Categories for Alcohol

Legal Age for Alcohol Consumption Essay

Legal Age for Alcohol Consumption Essay

Different governments have age limits for legal consumption of alcohol. For instance, in most western states individuals below 18 years of age should not consume alchohol. Other countries have an age limit of 15 years (Miller, 2010). All these governments have reasons for setting this age requirements for alcohol consumption. For example, some argue that raising the legal age limit may not have an impact on society, if people do not have the will and zeal to stop irresponsible drinking. Others argue that raising the legal age limit would allow individuals to drink when they are mature and responsible (Kolander, 2011).

This would reduce chances of irresponsible drinking. I believe governments should raise the legal age requirement for alcohol consumption, as an effort to reduce the negative impacts of alcohol to society. I support the idea of raising the age limit for alcohol consumption.

However, I also believe that this cannot be a successful measure to deal with the negative impacts of alcohol to society, without using other avenues.

For instance, governments should implement a program to educate the youth on the negative impacts of alcohol. According to reports from a number of police departments, most youth consume alcohol when they have not met the age limit. This implies that raising the age limit can only be effective if parents instill morals in their young children (Miller, 2010). Therefore, the religious groups and the family have a massive role to play in regulating early consumption of alcohol. Secondly, raising the age limit for consumption of alcohol will reduce the harm of alcohol on the health of consumers. Individuals suffer from chronic effects due to alcohol consumption when they have access to it at early ages. For instance, the danger that an individual who started consuming alcohol at the age of 18, is more severe than that of an individual who started drinking at 25.

Health experts have claimed that early exposure to alcohol consumption has drastic effects on key internal body organs, compared to individuals who start consuming alcohol at late ages. In addition, raising the legal age for alcohol consumption reduces chances of addiction, due to less exposure (Billings, 2010). Early exposure to alcohol consumption has also led to a deteriorated culture in society. Families have broken up due to irresponsible drinking by children, who end up indulging in other criminal activities such as burglary, to finance their alcoholic behavior. At the current legal requirement of 18 years, most youth may not have the finances to finance their consumption of alcohol. This makes them depend on their parents by lying to them, to get money. In the event that the parents are not able to meet the financial demands of the children, the children look for other options to financial stability. Some go to the extent of stage managing kidnaps to get money from parents.

This has eroded the positive values of society, especially the youth, who are the largest group of the world’s population (Kolander, 2011). In conclusion, the above illustrations indicate that early exposure to alcohol consumption has more negative effects than positives. For example, individuals have a high probability of acquiring health complications, such as lung and kidney infections. Secondly, early access to alcohol consumption also erodes the morality of society.

In addition, early alcohol consumption may also affect the academic life of young adults, who end up as addicts to alcohol. These young adults also face the threat of joining illegal gangs in society. Thus, it would be reasonable to suggest that governments should consider revising the legal age limit upwards. However, other institutions in society must also aid in alleviating the negative impacts of alcohol to society. Religious groups and the family should provide advice to young adults on the dangers of early alcohol consumption.

Billings, S. (2010, October 24). Should the Legal Drinking Age Be Raised to 25 to Eliminate Deadly College Partying? Retrieved July 19, 2012, from Kolander, R. W. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Miller, W. R. (2010). Rethinking Substance Abuse: What the Science Shows, and What We Should Do

Drinking Age Essay

Drinking Age Essay

Many rights have different ages of initiation. A person can obtain a hunting license at age 12, driver’s license at age 16, vote and serve in the military at 18, serve in the U.S. House of Representatives at age 25 and in the U.S. Senate at age 30, and run for President at age 35. At 18 years old you’re considered to be an adult. You can get loans, buy a car, house, get marry, and adopt children. To live on your own legally at the age of eighteen and to have all these other responsibilities, it’s ridiculous not to be allowed to have the right to have a drink.

For this reason, it would make sense to lower the legal age for alcohol consumption back to the age of eighteen. I strongly feel that the age should be 18. We wait are whole lives to be 18 because that’s when were considered an adult. As a teenager who recently turned 18 we want to experience adult things.

I want to be considered an adult and to me being able to have a drink show’s that I am a mature adult.

Underage drinking is already a problem in everyday life, we have kids who can get fake Ids or even just get someone else to get them alcohol so really what’s the age law even accomplishing if people are still getting alcohol and their under the age of 21. I’ve read a recent interview and this is what it said, Dr. Hanson “You’re saying that simply lowering the drinking age would solve the problem of drinking abuse among young people?” Dr. Engs– “Unfortunately, it wouldn’t solve the problem. However, it would be an important step in the right direction. The experience of many societies and groups demonstrates that drinking problems are reduced when young people learn at home from their parents how to drink in a moderate and responsible manner. As parents we need to be good role models in what we say and do.And lowering the drinking age would help send the important message that drinking is, in itself, not evidence of maturity…… that responsible consumption for those who choose to drink is evidence of maturity.We need to reinforce the norm of moderation by making it clear that the abuse of alcohol is completely unacceptable by anyone.

This would help stress that it is not drinking that is the problem but rather drinking abusively that is the problem. Lowering the drinking age would teach kids how to be more responsible at a younger age. Most teens already drink, whether it’s legal or not, but making it legal would allow for more education. If we educate teens on how to drink responsibly, then they will be less likely to binge drink. People say eighteen year olds can’t handle alcohol, because they make to many mistakes. If you start to drink at eighteen or twenty one your tolerance is still going to be the same. Meaning, that no matter what age you start to drink at, you don’t know how much you can handle until you start drinking. So when people say eighteen year olds make too many mistakes when they drink it’s only because they started drinking, just as a twenty one year old will make mistakes when they start to drink. Everyone makes mistakes no matter how old they are. I know for a fact that a lot of teenagers drink regardless of the drinking age, either at home or at parties.

People make it seem that because teenagers can get to alcohol, if we lower the drinking age that kids younger then eighteen, kids will also be able to access alcohol even easier and start drinking at a even younger age, but really everyone if they really wanted to could get alcohol. So it wouldn’t even make a difference if the age was lowered. But like I said before it doesn’t matter what age you are when you first start to drink you are going to make mistakes it is part of the learning process. If the drinking age was lowered it wouldn’t seem like the cool thing to do anymore and teens would be more responsible with it. The drinking age is 21 when younger adults get their hands on alcohol they tend to drink a lot more because they don’t know when they will be able to get alcohol again. If we start to drink at a younger age we will see the consequences of drinking irresponsible and learn from it.

So as we get older we realize how much we should consume and how much we shouldn’t. In today’s world alcohol is always going to be a problem no matter what age. But having the drinking age at 21 can be a bad idea. It makes teenagers go crazy when they get their hands on alcohol not teaching them the maturity you have to have when you drink. If the drinking age becomes lowered it will help kids from the ages 12 to 18 realize how important alcohol is and how mature we must become when we are under the influence of alcohol. They tell us how we aren’t allowed to drink, that we aren’t old enough or mature enough to do it, but the more adults talk about it, the more teenagers want to do it. When a kid goes off to college, it’s expected that he is going to drink. That’s the college experience that all teenagers look forward to, I know I did. Most kids or teens don’t know how much they can drink or even their limit to drinking. That is when you get people doing stupid things because they don’t know any better. Any eighteen years old they can drink responsibly if they have a little bit of experience or even have their parents teach them.

If I was a parent I would like to be able to sit down and have a drink with my son or daughter not to get drunk but to just spend time with my family. According to in certain states the law allows you to drink with your child as long as it’s on your property. In Wisconsin, there is an exception that allows a minor to consume alcohol if accompanied by their parent or legal guardian. Social drinking is acceptable; it is a time to have fun while still being in control. Parents can teach their kids how to drink responsibly. Isnt that what a parents supposed to do teach their kids what is right and wrong , to learn from their mistakes and do the right thing in the end. The responsibility given to eighteen year olds includes many opportunities to make decisions that will impact the rest of their lives. If you are old enough to fight and die for your country, you should be able to purchase or consume an alcoholic beverage. If we look at the War, half of the soldiers that fight in that war are under the age of twenty-one, and a lot of them were 17 to 19 years old.

