead to nil outflow through the wind turbine, that is no flow of air behind the rotor. This would lead to no flow of air over the turbine causing total failure of the system. According to Albert Betz the maximum amount of power that can be harnessed from the wind is 59.3%. This is often referred to as the Betz limit and has been proven by modern experiments.

Some of the advantages of wind energy include:

  • It is based on a non-exhaustive resource and hence can be harnessed for generations.
  • It is a clean and eco friendly way of producing energy.
  • In its working lifetime, the wind turbine produces eighty times the amount of energy that goes into its manufacturing and thus has diminishable net impact on the environment.
  • It does not require any additional resources such as water supply unlike conventional power generation.
  • It can boost the economy of the region (wind farms).

Wind turbines:

Wind turbines are the modern day adaptations of the yesteryear windmills but unlike their counterparts they are mainly used for power generation. These new age systems come in different shapes and have various configurations, the well established of them all are the Horizontal axis wind turbine and the Vertical axis wind turbine.
Write a brief about horizontal wind turbines and vertical wind turbines.

BUilding integrated Wind Turbines (BUWT):

Building integrated wind turbines are associated with buildings designed and shaped with wind energy in mind (Stankovic S et al, 2009). They are relatively a new way of harnessing energy that is gaining popularity at a quick pace. Small scale wind turbines on house roofs and retrofitting also fall under this category.

The design of BUWTs is a complicated affair and involves the careful consideration of various factors. Since turbines are fixed into the building’s fabric its impact on the environment, building’s response and needs of its owners and occupants need to be weighed equally. Also numerous design decisions such as planning, structure, services, construction and maintenance depend on this single process (Stankovic S et al, 2009). With the increase in the scale of the proposal the importance of these factors increases simultaneously. The proposal generally spans from the number, scale, type and location of the turbines together with its annual energy yield and design life. A good BUWT based building should be a wholesome design that does not prejudice the buildings efficient functioning for energy generation.
Generic options for BUWTs:

Stankovic S et al (2009) explains that the wind turbines can be fixed on to a building in enumerable ways. Each method can accomplish a different level of power depending on the type of turbine used and the form of the building it is mounted upon.

  • On top of a square/ rectangular building:

This configuration is on the principle that the wind velocity increases with height and hence the amount of energy generated would be of a higher order (10% increase with wind acceleration). An added advantage is that the turbine would experience relatively little turbulence. But access to the turbine for maintenance and decommissioning works may be difficult. If mounted on tall buildings the turbines may threaten the visual quality of the skyline.

  • On top of a rounded building:

This case is very similar to the previous configuration except that with the use of rounded façade the mean tower height can be considerably diminished. Also the rounded profile influences the local acceleration (15% increase in energy). The low tower height favors easy access to the turbine but leads to blade flicker and noise issues.

  • Concentrator on top of a rounded building:

This case is well suited to areas with bi-directional winds (20% energy increase over a free standing equivalent due to local acceleration). Vertical axis wind turbines are better suited for this feature while Horizontal axis wind turbines need to be suitably altered to achieve the same status. The building spaces that act as concentrators may be inhabited with suitable acoustical treatment. This case also encounters the same drawbacks as listed in the previous case.

  • Square concentrator within a building façade:

As before, this configuration takes advantage of the higher quality winds at higher altitudes and local acceleration thereby achieving 25% increase in energy and 40% increase for bi-directional winds. This option is best suited for buildings with narrower profiles. There may be a loss in the saleable area of the building but the aperture can be converted into an exclusive feature such as a sky garden. The opening also relieves the wind loading on the building’s facade leading to simpler structural solutions. Vertical axis wind turbine is the only choice for integration due to its square swept area.

  • Circular concentrator within a building façade:

This is very similar to the square concentrator except the opening is accustomed to hold pitch controlled horizontal axis wind turbines with fixed yaw. Also, a 35% increase for uniform wind and 50% increase in energy for bi-directional winds are achievable in this method. But on the down side, this technique is more expensive due to the cylindrical shroud.

