Categories for American

The Analysis of the Escape by W.S. Maugham Essay

The Analysis of the Escape by W.S. Maugham Essay

What we call a “Chicago accent” is actually called the Inland North American dialect. This encompasses the major cities around the Great Lakes. The dialect used to be considered the standard American accent until the region experienced a vowel shift, now called the North Cities Vowel Shift. Who Speaks the Chicago Dialect?

Or rather, who doesn’t? The answer, of course, is African Americans in the Chicago region, who have their own (and infinitely more interesting) dialect. Though this may be obvious.

African Americans are the largest population group in Chicago, and it would be irresponsible to overlook the fact that the Chicago dialect is not used by the largest sector of the city’s population.

The most salient feature of the Chicago dialect is that it is undergoing the Northern Cities Vowel Shift. This is most noticeable in words with the /ae/ vowel, which gets “raised” so that it’s close to /e/. Thus, ‘bad’ sounds a bit like ‘bed,’ or, ‘beead.

’ Another notable aspect of this vowel shift is that /o/ is “fronted” so that it is closer to /ah/. So hot sounds a lttle like ‘hat.’ As an ongoing change, it is more prevalent and more pronounced among young people, middle-class people, and females, but it is quite widespread. nearly all white Chicagoans exhibit this vowel shift, at least to some extent. A more local vowel development is a monophthongization of /ow/ to /oh/, so that ‘south’ becomes ‘soth’ and ‘down’ becomes ‘don.’ This is more conservative and less widespread.

Also we can notice that when a vowel sound moves into another vowel’s territory, the result may be a merger —as when the sound of caught comes to be pronounced with the tongue in the same region of the mouth as for cot. In a different pattern, the movement of one vowel spurs a reactive movement in a neighboring vowel. As with strangers in an elevator, one vowel shifts to keep its distance when another enters the space. These coordinated movements are heard in the Northern Cities Shift, which affects six different vowels, those appearing in caught, cot, cat, bit, bet and but. In this change, caught takes on a vowel similar to that originally used for cot. The cot vowel also shifts, becoming more like the vowel of cat.

The vowel of cat takes a position closer to that ordinarily heard with bit and sometimes sounds like the “ea” in idea. Words like bit are pronounced with a vowel nearer to bet or even but whereas bet words have a vowel similar to that in cat or but, and the vowel but words comes to sound more like that of caught. When these changes are plotted according to the positioning of the tongue, the connections among them are clear and the shift resembles a clockwise rotation of the vowels in the mouth.

The Northern Cities Shift: These guide words are positioned to represent where in the mouth the tongue is placed for those vowel sounds. The arrows indicate the directions of change affecting the sounds.


The stereotype about Chicagoans is that they say “dis” instead of “this,” but that’s not entirely accurate. The real pronunciation is somewhere in between. To approximate it, first pronounce /th/ the standard way, with the tip of your tongue between your teeth. Then, keeping your teeth apart, move the tip of your tongue to the back of your teeth. That’s the typical Chicago /th/. Contrast it with /d/, which is made with the teeth closed, and the tongue against the roof of the mouth. This is a conservative trait, and is more common among older people, working class people, and males. The unvoiced equivalent, that is, the /th/ of in the word ‘thick’ is even more conservative. Vocabulary

Chicago vocabulary is fairly unremarkable. As a cosmopolitan place, the vocabulary is more generalized than in rural areas, so that Chicagoans are at least familiar with words that were formerly used by dialectologists as markers of Southern dialect or “Midland” – that is, the dialect in between Northern and Southern. Nevertheless, there are a few localisms which are worth mentioning:

What other people call rubbernecking, Chicagoans call “gaping” – thus an accident on the side of the road can cause a “gapers’ delay” or “gapers’ block.”

Also, Chicagoans are more likely to use the term “gym shoes.” Grammar

In Chicago, like in other American cities that had lots of German-speaking immigrants, “with” can be used more frequently as a verbal complement. Thus, while most Americans might say “come with,” Chicagoans can also say “take with” and “have with.” Consider the following bit of dialogue from Chicagoan David Mamet’s play “American Buffalo,”:

Donny: (Talking about a gun) I don’t want it with.
Teach: Well, I want it with.
In the 1996 film version, Donny’s line sounds fine when delivered by Chicagoan Dennis Franz, but Angeleno Dustin Hoffman has trouble making Teach’s line sound natural; he’s clearly uncomfortable saying it.

What A Good American Should Be Like Essay

What A Good American Should Be Like Essay

To many, America is already a much developed country. Yet a lot of Americans themselves find it difficult to accept that their country is already at its peak success. Why? This is primarily because of the unequal views of both races and people’s economic status. These two are only a few of the many reasons why Americans refuse to say that they have already attained the American Dream. In this paper, two views of two different writers shall be examined.

Namely, Leon E.

Wynter who wrote the essay “Transracial America Sells”, and Langston Hughes who wrote the poem “Let America Be America Again” Before the writings are to be observed and examined, it’s very important that we gain knowledge about who the writers really are so as to be able to understand why they have views such as what they wrote. Leon E. Wynter has been writing for the Wall Street Journal for about 10 years now and has also been a regular contributor to the National Public Radio.

His essays and articles which are published in the Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, New York Times and New York Newsday are usually a series of discussions on how the elimination of racial discrimination, specifically that of the black-Americans and the white-Americans, in the marketplace could contribute to the attainment of the American dream of equality. On the other hand, Langston Hughes is known for his poetry and compositions on how the old America used to dream of a free America in the future. He’s also known for contributing so much to the Harlem Renaissance through his written works.

His writings show of his opinion on how laboring the people could help eliminate the inequality in the American society. As we go through these paper, several questions are to be considered to clearly understand what these two writers really suggest for the fulfillment of the American dream. Here are some of the questions we must consider: Which vision of the American dream is more compelling? Will the American dream be fulfilled by the marketplace or by labor? Which writer has a deeper understanding and what are the problems with the views of the less convincing writer?