Registration for the draft is one of the requirements for all citizens at age eighteen. Even if a person is not actually drafted, the idea that an individual is responsible enough to go to war, carry a firearm, or launch nuclear weapons implies that an eighteen year old is making the same decisions as any other adult. Thousands of men and women are deployed every day to deal with the problems in other countries. While they are over there, soldiers witness many things that we could never dream of. Drinking alcohol and serving in the war can’t even compare. In this newspaper article “World Snapshot Alaskan Bid to Lower Drinking Age for US Troops” it talks about how Lynn has been careful to note that neither he nor his bill promotes drinking or smoking as a habit. But, he said, the bill would "enable all active duty warriors in our US Armed Forces to be treated as adults, regardless of age”. "It’s outrageous that a member of our military can be subjected to the horrors of war but can’t legally have a beer or smoke a cigarette," Lynn wrote on his blog. "

Any soldier who braves military combat and risks their life for our country should be treated like an adult in every sense of the word." Some people would argue that the age should stay at twenty one and their reasoning could be that the main purpose of making the drinking age 21 isn’t just to keep alcohol away from young teenagers but to keep them as safe as possible. Allowing children to drink at a younger age just makes more problems. Most young and inexperienced drinkers usually don’t know their limit which could lead to serious problems like alcohol poisoning. Alcohol is dangerous and can have big consequences on anybody.

According to Richard Bonnie alcohol use among youths is strongly correlated with violence, risky sexual behavior, poor school performance, suicide and other harmful behaviors. All things we wouldn’t want for teenagers or even kids. Alcohol is still a serious problem all around the world. It does not go away when you turn 21. Age does not determine whether or not an individual drinks responsibly. I strongly believe that the minimum legal drinking age should be set at eighteen not twenty-one. Underage drinking is going on in every state and is obviously not being controlled. If a person can vote, and even go to war at eighteen, why shouldn’t they be able to go out to dinner and have a glass of wine? Not only will the drinking age change things but it could also help with kids and bonding with their parents.

Works Cited
[Book] Bonnie, Richard J., and Mary Ellen O’Connell. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington, DC: National Academies, 2004. Print. [Interview] Engs, Ruth. “The Drinking Age Should Be Lowered.” Interview by David Hanson. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <>. [Website]Weber, Jason. “Letting Your Children Drink at Home – Good Idea or Bad Idea?” N.p., 17 Aug. 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. <>. [News Paper]World Snapshot Alaskan Bid to Lower Drinking Age for US Troops.” 2 Apr. 2011: 43. Newspaper Source Plus. Web. 5

Mandatory Jail Sentence Essay

Mandatory Jail Sentence Essay

Many lives would be saved by car crashes every year. If they are put into jail for at least 48 hours or more, they would learn from their mistakes most likely and won’t do it again. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * If there was more at stake for people, they would be more hesitant about making bad decisions. Drunk driving is a direct result of bad decisions. It doesn’t happen accidentally, and the people causing it are not victims.

If the punishment for this horrid crime is harsher, maybe people would think a bit more and decide against getting behind a wheel and being irresponsible.

Posted by: 4uncLife Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Since most drunk drivers are otherwise non-criminal average citizens, I do think a mandatory jail sentence would decrease drunk driving. I do not feel that a small fine and temporary suspension of your driver’s license is a steep enough punishment to effectively deter drunk driving. But, I do think that a mandatory jail sentence would discourage the average citizen from committing that crime.

Posted by: ToughEfrain26 Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Jail deters those who are currently freed and those who served the time.

Many of the cases of drunk driving are repeat offenders who received warnings, fines, or points on their licenses that drove up their auto insurance rates and other monetary fines but rarely any thing that made them stop driving drunk. Mandatory jail time for drunk driving literally drives the lesson home, that drunk driving will take the drunk driver away from their life. Increasing the jail time per incident also shows the increasing penalty for the decision and takes away the leniency of some judges who give a slap on the wrist until someone is killed. Posted by: Pir4And Report Post LikeReply 0 0 48 hours is a slap on the wrist to some. Being from a rural area, many people consume alcohol because there is simply, “nothing else to do”. These same people fight, drive and do other thoughtless acts because their brain is not processing the full concequences of their actions. People like this have run-ins with the law on a regular basis, so 48 hours in jail is a slap on the wrist to them. Two years ago two young boys were riding an ATV on the road in this same rural town when they were struck and killed by a drunk driver. This would have never happened had he been imprisoned for a few months.

Not many people can have a true life changing experience within two days. when 211 children die in one year thanks to drunk driving then something must be done to prevent drunk driving from ever occuring. At some point people will realize that drunk drivers are a threat to society and should be locked up for a long peoriod of time so that they can not hurt anyone, and hopefully change their ways. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * I agree completely that a mandatory jail sentence on the first offense would decrease the number of drunken drivers.

If you have a mandatory sentence people would be less likely to drive under the influence, they would more likely to stay at home or use the common idea of a designated driver. There are repeat offenders I know that havent done a bit of jailtime for their crimes and they still drink and drive. They dont find the penalties that bad because they haven’t been properly punished. There are a select few who learn from their mistakes but that is few and far between. The treatments last 30 to 90 days and most alcoholics just go throught the paces and continue on their merry way.

The treatment plans aren’t working, so why not try this? Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * A mandatory jail sentence would help decrease the instances of drunk driving, because people would be more careful. You have a variety of people who get stopped for drunk driving. A mandatory jail sentence would help decrease the instances of drunk driving for those people who are more casual, or only social, drinkers. It might help some of those who love to party, but it is hard to say. Nothing would stop those who are alcoholics. Posted by: eyeslikethat Report Post LikeReply 0 0 Yes, a mandatory jail sentence will decrease the instances of drunk driving, because the perpetrators will be sitting in jail, instead of driving drunk on our streets. It has been shown, over and over, that people who drive drunk are often repeat offenders. They do this over and over. I don’t know if a stint in jail will stop them from drinking and driving, but at least it will remove them from the streets, so that they are not out there doing the same thing. I am sure that, for lots of people, the threat of an automatic jail sentence will also make them think twice about drinking and driving, or letting a friend or relative drink or drive.

Posted by: I0ckHead Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * I believe drunk drivers should be imprisoned on the first offense If there was a mandatory jail sentence for drunk drivers, there would be less of them on our roads. On average a drunk driver drives 87 times while intoxicated before being pulled over. And then they get pulled over, and get a warning, or fine, or points on their license. That’s it. If they have driven drunk before they probably will again if all they get is a warning. Think about all your loved ones on the road each day, they are being put in danger of being hit by a drunk driver. nd you’re saying it’s okay for people that drive drunk to get a slap on the wrist! If drunk drivers go to jail, even for 48 hours, they probably won’t do it again. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Because many drunk drivers do not consider themselves criminals, a jail sentence would re-frame the way the public thinks about drunk driving — not just a lapse in judgment but a crime. First of all, drinking is an inherent part of our culture and the line between social drinking and driving drunk can be a difficult one to judge, encouraging many to not take drunk driving seriously.

Moreover, many drinkers who might get a DUI do not engage in other criminal activity and do not consider drinking or it’s consequences to be a criminal offense. Attaching a jail sentence to a DUI would re-frame the way drinkers and the general public perceive a DUI and force them consider the consequences more seriously. A jail term carries a much heavier punishment (as well as social stigma) than the usual punishments for a DUI offense which would make it effective as a means to reduce driving under the influence of alcohol. Posted by: PeytonW

Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * You could end up killing sombody If you just get a slap on the wrist you will be urged just to drive intoxicated again. i mean think of your loved ones who are always playing in your yard and a drunk driver came crashing through your fence and kills your kids? how would that make you feel? In my opinion they should go to jail for at least a few days so when they get out they realize what they did was wrong and it would encourage them to never drive intoxicated again. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 I believe a mandatory jail sentence would decrease instances of drunk driving drastically because it would establish a clear unfavorable consequence for their behavior. When there is a mandatory sentence attached to a crime people are more likely to think twice before doing it. If a person knows that there is more chance than not of them going to jail they are less likely to do it because of the circumstances that would create such as losing your driver’s license, job, children and possibly your spouse. Most people would say that drinking and driving is not worth risking the loss of all those things. Posted by: N4nClar

Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Driving under the influence is a choice and any deterrent is totally warranted. I strongly believe that there should be zero tolerance for driving under the influence of alcohol. A mandatory jail sentence would send a clear message that it is unacceptable behaviour and people might think twice before doing it. Those who do the right thing have nothing to fear. Posted by: Mo2esDonaId Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * People are inherently scared of jail, so a mandatory sentence would help. A more severe punishment would almost certainly decrease the instances of drunk driving, to some extent.