  • On the side of a building:

In this technique, an increase in 80-90% in energy than the freestanding equivalents is achievable only if the building form is optimized to the local wind character. Only reliable vertical axis wind turbines can be used for power generation due to access issues. For higher swept area, more number of turbines should be used.

  • Between multiple building forms:

This type of an option opens out many doors for a range of architectural forms. Unlike the previous cases, the buildings orientation, form, shape and spacing play key roles in the performance of the turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines are better suited for this purpose.
Guidelines for BUWT’s:

The following are some guidelines outlined by Stankovic S et al (2009) for incorporating wind turbines into a structure:

  • BUWTs should be tailored to the specific site for good results.
  • Adequate wind resources should be available on site. If however if the site is under resourced steps are to be adopted to deliberately elevate the quality of the wind through the buildings form or turbine. The impact of its surroundings should also be considered before commissioning such a project.
  • The dominating wind direction and its intensity should be observed from meteorological data. This would help in determining the form and orientation of the building together with finalizing the position of the wind turbine to make the most out of the available resource.
  • Environmental impact assessment corresponding to the site should be carried out to foresee the adverse effects the turbines may create.
  • Acoustic isolation may be sought for in some areas within the building if it lies at close proximity to the rotor.
  • Natural ventilation and day lighting qualities of the building may be challenged and forced to settle for artificial means.
  • The type and position of openings, external shading devices, smoke extracts etc should be handled with appropriate care to avoid draught winds.
  • Access to the wind turbines for maintenance and decommissioning must be provided suitably.
  • The aesthetic quality of the mounted turbines must harmonize with its surroundings and should not over power the pedestrians at ground level. To this end well suited screening devices such as canopies, screens and landscape may be utilized as per the necessity.

The overall success of BUWT project depends on its ability to deliver the expected power. Inability to comply with this effect would result in the failure of its intended purpose from both an environmental and design point of view. Thus the electricity demand of the building and the level to which this would be met with should be estimated prior to turbine design to secure maximum benefits.
Wind flow prediction and energy yields:
For any project to be successful,

Wind flow and building design

(Taranath Bungale S, 2005) When the air moves in a vertical direction it is referred to as a current. These currents play a major role in meteorology whereas the gradual decrease in wind speed and high turbulence of the horizontal motion of air, at the ground level, are vital in building engineering. In urban areas, this zone of turbulence extends to a height of approximately one quarter of a mile aboveground and is called the surface boundary layer. Above this layer, the horizontal airflow is no longer influenced by the ground effect. The wind speed at this height is known as the gradient wind speed, and it is precisely in this boundary layer where most human activity is conducted.

Characteristics of wind:

The flow of wind is complex because many flow situations arise from the interaction of wind with structures. A few characteristics of wind include:

  • Variation of wind velocity with height:

The viscosity of air reduces its velocity adjacent to the earth’s surface to almost zero. A retarding effect occurs in the wind layers near the ground, and these layers in turn successively slow the outer layers. The slowing down is reduced at each layer as the height increases, and eventually becomes negligibly small. The height at which velocity ceases to increase is called the gradient height, and the corresponding velocity, the gradient velocity. At heights of approximately 366m aboveground, the wind speed is virtually unaffected by surface friction, and its movement is solely dependant on prevailing seasonal and local wind effects the height through which the wind speed is affected by topography is called the atmospheric boundary layer.

  • Wind turbulence:

Motion of wind is turbulent and it occurs in wind flow because air has a very low viscosity-about one-sixteenth that of water. Any movement of air at speeds greater than 0.9 to 1.3 m/s is turbulent, causing air particles to move randomly in all directions.

  • Vortex shedding:

In general, wind buffering against a bluff body such as a rectangular building gets diverted in three mutually perpendicular directions. However, only the longitudinal winds and the transverse winds or crosswinds are considered in civil engineering. When a free flowing mass of air encounters a building along its path, the originally parallel upwind streamlines are displaced on either side of the building. This results in spiral vortices being shed periodically from the sides into the downstream flow of the wind, called the wake. At relatively low wind speeds the vortices are shed, that is, break away from the surface of the building and an impulse is applied in the transverse direction.