People can deal with fines and community service, but jail is something that no person wants to experience. The fact that assaults occur in jail isn’t really justifiable, and needs to be addressed more thoroughly than it has been. But, it does make many terrified and, as such, stops people from committing severe crimes. Posted by: TwoVic Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * I agree with your opinion. A jail sentence would be very helpful in decreasing drug driving. I agree because nowadays, drunk driving is not a crime. They give money to court and that settles that case. Then sometimes they repeat this again.

Mandatory jail sentence help decrease the instances of drunk driving. Posted by: 5h4ngMaxi Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Jail sentences will definitely reduce drunk driving instances. Jail sentences are usually effective in frightening people away from doing certain things. Because people with criminal records have fewer job opportunities and limited futures, people will generally avoid doing things that will get them imprisoned, such as murder, rape, and vandalism. If you start imprisoning people for drunk driving as well, then you will see a dramatic decrease in that area. Posted by: N0bIatina Report Post

LikeReply 0 0 * A no-tolerance policy on drunk driving would cause people to take the offense more seriously. Drinking and driving has contributed to thousands of accidents, injuries, and deaths. In my opinion, I believe a mandatory jail sentence for convicted offenders would cause people to seriously consider the consequences of drinking and driving. Taking a serious civil approach to the offense would cause friends and family to view drinking and driving as completely unacceptable. It would add a risk of job loss, public humiliation, and jail time, to the risks of injury, death and property damage.

Additionally, incarcerated offenders would not be putting other motorists at risk while they are locked up. Posted by: QuietWayne85 Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Cars are just like loaded guns – they can be used to kill If you take a loaded gun and walk around with your finger on the trigger everyone would agree that you might kill someone. At the very least you will be charged with negligent homicide and be imprisoned for 1-20 years. Why should driving a car while impaired be any different? You are intentionally using a potentially fatal machine while you are physically and mentally impaired.

People, it’s a no brainer. Posted by: handrews Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * I believe that a mandatory jail sentence for drunk driving would definitely help to reduce the instances of drunk driving, because it would certainly get everyone’s attention. As long as the sentence is reasonable by being enough time to get the drunk driver’s attention, I believe that it would definitely help to reduce drunk driving. For many people, having to go to jail just one time would deter them from drinking and driving in the future. Many social drinkers would want to avoid a jail sentence, so they might change their ways.

I don’t believe it would go a long way in helping with repeat offenders, because these people have a problem with alcohol that needs to be addressed. Posted by: R0d0Ferdy Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Stop the Shaming Let those who are addicted get the treatment, counseling, medical attention, etc. , that they need. Jail won’t help the addiction. Shaming can cause the defendant to repeat the behavior. Some defendants have serious mental illnesses which require a physician’s care. They deserve to get it. Fortunately, most drunk driving incidents do not result in accidents, so it’s best to allow the defendant the opportunity to get help early on.

Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Being silly Just get rid of cars, they pollute kill people, animal(all that road kill), I’m constantly broke because its $5 a gallon. ever 5 years the damn thing breaks and have to go buy an even more expensive model, car companies discontinuing parts. Put a drunk behind a bicycle probably just fall over. BE SMART DON’T DRINK AND DRIVE Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * In 500 years no one will remember anyway Being a true believer in letting each do as they please, no one should be punished for anything they do.

The strong will survive, and the weak and lame will die. Simple as that. It would save the cost of government. Live and let live… die and let die. Callous statement to be sure. But, life is short. Over the course of thousands of years, it isn’t going to matter anyway. If you live to be 90 or 9, you’re just a speck in the universe. You won’t be missed or thought of at all in 500 years, so who should care. We’re all going to die sooner or later, so, it doesn’t really matter. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * No. The DUI Process Should Focus on Health

The DUI Process should be an opportunity to investigate the defendant’s health and ensure that medical care is received. Many are suffering from serious health conditions including addiction. Addiction has an insidious onset and the drunk driver should not be blamed for being addicted. Treatment should be sought and maintained. Most drunk drivers are unaware they are over the legal limit. Second offenses will be reduced. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * No, people get arrested and put in jail multiple times and still they drink and drive. Drunk people don’t even consider going to jail when they drive under the influence.

When people get behind the wheel that have had too much to drink, they don’t think of the consequences, period. Knowing that they might kill someone doesn’t deter them, why would a mandatory jail sentence? Repeat offenders are a perfect example. These people know for a fact that they will do time, but they do it anyway. I don’t see any way to keep people from drinking and driving unless there’s a breathalyzer attached to the ignition key and it is activated once the person [driver] is in the seat, and cannot be ‘tricked. ‘ THAT is a good idea. I just thought of it. Posted by: PinkMych Report Post

LikeReply 0 0 * Mandatory sentences haven’t proven to effectively lower the rate of any crimes. Mandatory sentences takes the human being out of the situation for both the prosecution and defense. Every scenario has extenuating circumstances that should be taken into consideration before imposing sentencing, mandatory or otherwise. Many of the people who get arrested for driving under the influence need rehabilitation. Our responsibility as a society should be to help people who are sick, and not punish them for doing the things that their sickness tells them to do. Posted by: TownNoam

Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * No.. but in certain cases then jail is needed For the drivers that have a problem with the abuse of alcohol or drugs you always gotta see how to help them fix that problem first just punishment is not sufficient in their rehabilitation. I don’t feel that mandatory jail time is helpful in these cases specially where there was no injuries or deaths involved. In fact it might even make their situations worse if they lose their jobs and family because of incarceration. So in conclusion mandatory jail time should be applied accordingly to the specific case.

Intense treatment plans would work better in my opinion. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Preserve Judicial Discretion! Recognize that every person and every situation is unique. Sentencing is more effective when judges are allowed to make case-by-case decisions that factor in the circumstances of the individual. The statistic that “the average drunk driver drives 87 times before being pulled over” is irrelevant; in America, we are sentenced only for crimes in which we are convicted. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Defendants Need Treatment Some drunk drivers need alcohol treatment.

A jail sentence would result in a life-long resentment, no treatment and contribute to perpetuating active alcohol addiction, employment problems, financial problems, etc. Focus on treatment, not punishment. Tougher consequences should be imposed only if there is a serious accident. The majority of traffic fatalities are caused by sober drivers. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * No, mandatory jail sentences would not help decrease the instances of drunk driving. Penalties right now are very harsh, and people who are going to drink and drive will do it no matter what the penalties are.

No, mandatory jail sentences would not help decrease the instances of drunk driving because penalties right now are very harsh and costly. People who are going to drink and drive are going to do it no matter what the penalties are. The instance of drunk driving have been decreasing recently and it would be very costly for taxpayers to incarcerate more people. People who drink and drive don’t think about the penalties before doing so or they wouldn’t be drinking and driving now. Posted by: MycCra2ii Report Post LikeReply 0 0 Where it is the culture to drink, no regulations that assume personal responsibility will work, we should focus on taverns who over serve their customers. It is law in most states that bartenders are responsible for not allowing a patron to become too intoxicated, yet it is only enforced if someone dies because of a drunken customer. The bartender is obviously in a situation of being in a conflict of interest, as the more he or she sells, the more they make. If bartenders were more responsible, and it wasn’t the culture to drink, we would have far less drunk drivers. Posted by: daveyxh Report Post LikeReply 0 * I disagree with mandatory jail sentences for drunk driving because I think that raising awareness would be more effective. I do think that repeat offenders and those whose impaired driving takes a life or causes sever injury should receive jail sentences, but a mandatory jail sentence for a first offense might cause a life or family unit to be ruined due to a lapse in judgment. I think raising awareness about what constitutes drunk driving is key — many people feel that there is a difference between “driving drunk” and “driving buzzed,” but in the eyes of the law the difference is not that apparent.

I think that learning what constitutes “impaired” driving would help a lot of people understand when it’s time to had over the keys. I think that effective public transport could help a lot. Posted by: Shim2free Report Post LikeReply 0 0 * Small Chance of Fatality You have a greater chance of being killed by a gun than a drunk driver. You also have a greater chance of being killed by a texter, speeder, or general negligent sober driver, than a drunk driver. The DUI Process takes all the money away from the drunk driver that he/she needs for medical care.

Without medical care, there’s an increased chance of a drunk driving incident. Alcoholism is a disease that requires care, just like cancer, diabetes or heart disease. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post LikeReply 0 0 What’s Popular Now Are atheists being persecuted in America? Should there be routine HIV testing for all adults? Is the Department of Education making too much profit off of struggling students? Are doctors to blame for prescription drug abuse? Should coaches give players equal playing time? From Around the Web Cheapest Car Insurance for Young Drivers

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Formation of an Alkene by Alcohol Dehydration Essay

Formation of an Alkene by Alcohol Dehydration Essay

Beer’s Law is an empirical relationship that relates the absorption of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling. In turn, absorbance is proportional to concentration and the higher the concentration, the higher the absorbance. This experiment incorporated Beer’s Law and is focused on determining the stress that various alcohols have on biological membranes.

Using five solutions of differing alcohol concentration for each of the three alcohols; methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol and a small slice of beet, the stirred solution was placed into a plastic cuvette and then into a spectrophotometer and the absorbance of alcohol solutions were determined in order to conclude which alcohol and concentration of alcohol had the greatest effect on biological membranes. The results showed that the most non-polar of the alcohols being tested, 1-proponal, caused the greatest damage to the biological membrane, the beet cell’s vacuole.

INTRODUCTION The boundary between any cell and its environment is the plasma membrane, composed of a matrix of phospholipids molecules with many different kinds of proteins.

Membranes have different properties and a variety of functions, in large part determined by the specific proteins within the membrane. The purpose of this experiment is to observe the effects of various alcohols on biological membranes, to determine the stress that various alcohols have on biological membranes and to conclude which concentration of alcohol has the greatest effect on biological membranes.

The central plant vacuole of plant cells contains water and solutes, including water-soluble pigments. Its membrane, the tonoplast, is normally poorly permeable to water. The central plant vacuole of the root cells of beet contains a water-soluble red pigment, betacyanin, which gives the beet its characteristic color. Since the pigment is water-soluble and not lipid soluble, it remains in the vacuole when cells are healthy. If the tonoplast and the plasma membrane are damaged, the vacuole’s contents will leak out into the surrounding environment.

Membrane disruption generally occurs when the cell is dead. Methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol are very similar alcohols, differing only in the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms within the molecule. One possible reason why these alcohols are so toxic to living organisms is that they might damage membranes. The polarity of methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol comes from the OH group where the electrons are affected. The longer the R group the less the attraction.

If 1-propanol is the most non-polar alcohol of the alcohols being tested, then 1-proponol will cause the greatest damage to the biological membrane, the beet cell’s vacuole. The effect of three different alcohols, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol, were tested on the beet vacuole membranes in this experiment. A measure of absorbance was collected using a conductivity probe. If a beet cell’s vacuole membrane (the tonoplast) was damaged, the red pigment, betacyanin, leaked out of the cell.

The more red pigment that leaked out into the surrounding environment and the more intense the pigment, the greater the absorbance and the amount of cellular damage sustained by the beet. RESULTS The absorbance of methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol were collected after the alcohol solutions of differing concentrations were placed in the plastic cuvette and then into the spectrophotometer. The absorbance of methanol, ethanol, and 1-proponal followed a general trend; the absorbance of the alcohol increased in relation to the rise in concentration of each alcohol solution.

Figure 1. The graph depicts five solution of differing alcohol concentrations for each of the three alcohols; methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol. The alcohol with the highest measurement of absorbance was the non-polar 1-proponal. (Figure 1) DISCUSSION The results (Figure 1), in general, support the original hypothesis that if 1-propanol is the most non-polar alcohol of the alcohols being tested, then 1-proponol will cause the greatest damage to the biological membrane, the beet cell’s vacuole.

Hence, 1-proponal had the highest absorbance. The polarity of methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol comes from the OH group, where the electrons are effected. The longer the R group the less the attraction between the molecules. In turn, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol are arranged from most polar to non-polar. At concentrations of 20% methanol, 10% and 20% ethanol, and 20% 1-propanol, the absorbance did not follow the general trend of data. This is due to sources of error in this experiment.

There proved to have many sources of error in this experiment given the data gathered in this study and the evidence to this point. Sources of error include the size and surface area of the beat, cross contamination, and puncturing the beet during the stirring of solution. If the size and surface area of the beet slices were not uniform, bigger slices of beets had the potential to secrete a larger quantity of red pigment and a greater intensity in color in turn, increasing the absorbance.

If the alcohol solutions were not stirred in order from lowest concentration to highest concentration, cross contamination would have occurred. If lower concentrations of alcohol are diluted with higher concentrations of alcohol, the absorbance of the lower concentration of alcohol will increase. If the beet was punctured during the stirring process, a greater amount of red pigment leaked out into the surrounding environment and in turn, the absorbance is increased.

Beer’s Law is an empirical relationship that relates the absorption of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling. Beer’s Law is represented as A = ? bc (1) Where A is equal to the absorbance, ? is equal to the molar absorbtivity, b is equal to path length, and c is equal to concentration. In turn, absorbance is proportional to concentration and the higher the concentration of the red pigment that leaks out into the surrounding environment, the higher the absorbance of the alcohol.

Drunk Driving Essay

Drunk Driving Essay

Driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, drunken driving, drunk driving, drink driving, operating under the influence, drinking and driving, or impaired driving is the act of driving a motor vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit . Similar regulations cover driving or operating certain types of machinery while affected by drinking alcohol or taking other drugs, including, but not limited to prescription drugs. This is a criminal offense in most countries. Convictions do not necessarily involve actual driving of the vehicle.

In most jurisdictions a measurement such as a blood alcohol content in excess of a specific threshold level, such as 0.05% or 0.08% defines the offense, with no need to prove impairment or being under the influence of alcohol. In some jurisdictions, there is an aggravated category of the offense at a higher level e.g. 0.12%.

In most countries, anyone who is convicted of injuring or killing someone while under the influence of alcohol or drugs can be heavily fined, as in France, in addition to being given a lengthy prison sentence.

Some jobs have their own rules and BAC limits, for example commercial pilot, and the Federal Railroad Administration has a 0.04% limit for train crew. Some jurisdictions have multiple levels of BAC; for example, the state of California has a 0.08% BAC limit, which is lowered to 0.04% if the operator holds a commercial driver’s license. The California BAC limit is 0.01% for those younger than 21 years of age and those on probation for a previous DUI conviction. Some large corporations have their own rules; Union Pacific Railroad has their own BAC limit of 0.02% that, if violated during a random test or a for-cause test — for example, after a traffic accident — can result in termination of employment with no chance of future re-hire.

Many states in the U.S. and provinces in Canada have adopted truth in sentencing laws that enforce strict guidelines on sentencing, differing from previous practice where prison time was reduced or suspended after sentencing had been issued. Some jurisdictions have judicial guidelines requiring a mandatory minimum sentence. The specific criminal offense may be called, depending on the jurisdiction, driving under the influence, driving under intense influence, driving while intoxicated, operating under the influence operating while intoxicated, operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated, driving under the combined influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, driving under the influence per se or drunk in charge .

Many such laws apply also to motorcycling, boating, piloting aircraft, use of motile farm equipment such as tractors and combines, riding horses or driving a horse-drawn vehicle, or bicycling, possibly with different BAC level than driving. In some jurisdictions there are separate charges depending on the vehicle used, such as BWI, which may carry a lighter sentence. In the United States, local law enforcement agencies made 1,467,300 arrests nationwide for driving under the influence of alcohol in 1996, compared to 1.9 million such arrests during the peak year in 1983. In 1997 an estimated 513,200 DWI offenders were in prison or jail, down from 593,000 in 1990 and up from 270,100 in 1986.

Blood alcohol level

With the advent of a scientific test for blood alcohol content, enforcement regimes moved to pinning culpability for the offense to strict liability based on driving while having more than a prescribed amount of blood alcohol, although this does not preclude the simultaneous existence of the older subjective tests. BAC is most conveniently measured as a simple percent of alcohol in the blood by weight. Research shows an exponential increase of the relative risk for a crash with a linear increase of BAC as shown in the illustration. BAC does not depend on any units of measurement. In Europe it is usually expressed as milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. However, 100 milliliters of blood weighs essentially the same as 100 milliliters of water, which weighs precisely 100 grams. Thus, for all practical purposes, this is the same as the simple dimensionless BAC measured as a percent. The per mille measurement, which is equal to ten times the percentage value, is used in Norway, Sweden and Finland.

The validity of the testing equipment/methods and mathematical relationships for the measurement of breath and blood alcohol have been criticized. Driving while consuming alcohol may be illegal within a jurisdiction. In some it is illegal for an open container of an alcoholic beverage to be in the passenger compartment of a motor vehicle or in some specific area of that compartment. Drivers have been convicted even when they were not observed driving if it could be safely concluded they had been driving while intoxicated. Within the American system, citation for driving under the influence also causes a major spike in car insurance premiums – 94.1% in the first year, and still 63.5% higher by the third year.