Distribution of pressures and suctions:

When air flows around the edges of a structure, the resulting pressures at the corners are much in excess of the pressures on the center of elevation. This has been evident by the damages caused to corner windows, eave and ridge tiles, etc in windstorms. Wind tunnel studies conducted on scale models of buildings indicate that three distinct pressure areas develop around the building. They are:

  • Positive pressure zone on the upstream face (Region 1)
  • Negative pressure zone at the upstream corners (Region 2)
  • Negative pressure zone on the downstream face (Region 3)

The highest negative pressures are created in the upstream corners designated as Region 2. Wind pressures on a buildings surface are not constant, but fluctuate continuously. The positive pressure on the upstream or the windward face fluctuates more than the negative pressure on the downstream or the leeward face. The negative pressure region remains relatively steady as compared to the positive pressure zone. The fluctuation of pressure is random and varies from point to point on the building surface.

Nearby buildings can have a significant influence on wind forces. If they are the same height as the structure being considered then they will mostly provide shelter, although local wind loads can be increased in some situations. Where surrounding buildings are significantly taller they will often generate increased wind loading (negative shelter) on nearby lower structures. Shelter can result from either from the general built-environment upwind of the site or from the direct shielding from specific individual upwind buildings (Blackmore P, 2004).

Natural ventilation

The three natural ventilation airflow paths in buildings are (Pennycook, 2009):

  • Cross ventilation
  • Single-sided ventilation
  • Passive stack ventilation

Advantages of cross ventilation:

  • Greater rates of ventilation can be achieved under amicable weather conditions.
  • Can be utilized for deep-plan spaces with operable windows on the external wall.
  • Incumbents have control over ventilation.
  • Relatively cost free.
  • Can be incorporated with thermal masses.

However, it has certain limitations such as:

  • Internal space layout must be hindrance free for easy, clear flow of air.
  • Internal partitions must be within 1.2m height and tall cupboards must be placed alongside the windows.
  • Natural ventilation can occur only under the presence of suitable winds.
  • Poor planning and positioning of windows may cause disruptive draughts and gusts.
  • Winter ventilation is problematic.
  • Unsuitable for buildings located in noisy and pollution prone environments.

The requirements of fresh air supply are governed by the type of occupancy, number and activity of the occupants and by the nature of any processes carried out in the space (Koenigsberger et al, 2001). When natural ventilation is stipulated for good indoor air quality, the amount and nature of the dominant pollutant source in the space should be identified. Based on this data the ventilation rate for the space can be calculated such that the pollution level does not cross a preset specific mark. Generally the concentration of the pollutants decreases with the increase in airflow rate (Figure –1).

However, in terms of thermal comfort especially during winter the heating requirement of the building will increase with the ventilation rate. This demand varies with time, wind characteristics of the place, opening and closing of windows and doors by its occupants and the thermal state of the building. In summer, cooling is ideal for both the building and its occupants to prevent internal heat gains. By directing the high velocity wind around the human body the evaporative rate at the skins surface can be increased thereby achieving a cooling sensation. The recommended upper limit of indoor air movement is 0.8 m/sec, which permits the inhabitants to occupy a space about 2°C warmer and 60% relative humidity with optimum comfort. The traditional way to cool buildings is to provide large openings along the exterior wall with the principle that higher the ventilation rate greater the loss of heat to the external environment. But such an arrangement would work only when the outdoor temperature is in the range of comfort zone. When controlled indoor environments are desired especially during the occupancy period’s night ventilation is recommended. In this technique the building is cooled at night so that it can absorb the heat generated during the day (Allard F, 1998).