The German model serves to reduce the number of accidents by identifying unfit drivers and removing them from until their fitness to drive has been established again. The Medical Psychological Assessment works for a prognosis of the fitness for drive in future, has an interdisciplinary basic approach and offers the chance of individual rehabilitation to the offender. George Smith, a London taxi driver, was the first person to be convicted of drunk driving, on 10 September 1897. He was fined 25 shillings, which is equivalent to £71.33 in 2005 pounds.

Field sobriety testing

Historically, guilt was established by observed driving symptoms, such as weaving; administering field sobriety tests, such as a walking a straight line heel-to-toe or standing on one leg for 30 seconds; and the arresting officer’s subjective opinion of impairment. The officer must correctly perform the Field Sobriety Tests that are approved by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration . The US Department of Transportation explains the Field Sobriety Test as, “a battery of three tests administered and evaluated in a standardized manner to obtain validated indicators of impairment and establish probable cause for arrest.”

Starting with the introduction in Norway in 1936 of the world’s first per se law which made it an offense to drive with more than a specified amount of alcohol in the body, objective chemical tests have gradually supplanted the earlier purely judgmental ones. Limits for chemical tests are specific for blood alcohol concentration or concentration of alcohol in breath.

Drunk driving law by country

The laws relating to drunk driving vary between countries and varying blood alcohol content is allowed before a conviction is made. Comparison with cell phone use

Studies show that cell phone use is comparable to driving while intoxicated in rate of increase of likelihood of causing an accident, yet is not even illegal in many locations. This comparison has led users of alcohol to question why DWI should be illegal, and others to consider making cell phone use while driving illegal. The penalties where this is done are never commensurate with the penalties for DWI. Texting while driving is very dangerous, as it takes eyes off the road for an average 4.6 seconds at a time. When laws against drunk driving were implemented in the United States in 2000, fatalities due to drunk driving increased, as was predicted by opponents.

The heat energy given out Essay

The heat energy given out Essay

I think it will happen for the following scientific reasons: As the size of the carbon chain grows, more bonds are added to the structure of the alcohol. This means that each time, more energy from the surroundings must be extracted in order to break these starting bonds (endothermic stage). Yet, the more energy that is taken to break the bonds, the more energy is used to form the product’s bonds and this makes the energy of the products greater than that of the reactants.

The alcohols start off with methanol, which has 0 carbon – carbon bonds, 3 carbon – hydrogen bonds, 1 carbon – oxygen bond and 1 oxygen – hydrogen bond.

When the products are formed, excess energy is released which is mainly due to the amount of C = O bonds being made. The products of methanol have 2 C = O bonds and 4 O – H bonds. Since a C = O bond has a high energy value of 805, many of them will ensure that the energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants. Here are the theoretical values for the input, output and exothermic heat energy of methanol along with a diagram and the bond energy values: Bond type Energy Value (Kj) Bond type Energy Value.

Now let’s take ethanol as an example. The bonds are 1 C – C bond, 5 C – H bonds, 1 C – O bond and 1 O – H bond. The number of C – H bonds has risen by 2 and the carbon bond has gone up by one. For the products, there are 4 C = O bonds and 6 O – H bonds which is two more bonds than methanol. Here is the input and output calculation for ethanol: The theoretical input energy for the ethanol is greater than that of methanol as is the output energy and the exothermic heat energy difference. The same is shown with proponal, butanol, pentanol, heptanol and octanol.

The pattern that we see is that when the alcohols gain a carbon, they have to break an extra 2 C – H bonds (and C – C bonds if it is connected to another carbon) and this makes it need more energy from the surroundings which comes out as more energy when the products are formed. The theoretical values show that the more bonds in the reactants, the greater the bonds in the products and the more the theoretical energy difference. Also, since there is a regular change in the structure of the alcohols, then there is probably a regular change in the energies too.

There is a regular change in the exothermic energy given out. Here is a graph of my theoretical values in order to show the relationship between the energy given out and the number of carbons: The number and range of results I will need, to obtain reliable evidence are: I will need to have at least 20 results; twice for each different alcohol, perhaps thrice if possible. If each experiment is done at least once, then averages of mass differences can be obtained and will make the ‘energy given out by one mole of alcohol readings’ of each, much more accurate.

The range of these results will be from the alcohol ‘ethanol’ to the alcohol ‘octanol’ which is 7 alcohols in all as we are excluding methanol and heptanol. This will enable me to make bond energy charts for each alcohol to easily identify and illustrate the relative heat energies released. I will require the apparatus for my investigation: Spirit burners of each alcohol, 5 heatproof mats, metal stand and clamp, thermometer, can, ruler, measuring cylinder, splint and a cardboard can lid. The way I will use this apparatus to obtain reliable evidence is shown below:

Once the apparatus has been assembled as shown, fill the measuring cylinder with a specific volume of water and pour into the can. The starting temperature of the water should be recorded and the temperature it will go up to should be calculated by adding the original temperature to a temperature rise (e. g. 20i?? C + 7i?? C =27i?? C). Check that the distance between the alcohol and spirit burner and that the temperature rise is the same for every experiment. Weigh the alcohol before the experiment and then place in the shelter of the windbreakers, so it is directly underneath the can.

Light the alcohol using a lighted splint and close it in with another heatproof mat. Safety glasses must be worn as the alcohols are flammable and if some gets on your hands, they must be washed immediately in case any flame touches your hand. Also, it would be safer and less of an equipment hazard if one Bunsen burner were used. Put the cardboard lid on top of the can and the thermometer through it (punch hole in lid and slide thermometer through). After the water temperature goes up to the one decided, put out the alcohol and weigh its finishing mass.

This should be recorded. To prepare for a repeat – empty out the can and refill and change the alcohol with another of the same type. Repeat the procedure for other alcohols and take average. I have used the following to help me plan my investigation: I have used the following books to help me plan my investigation: ‘Physics for you’ by Keith Johnson. On page 37 to 39, I found out information concerning measuring heat energy, its values, specific heat capacity and a table displaying specific heat capacities of different substances.

‘Revision guide for GCSE Double Science – Physics’ where on page 67 to 68, there is information about heat transfer, evaporation, the conduction of heat and vibrating particles. ‘Chemistry for you’ by Lawrie Ryan (Revised National Curriculum Edition). On page 178 to 179, there is information regarding organic molecules such as alcohol; their structures, physical properties and homologous series. On page 182, there is information on the combustion of alcohols, a brief explanation of the combustion experiment and combustion formulas.

On page 186, which is about energy transfer, there is more detailed coverage of incomplete/complete combustion and fuels. On page 190 to 195, there are things about exothermic/endothermic reactions, what happens to the temperature during these reactions, energy level diagrams, making and breaking bonds and finally bond energy calculations.  ‘Nuffield Book of Data’ sheet has exothermic heat energies of all the alcohols combustion reactions and all the varied bond energy values.

I have done the following experiments to help plan my investigation: periment on page 191 to see what substances have endothermic or exothermic reactions. Previous practise experiment of the alcohol investigation, which helped me to find corrections for certain procedures, various precautions, tips that would produce less inaccuracy, discover key factors and how to set up the apparatus. Here is the set up of my results table as an example of what I learnt from the practise experiment.

Alcoholic beverage Essay

Alcoholic beverage Essay

The objectives of the study was to examine if consumption of alcohol affect students academic performance, to determine if consumption of alcohol promote flirting , to determine whether the consumption of alcohol lead to road accidents and also to determine whether television adverts of alcoholic beverages lead to increase consumption. The target population of the study included all students pursuing Bachelor of Science Psychology programme in the University of Cape Coast. A sample size of 79 was chosen for the study. The simple random sampling method was adopted in selecting the sample.

Questionnaire was the main instrument used to seek answers to research questions.

The collected data was analysed using frequency count and percentages. The findings show that, alcohol intake has adverse impact on students’ academic performance through absenteeism, indulgence in examination malpractices and limited study hours. Alcohol consumption make men confident and women accept proposals easily. Also drunk driving was a major cause of accident in Ghana since drunken drivers flout road traffic regulations.

It was recommended that, the Motor Traffic Transport Unit of the Ghana Police Service and the Driver Vehicle License Authority should intensify the campaign to curb drunk driving.

Drivers found guilty of drunk driving should be banned from driving or have their license withdrawn for three months. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWords alone cannot convey our profound indebtedness to our dynamic supervisor, Professor Rowland A. E. Iheanacho for his fatherly tutelage, affability, time and the invaluable support he provided in the course of this work. To just say we appreciate these individuals will be an understatement: Ms. Mary Adomah Yeboah, Mr. Patrick Duncun Reynold (TOR), Mr. Osei Yaw Boa- Korang(Twifo Praso Rural Bank), Mr. Evans K. Acheampong, and Ms. Dorothy Gabben- Mensah (UCC), Mr. Stephen Doh-Fia (Lecturer

Department of Educational Foundations). We are really grateful for every assistance you rendered to bring this work to fruition. 1 / 18 To our supportive parents,Mr. Ransford Oti Fenteng, Mr. Benjamin Asare and Ms, Rose Konamah, we say God bless you all for your prayers, care, encouragement, motivation, ideas, thoughtfulness, deeds of kindness and for every helping hand you offered in the spirit of love to make this piece a possibility. Lastly, kudos to all friends and all who contributed in diverse ways to make this work a masterpiece. DEDICATIONThis work is dedicated, with love, to our parents and siblings.


PAGEREF _Toc356649042 h 28Table 13: Do drunken pedestrians cause danger to themselves and other road users? PAGEREF _Toc356649043 h 28Table 14: Do drunk drivers like speeding? PAGEREF _Toc356649044 h 29Table 15: Drunken pedestrians do not flout road traffic regulation PAGEREF _Toc356649045 h 29Table 16: Do drunken drivers drive recklessly? PAGEREF _Toc356649046 h 30Table 17: Have you watched any alcoholic beverage advert on television before? PAGEREF _Toc356649047 h 30Table 18: Do television adverts influence you to buy the product?

PAGEREF _Toc356649048 h 31 LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: Gender PAGEREF _Toc356649237 h 20Figure 2: Age range PAGEREF _Toc356649238 h 21 CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONBackground to the study (Bovee, 1992 p. 7) defines advertising as “a non-personal communication of information usually paid for and persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by an identified sponsor”. From this definition, one can see that advertisements are placed on purpose. This is a three-tier which comprises of introducing a product, generating new customers and attempting to stimulate and sustain consumer consumption (Bovee, 1992 p. 9).

Since the invention of television, it can be classified as one of the most effective carriers of adverts due to its audio-visual qualities and captivating nature. Its effectiveness cannot be over emphasized CITATION Ebb07 l 1033 (Ebbrecht, 2007). Recently, the adverts of alcoholic beverages on almost all television stations in Ghana have been regular, persuading viewers to purchase such drinks without any recourse. There seems to be no programme on television without a brand of alcohol being a sponsor. Programmes ranging from prime-time news to live shows are all full of these types of sponsors.

The names of some drinks have become common in our various homes and every child who has the privilege of watching television can mention not less than two alcoholic beverages advertised. It is also interesting to note that, names of some alcoholic drinks even give an impression of its benefit to the consumer before they are even purchased. Example is, ‘wo ba ada anaa’ when literally translated means ‘is your child asleep’ makes people think when you drink that beverage you can be sexually active.

In Ghana majority of people who take alcoholic beverage especially, the distilled or locally manufactured ones use it as an appetizer believing that, you can eat well when it is taken the moment food is ready, though there has not been any study confirming or rejecting this assertion. This phenomenon is locally referred to as ye bu didi thus; we drink to eat, when literally translated. Many people in the country are more concerned about the rise in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, and have attributed this phenomenon to the indiscriminate adverts of alcoholic drinks in the media, especially on all the television stations in the country.

They have even speculated that, the increase in road accidents in the country is due to drunk driving. This speculation from the public was confirmed by the Ministry of Roads and Highways in June, 2009 when it issued a report on the increasing rate of road accidents in the country and pointed out drunk driving as one of the topmost causes of road accidents CITATION Myj09 l 1033 (My joy online , 2009). This led to anti drunk driving campaign where passengers were advised not to board cars of drunken drivers and to report such drivers to the police.

The MTTU branch of the Ghana police service, as one of the measures of curbing drunk driving, randomly check the breath of drivers to determine their level of alcohol intake with their equipment known as breath analyzer or drunkometer. Any driver whose level of alcohol intake exceeds certain limit is arrested for legal action.

The Food and Drugs Board (FDB) CITATION Foo05 l 1033 (Board, 2005) had also acted towards curbing this problem by directing all media houses in the country to stop the advertising of 3 / 18 all uncertified alcoholic products. Moreover, the FDB’s guidelines on alcoholic beverage adverts (FDB GL05/AD ALC/1-2005) stated that, “For every alcohol advert appearing on television, an anti-alcohol advert of equal length must be aired within half an hour of the advert promoting the alcoholic beverage”- but it seems this has been seriously violated over the years.

The 2010 Budget Statement delivered in parliament by the Minister of Finance, imposed a 10% “Ad Valorem” tax on all alcoholic products in the country. In explaining this, the Minister made it clear that the imposition of this tax on alcoholic products was not for its financial benefits to the government but rather a step towards reducing the problem of alcoholism. Pastor (Dr. )

Mensah Otabil, the General Overseer of the International Central Gospel Church (I.C. G. C. ) and the Chancellor of the Central University College is one of the persons to be alarmed at both the rate of alcoholic beverages advertisement in the media especially television and the rate of consumption. CITATION Sam03 l 1033 (Awuku, 2003) Has argued that, “If the state can spend billions of Cedis on advertisement urging the youth to keep away from drugs such as cocaine and other prohibited drugs, why can we not use a fraction of such money to warn the youth against the consumption of alcohol? ”

The above instances mean that, people are dissatisfied about the rate of television advertisement of alcoholic beverages and expect the state to regulate it, thus more specifically to treat alcoholic beverages as it does to cigarette and cocaine so that it can reduce consumption. This means that some people also believe that the state has not done enough to curb the rise in alcoholism and that the problem should be put in the same perspective as any form of drug abuse in the country. This study assesses the effect of television advertisement of alcoholic beverages on consumer behaviour.

Statement of the problem In contemporary times, television advertisement has been seen as the most effective mode of advertising because of its audio-visual qualities and captivating nature. Its effectiveness cannot be over emphasised (Ebbrecht, 2007 p. 3). A recent systematic review to assess the impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on future adolescent alcohol use identified thirteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 38,000 young people. Twelve of the thirteen studies concluded an impact of exposure on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking amongst existing drinkers, with a dose response relationship in all studies that reported such exposure and analysis.

For example, CITATION Ell05 l 1033 (Ellickson, Collins, Hambarsoomains, &amp; McCaffrey, 2005) examined the relationship between a range of advertisement exposures over the course of one year and subsequent drinking among US adolescents aged 12 to 13 years followed-up for at least two years, and assessed whether exposure to a prevention programme mitigated any such relationship. Forty eight percent of 1206 grade 7 non-drinkers consumed alcohol during the previous year at grade 9.

The results of the longitudinal studies are consistent with the findings of econometric studies, in which, for example, a meta-analysis of 132 studies which provided 322 estimated advertising elasticities, found a positive impact of advertising on consumption (coefficient, 0. 029), when controlling for alcohol price and income. The recent increase in television advert of alcoholic beverages has led to the increase in the consumption of such products.

In Ghana there is influx of adverts of alcoholic beverages on television. These indiscriminate adverts of alcoholic beverages on television have sparked public outcry over the years with some even attributing most of road accidents to such adverts as many people believe that these adverts lead to irresponsible drinking, like drunk driving.

These fears of the public gained grounds when a report released by the Ministry of Roads and Highways in June, 2009 on the increasing number of road accidents in the country at the time confirmed drunk driving (alcohol abuse) as one of the topmost causes of road accidents CITATION Myj09 l 1033 (My joy online , 2009). The situation has prompted the government to reduce the rate of consumption by imposing 10% ‘ad valorem’ tax on all alcoholic products in the 2010 budget statement presented by the Minister of Finance and Economic Planning. 4 / 18.

The proliferated television adverts of alcoholic beverages also sparked the FDB to place a ban on alcoholic beverage adverts on television in March, 2007. The Driver Vehicle License Authority (DVLA) has spelt out how drunk drivers should behave, by leaving your car at the point you got drunk and join a public transport home. Due to the aforementioned problems and interventions, it is significant for such a study to be conducted to find out the effect of television advertisement of alcoholic beverages on consumer behaviour. Objectives of the study General objectiveThe overall objective of the study was to assess the effect of television advertisement of alcoholic beverages on consumer behaviour.