Based on wind tunnel experimental observations, the factors that affect the indoor airflow are:

  1. Orientation:
  2. External features:
  3. Cross-ventilation:
  4. Position of openings:
  5. Size of openings:
  6. Control of openings:

Literature review

The following are studies that have been made of different aspects of wind using Computational Fluid dynamics.

  1. CFD evaluation of wind speed conditions in passages between parallel buildings:

This analysis undertaken by Blocken B et al (2007) mainly focuses on the wind speed conditions in passages between parallel buildings in combination with the accuracy of the commercial CFD code Fluent 6.1.22 when the wall-function roughness modifications are applied to them. The Venturi effect is also studied to determine the amount of increase in wind speed in the passage due to the decrease in flow section. The results obtained were compared with various previously proven experiments carried out by experts in the field.

As the title indicated the case undertaken involves a pair of rectangular buildings measuring 40m x 20m x 20m, placed adjacent to each other and separated by a narrow passage. The width of the passage is widened (for example, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 m) with every case to clearly understand the Venturi effect. The dimension of the computational domain is 20.5x14x18m3; the whole setup is placed at a distance of 5m from the inlet and simulated with a wind speed of 6.8m/sec based on initial results.

The results recorded at the end of the simulation process are discussed as follows. They are based on the amplification factor, which is defined as the ratio of the mean wind speed at a certain location to the mean wind speed at the same location without the buildings present. As such it is a direct indication of the effect of the buildings on the wind speed (Blocken B et al, 2007).

  1. Pedestrian level wind profile: In context to this research, for narrow passages (example w=2m) this amplification factor occurs maximum at the centerline immediately behind the entrance. When the distance between the buildings are slightly increased (example w=10m), the flow streams deflecting off the inner edges of the buildings combine into a large jet stream and records an increase in the amplification factor. However this property is lost when the width of the passage is of a high order (example w=30m).
  2. Overall wind profile: To understand the overall wind profile, six vertical lines were identified along the passage’s center plane for the case of w=6m. The lines depicted the fact that there was an increase in the wind speed at the ground level due to the downdraft of the wind along the front façade of the building and a decrease in wind speed at the end of the passage due to the exit of flow from the passage. Also for these cases, there was no significant increase in the wind speed with the increase in height.
  3. Flow rates at different points in the passage: To evaluate the Venturi-effect three fluxes were defined, one along the vertical plane, another along the horizontal plan and the final being similar to the former one but in the absence of the buildings. When the flow rate was calculated for narrow passages, it stated an increase in wind speed by only 8% due to the Venturi effect. However for larger widths the flow rate was lower than the free-field flux. This shows that the wind has a tendency to flow over and around the building rather than be forced through the passage as previously believed. Thus there is a lack of strong Venturi effect and the flow in the passage can be attributed as the channeling effect for these cases.

The research also concluded that there were discrepancies in the CFD results due to the use of the roughness factor and advised future users to simulate an empty field before positioning the buildings to clearly identify the difference in results. Further research into the Venturi effect was also implied.

  1. Computational analysis of wind driven natural ventilation in buildings:

Evola G and Popov V (2006) research focuses on the application of three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Strokes (RANS) modeling on wind driven natural ventilation with specific detail to the pressure distribution and flow pattern within the building. The various cases would be simulated with the standard k-e model and the Renormalization Group theory (RNG). Within the framework of natural ventilation both single sided ventilation and cross ventilation would be studied and the results obtained using CFD will be compared with LES models and empirical methods for its reliability.   

The building undertaken consists of a 250mm x 250mm x 250mm cube punctured with a centrally located 84mm x 125 mm opening on the wind ward side (Case 1). In Case 2 the door like opening is placed on the leeward side and in Case 3 both the openings are retained to test the cross ventilation principle.

On comparison between the CFD results obtained for Case 1 and 2, Case 2 portrays a better flow pattern especially at the mouth of the opening. This leads to a better ventilation rate than Case 1 though in contrast to the theoretical data that good ventilation rate and flow patterns are achievable only when the opening faces the incoming winds. To establish the phenomenon further experimentation into the field was suggested. Between Cases 1, 2 and 3, cross ventilation clearly stands out as the best option of them all, both in terms of velocity and distribution.