Specific objectivesTo determine whether alcoholic beverage adverts leads to increase consumption. To examine if consumption of alcoholic beverages affect students academic performance. To determine if the consumption of such drinks promote to flirting. To determine how consumption of alcoholic drinks leads to road accident. Research questionsThe study poses and attempts to answer the following questions: What effect does alcohol consumption have on students’ academic performance? Does alcoholic beverage consumption promote flirting?

Does consumption alcoholic beverage lead to road accident? Does television adverts on alcoholic beverages lead to increase consumption? Significance of the study Since advertising is important to the promotion of goods and services in today’s competitive market, the implications of this study will help students to know the impact of alcoholic beverage consumption on their academic performance. The government in performing its role of formulating policies and enacting laws to regulate alcoholic beverages adverts in the country can use this document as a reference guide.

Finally, the study will be useful to researchers who will in future undertake similar study as it will serve as a source of reference. Scope of the study The scope of the study covers the theoretical and the geographical dimensions of the study. This mainly covers the concepts of advertising, alcoholic beverages and consumer behaviour. The effect of television advertisement of alcoholic beverages could be viewed from many perspectives but for the purpose of this study, it will concentrate mainly on whether advertising leads to increase consumption and consumption affect students’ academic performance, promote flirting and causes road accidents.

The geographical scope covers people in cape coast precisely University of Cape Coast students who are 18 years and above. Limitations The study is not devoid of challenges which might affect the result in one way or the other. There is the issue of time constraint since the period within which this research must be completed for submission was less than one academic year. Also, there were financial constraints because there was no financial assistance to aid in the study. This situation forced us to limit the geographical area of the study to only University of Cape Coast which forms a small part of the entire geographical area. Also the number of questionnaires to be used for the study was very few.

Organisation of study This study has been organised in five chapters. Chapter one covers various areas of the introduction which include the background to the study, the statement of the research problem, the objectives of the study, research questions, the significance of the study as well as the scope and the organization of the study. Chapter two covers the review of related studies. Chapter three is the methodology used for the study which comprises of research design, population, sample and sampling techniques or methods, data collection methods and instruments, as well as data analysis.

Chapter four covers the discussions of the findings and presentations with chapter five covering the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study. CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWIntroduction In this chapter, various literatures are reviewed to give an insight into the present study. This chapter will be written under the following sub-titles: concept of television advertising, television advertising and consumption of alcoholic beverages, alcohol and students academic performance, alcohol consumption and sexual risk 5 / 18 taking.

Concept of Television Advertising Television advertising is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization or an individual, which conveys a message, typically to market a product or service. Advertising revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. The vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes. Advertisements of this sort have been used to promote a wide variety of goods, services and ideas since the dawn of television.

(Health, 2009) asserted that, television engagement is mainly of the subconscious kind and it is effective at building strong brands, due to the low attention to television adverts, the emotional stimuli are more effective because the viewer does not notice and therefore counter-argues against them. (Unsal &amp; Yuksel, 1984) state that advertised products generally are to find more favour in consumers’ eyes than unadvertised ones. (Galbraith, 1958) examined that advertising as manipulating the public by creating artificial needs and wants. He did much to popularize the understanding of economics and society.

Aspects of advertising that received emphasis in other fields is persuasion (psychology) regulation (political science) gender, race and class (sociology, cultural studies, and culture (anthropology). (Williams, L. M, &amp; H, 2003) focus on the institutionalization and professionalization of advertising that is its commercial functions and its persuasive force. As a social critic, he locates advertising in a social context. For him, advertising belongs to a particular historical moment. It is a part of modern capitalist society, and it distinguishes it from attention- grabbing devices in non-capitalist societies in other times and places.

For Williams, advertising cannot be decoupled from the way it comes into being and the work it does in society. He drew attention to sponsorship of art in modern times. His definition said advert is the official art of capitalist society. (Diamond, July,1972) defined advertising as a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, persuade potential customers to purchase or consume that particular brand.

Commercial advertisers seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the mind of consumers. According to CITATION Dar09 l 1033 (Darrin, 2009), television depends on advertising as a way of making profit and to cover up the cost of the shows being aired. Conversely, television has been and is now a good medium for letting advertisers reach a large audience to promote and raise awareness of their products.

Despite the availability of other medium of advertising, television remains one of the most popular and cost effective avenues for reaching the advertisers goal. There are a lot of reasons behind every advert which include the following: to create awareness of the existence of a product, to persuade potential targets to buy the product, encourage the public to buy more of the product than previously, to convince the public that its product is superior to other products, create image and goodwill, building up confidence in a business, identifies a business with the goods and service it offer.

Forms of Television Advertising There are various forms which can be effectively used in advertising. Mentioned below are the various forms of television advertising. Announcement: in this form, the announcer appears before the camera and conveys the message of the product or service of the advertiser. Examples include: announcements regarding the extended date of sale, gift scheme, concession rates. Slides: this is where only the visual image of the commercial is presented through slides or cards on television, which does not have motion and sound.

This form is generally found in local and regional programmes. Here the pictures of the product being advertised appear at the bottom of the 6 / 18 television. Demonstration: this form of television advertising shows the skills through dramatised demonstration to emphasise how a particular product works. The demonstrator or announcer gives explanation on how the product is being used. Advertisements of products such as detergents and blood tonics widely use this form. Dramatized: it is the commonly used form of advertisement which is more persuasive and entertaining in nature.

Advertisements of the importance of social issues like girl child education and immunization use this form of television advertising. Animated commercial: this form of television commercial involves cartoon technique. It is more time consuming and this makes it very expensive because the cost of an advert depends on its length. For instance the advertisements on family planning used this technique. Sponsorship: this is where a sponsor (a person who purchases a given amount of broadcast time or advertising space to tell you why you should buy his or her product. There are two types of means to get the sponsorer’s message across: direct and indirect.

This form of television advertising is very common in Ghana because every programme being aired on our television station has more than one sponsor, the sponsors products are advertised once or twice during the show. Television advertising and Alcoholic Beverage Consumption. The potential underlying mechanisms for a direct link between alcohol advert portrayals and individual alcohol use are related to norm setting, habit formation and imitation. First, movies, soap operas and advertisements mostly portray substances in a positive way by using prototypes of the “ideal” person in an appealing context CITATION Eve98 l 1033 (Everett, R. L, &amp; J. L, 1998).

Similar findings have been found elsewhere, such as CITATION McC08 l 1033 (McCreano, Barnes, Borell, Kaiwai, &amp; Gregory, 2008) who interviewed youth and found that alcohol advertising was often enjoyed. These advertisements established a climate or association that alcohol is cool, exciting and fun. CITATION McC08 l 1033 (McCreano, Barnes, Borell, Kaiwai, &amp; Gregory, 2008) concluded that alcohol advertising creates an environment which maintains unhealthy expectations, norms and behaviours around alcohol consumption.

Secondly, when people associate a specific cue or event to a specific behavioural pattern, example, watching an advert where the intake of alcohol led to admired behaviour like bravery. In essence, the alcohol cues imbedded in this specific context might lead to direct responses thus craving and subsequent alcohol use, especially when this link becomes automatic.

Also, alcohol cues in adverts and watching characters consuming alcohol on screen might lead to drinking through the mechanism of imitation. (Quigley &amp; Collins, 1999) conducted a study which strongly supported the assumption that when people are in company of a drinker, the drinking pace of the other affects individual drinking rates. According to (Quigley &amp; Collins, 1999) there are at least two reasons why this effect occurs: direct imitation and identification.

There is a great deal of evidence from neuroscience and psychology showing that people automatically and unconsciously are wired to take over each other’s behaviour. When we observe someone perform a certain action, the pre–motor representation of that action is activated in our brains as we are about to perform that action ourselves. The presentation of alcohol in the media has received both scrutiny and criticism.

As a result of this, researchers begun to explore the effect of such adverts on consumption. Correlation study indicates that media exposure is associated with the attitudes, perceptions and behavior of young people. A study conducted by (Turker, 1985), involving high school males indicated that viewers who watched a great deal of television had significantly higher levels of alcohol use per month than did viewers who watched comparatively less television. (McCreano, Barnes, Borell, Kaiwai, &amp; Gregory, 2008) also conducted a study to find the link between television viewing and alcohol consumption.