Also the study concluded that the measured RNG results matched approximately to the theoretical results of Cases 1 and 2. But a significant amount of deviation was observed in Case 3. The RNG model was only slightly intense than the k-e model generally used.

The research also concluded that there were discrepancies in the CFD results due to the use of the roughness factor and advised future users to simulate an empty field before positioning the buildings to clearly identify the difference in results. Further research into the Venturi effect was also implied.

  1. CFD modeling of unsteady cross-ventilation flows using LES:

This research undertaken by Cheng-Hu Hu et al (2008) employs the LES method to investigate the fluctuating ventilation flow rate induced by the wind for a cross-ventilated building. The results from CFD were compared with those previously acquired from wind tunnel tests.
  
The building proposed for the study consists of a rectangular box with two openings of equal size located opposite to each other. The wind is simulated from 0°(Case 1) and 90°(Case 2) to the building at a rate of 1m/sec, to study the flow pattern in and around it.

When the air approaches the building the ventilation rate is unsteady at the mouth of the openings due to turbulence and in the flow separation layer due to shear. In Case 1 the wind is accelerated through the opening and directed downwards inside the building. This phenomenon brings about a circulation of the internal air before guiding the wind upwards and out through the window on the leeward side of the building. The air exchange occurs due to the mean flows through the opening. In Case 2 where the wind is parallel to the windows, the air moves in and exits rapidly causing fluctuating flows thereby leading to air exchange. In this case turbulence prone areas are formed at the rear of the building.

When these results were compared with the wind tunnel data, Case 1 portrayed similarities while Case 2 had major deviations. Further study was proposed for understanding the reason behind such deviations.

Case studies

The Bahrain world trade centre was the world’s first building to ‘aesthetically incorporate commercial wind turbines into the fabric of the building’ [ ].

The complex consists of a three-storied sculpted podium and basement from where the 240m high towers rise up into the sky. The two towers comprise of 51 floors each and are connected by means of three, 31.5m span bridges at 60m, 96m and 132m levels [ ]. They are oval in section for aerodynamic reasons and follow a shallow V-shape in plan for adequate blade clearance. Sitting on each of this 70 ton spandrel is an 11-ton nacelle to which the industry approved horizontal axis wind turbines are fixed by special means. The turbine has a rotor diameter of 29m and is stall controlled with centrifugally activated feathering tips for air brakes (Killa S & Smith Richard F, 2008). The turbines are oriented facing the Arabian Gulf intercepting the path of the dominant winds.

The decision to harness the prevailing wind was thought of from the initial stage drawing inspiration from ‘the regional wind towers and the vast sails of the traditional Arabian Dhow which utilise the wind to drive them forward’. Numerous Computational fluid dynamics models and wind tunnel tests were carried out to determine the final building form. The result was a skyward tapering, elliptical structure, carved out by the wind that functions as aerofoil sections (Wood A, 2008). The shape and spatial relationship of the towers aid in adhering the wind in a “S’ flow whereby the center of the wind stream remains nearly perpendicular to the turbine within a 45° wind azimuth, either side of the central axis (Killa S & Smith Richard F, 2008). This increases the turbine efficiency, number of working hours and minimizes the stress on the blade caused by yawing [ ].

Furthermore, the two towers were placed such that they create a ‘V’ shaped space in between them, as well as a negative pressure behind the blocks, thus creating an opportunity for the Venturi effect to accelerate wind velocity onto the turbines (Binder G, 2006) by as much as 30% more than the source wind (Killa S & Smith Richard F, 2008). The tapering profile combined with the increased onshore wind velocity at higher altitudes creates a near equal regime of wind speed on each of the three turbines, irrespective of its location, allowing them to rotate at the same speed and generate approximately the same amount of energy (Wood A, 2008).

Table – 1: Annual energy output