The study followed participants over several years. Respondents were queried about their television viewing habits at ages thirteen and fifteen and their alcohol consumption at age eighteen. They found that, the more television the female subjects watched overall at ages thirteen 7 / 18 and fifteen, the greater were their reported alcohol beverage consumption at age eighteen. For males there was no significant relationship between viewing at ages thirteen and fifteen and consumption at age eighteen.

(Grube &amp; Wallack, 1994) interviewed fifth and sixth grade students about their awareness of alcohol advertising and their perceptions, attitudes, and behavioural intentions regarding alcohol consumption. They reported that the more aware students were of alcohol advertisements, the more positive their beliefs about alcohol drinking. More positive beliefs about alcohol were associated with indications of likelihood to drink as an adult. Alcohol and students’ academic performance Cognitive and learning impairments from chronic heavy exposure to alcohol can arise from the neuro-toxic effects of ethanol on vulnerable hippocampus and limbic structures.

Research findings from animal models and observational human studies have shown that persistent alcohol abuse can result in a decrease in the overall volume of the hippocampus, the area responsible for long term learning and memory. Cell volumes have been found to be consistently smaller in alcohol abusing adolescents and, perhaps unsurprisingly, the degree of hippocampal damage increases with the number of years of alcohol abuse. In one observational research study cited by CITATION Zei05 l 1033 (Zeigler, C. C, Yoast, B. D, &amp; McCaffree, 2005) 38 adolescent alcohol abusers were compared with 69 non alcohol users on neuropsychological tests.

The former scored consistently less well in verbal IQ, spelling and reading tests compared to the latter CITATION Lov04 l 1033 (Loveland- Cherry, 2005) reports that school attachment and receiving good grades have been associated with less adolescent alcohol use, while absenteeism and poor grades are associated with early initiation and increased levels of alcohol use. CITATION Per02 l 1033 (Perkins, 2002) found that male students who drank more than 5 drinks, and female students that drank more than 4 drinks, in a session one or two times in a 2 week period were over three times more likely to report getting behind in school work compared with more moderate drinkers.

When the drinking frequency increased to 3 times in a 2 week period, they were more than eight times more likely to report this problem. CITATION Ber87 l 1033 (Berkowitz &amp; Perkins, 1987) found that women students were as likely as men to experience impaired academic performance due to alcohol. Most reviews which looked at educational performance related to American college students and the majority evidence points to the fact that the association between academic performance and college drinking is inconclusive. A number of reviews have discussed the methodological limitations of studies that investigate the relationship between alcohol and academic performance.

Much of the cited evidence for a relationship comes from cross sectional studies which cannot ascribe a causal link. However, there is emerging evidence from longitudinal studies which suggests that binge drinking may impair academic performance over time. Nevertheless, it is noted that most college students who drink go on to lead successful lives. Indeed CITATION Gil02 l 1033 (Gill, 2002) argues that alcohol may be a scapegoat for other factors that may limit poor academic performance.

CITATION Roy11 l 1033 (Royce, 2011) in United States argued that the amount of alcohol consumed by students correlate with their grade point average. Thus, there is a negative relationship between alcohol consumption and students academic performance, as the more alcoholic beverage taken by students, the lesser time available for studies or academic work. CITATION Wil03 l 1033 (Williams, L. M, &amp; H, 2003) .

Drinking Age Dialectic Essay

Drinking Age Dialectic Essay

Everyone should be able to go to social organizations for the community or school. Sometimes not everyone can attend though because of alcohol being served. Teens enjoy going to see their favourite bands play when they come near by. Some are held in bars which limit the people who can go. Lowering the drinking age to 18 would open up safer and monitored drinking locations for those teens. The Sask. Party should recognize that a lot of good can come out of lowering it rather then all the drinking and driving aspects of it.

It is moral and ethical to consider lowering the drinking age. This is not an argument of, ‘Should 18-year-olds be drinking?’ This is an argument of, ‘Should 18-year-olds be drinking legally?’ That is the fundamentally difference. One of the highest rates of impaired driving is among younger adults because they don’t think of the consequences. Even the best crafted law can only be applied after it’s been broken.

If the drinking age does go through that does not mean there will be any less accidents or anymore accidents, people are going to drink and drive whether they can legally drink or not.

It is immoral and unethical to consider lowering the drinking age. Saskatchewan already has one of the highest impaired driving rates in the country. There is understandable concern about a potential increase in impaired driving. Politicians have wrestled with the appropriate drinking age for decades. With the drinking age possibly going down is raises worry with drinking and driving.

This is not an argument of, ‘Should 18-year-olds be drinking?’ This is an argument of, ‘Should 18-year-olds be drinking legally?’ That is the fundamentally difference. Nathan Sgrazzutti spoke in favour of lowering the drinking age because it would improve student safety and increase the number of major events students could attend. Generally, first year students are 18 and excluded from attending many student union-organization events because they typically include alcohol. Should students be able to drink in an establishment where there are bounces to protect them and bartenders to cut them off when they’ve had too much or drink at home where they can get blackout drunk with no one around to pass out in their own vomit which is dangerous. It would be better for 18-year-olds to drink at a safe place and be able to attend more school functions that may have not of been able to before.

One of the highest rates of impaired driving is among younger adults because they don’t think of the consequences. If the drinking age gets lowered the main purpose would be to ensure that people who are drinking – no matter the age – find a safe ride home. “Our focus – regardless of the legal drinking age – is make sure people aren’t drinking and driving,” said Rebecca Schultz, SGI’s manager of media relations. If today’s youth want to drink, they are going to find a way to get alcohol, check out Facebook and you will see plenty of teenagers posing in groups holding up their Red Solo cups. Teens and young adults are going to drink no matter what making sure they have a safe ride is something that does matter though.

Politicians have wrestled with the appropriate drinking age for decades. Eighteen-year-olds who can’t legally drink need to only cross an imaginary line to enter a jurisdiction where it is legal for them to drink. Lowering the drinking age will likely reduce underage drinking rates since the novelty and thrill of drinking when it’s prohibited will wear off. At 18 one is considered an adult, able to vote, purchase tobacco and lottery tickets but not alcohol. If at 18 you are considered an adult you should be able to drink in all provinces not just some when all you have to do is go on a trip to go and drink legally.

Saskatchewan already has one of the highest impaired driving rates in the country. Drinking and driving is most common among young people ages 18-25. According to SGI, there were 1 284 alcohol-related collisions in 2011, 59 of those involved where 18 and 66 where 19. SGI says alcohol is the No. 1 contributing factors to fatal collisions in the province. If alcohol is a big deal in fatal collisions we should start thinking about raising it not lowering the drinking age.

There is understandable concern about a potential increase in impaired driving. After a record low of 46 deaths in 2005, 2006 and 2007 alcohol related fatalities have since risen. Over last Christmas and New Year, three people died and 64 were injured in alcohol related collisions. Statistics show that impaired driving charged had jumped nearly three-fold on year after the drinking age slipped to 18 years ago. If impaired driving causes so many deaths we should stricken the laws and leave the drinking age.

Politicians have wrestled with the appropriate drinking age for decades. Until 1969, when it was lowered to 19, the legal drinking age in Saskatchewan was 21. 36 years ago when a majority of the Saskatchewan MLA’s in a free vote opted a to nudge up the age to which people could legally drink in the province to 19 from 18. Many of the same arguments bubble up again except this time its about lowering it from 19 to 18. Every province should have the same drinking age and stick with it instead of always changing them.

What if my child could legally drink at eighteen? Making sure they had a safe ride home even if it meant calling to ask for one would be a main priority. I know they are going to drink anyways whether it is legal for them to do it or not. I would feel better knowing that they are at a bar where there are people to monitor them then at a party where people do not care. If my child is going to drink I would sooner it be legal for them to do so they are not sneaking around where no one knows where they are.

What if every was able to legally drink? If everyone was able to drink places would be ciaos and full of alcoholics. You would need to stricken the drinking and driving laws to prevent collisions. It would create more jobs as the demand for alcohol would be higher. If everyone drank life would take a turn for the worse but there is also no harm in lowering it one year.

With all these points the Saskatchewan Party will have to take a long hard look towards lowering the drinking age to 18. The Sask. Party government should look into how other provinces try to prevent impaired driving collisions. Drinking and driving is going to occur no matter what the legal drinking age is. Teens are finding ways to drink now and will continue to find ways if the drinking age stays the same. No one really knows the appropriate drinking age or will they ever know if nothing ever changes. Sometimes change can be for the better and people are mature enough to deal with it and other times it turns out bad but you can’t find out what will really happen by looking at statistics and predicting what is going to happen.