Categories for Advertising

The Impact of Advertising on Customer Satisfaction Essay

The Impact of Advertising on Customer Satisfaction Essay


Mobile technology introduced in 1957 after introduction of first fully automatic mobile phone. Prince Philip was the first consumer to use mobile phone in his car in 1957.He uses that phone to talk with Queen while he was away on the road. Those days mobile technology has considered high end luxury even Dukes not allowed to use mobile, but now trends has changed completely , mobile phone considered as necessity of life. It is now using to communicate and keep in touch.

(UK Telephone History 2010)

In Sri lanka Luxembourg based Millicom International cellular was first company to introduce and launch its services in Early 1990s called Celltel, later in 2007 its rebranded as Tigo .Current Etisalat is exist after acquisition of Tigo by Etisalat UAE in 2010.Those days mobiles was used by higher market segment , only Business executives and well paid employees afford to talk using mobiles. Later in 1993 introduction of digital based mobile system by Dialog (Axiata Telecom) Malaysian based mobile phone company ,which provides more secured and clear services than previous analog mobile phones with Sms ( Short Message service) under GSM technology using 2G and 2.

5G. In 2004 Mobitel (Subsidiary of Sri lanka telecom)was launched and later introduced first ever 3G services not only in Sri lanka in whole south Asia which ranks Sri lanka first country to launch 3G services, Study Back Ground:

Mobile Phone technology in Sri Lanka has grown tremendously during last few years. currently in 2013 all five operators providing 3G coverage almost in every main district with claiming of 70 percent area covered with 3G.Mobile technology in Sri Lanka provides wireless voice and data service at very affordable price. It eases day to day business and personal contact around the Island, with 5 operators and thousands of communication towers, now communication can be done easily from any remote village of Sri lankasuch as Batticolla or Metropolitan city such as Colombo and Galle. Now everyday millions of people making billions of calls and using tons of data service by using telecom operators multimillion dollar infrastructure and giving out revenue to operators in return.( International telecommunication union ITU, 2013)

Due to high competition from five operators and heavy tax imposed on imported mobile phones, GSM subscribers market in Sri lanka is highly saturated. Mobile market in Sri Lanka was running with less growth rate during last few years, In 2012 mobile penetration rate reached 91% with Dailog Axiata sharing the large slice of 7 million customers around 40 percent of total mobile subscribers followed by Etisalat Sri Lanka and Mobitel with 20 percent of market share each operator with more than 4 million subscribers and than Comes Hutch Sri Lanka and Airtel with less than 15 percent of market share with less customer satisfaction and poor coverage.( International telecommunication union ITU, 2013) Each mobile operator looking for more subscribers and increase market share claims best coverage with huge advertisement on mass media. Customer satisfaction is the main target for these operators and by personalized paid advertising and PR they are on the way to create more customer satisfaction.

Table 1- Number of Sri Lankan Mobile Subscribers in Millions

Figure 1, Fixed lines and mobile market Growth in Sri lanka
Study Area:
Hutch Telecom:

Hutch Sri Lanka is a mobile operator in Sri Lanka under subsidiary of Hutchison Hong Kong Based Mobile operator. Hutchison telecom not only mobile service provider in Sri lanka they are also providing voice and data 3G services and operating currently around 10 countries worldwide including far east countries Indonesia and Australia , in Europe they are in Italy, Sewden, Denmark, Austria, Ireland and United Kingdom.It was launched in 2004 with the mission of Island wide coverage in a near future. Now Hutch cover more than 70 % Island wide coverage approximately, It claims first operator in Sri Lanka who offers most district covers all around Sri Lanka under 3G coverage. Hutch Sri Lanka provide voice and data service to 1 Million Subscribers around the Island ( After its launch hutch Sri lanka spends up to 71 million Hong Kong dollars in network expansion and advertising including improving infrastructure and increase number of communication towers for best coverage, apart from that huge amount also spend on media promotion and advertising including TV commercials and billboards on streets.(Hutch lose its Customer 2008)

Figure 1: Hutch Advertising Claim about 3G coverage

Figure2 : Hutch Voice And 3G Coverage

Hutch Sri Lanka advertisement:

Hutch Sri Lanka like other players invest millions of Sri Lankan rupees in advertising , in which they play jingles to attract its customers and increase their satisfaction in brand. Among other ads Kiyanaa Kiyanna ( say it) was the first TV commercial of Hutch Sri Lanka , which get much attention due to story of interest in 30 second paid commercial. Famous Sri Lankan cricketer Kumar Sangakkara also earlier attached with Hutch Sri Lanka as a brand ambassador to Hutch for three consecutive years from “2005 to 2008” in which he quotes about Hutch “Between July 2005 and August 2008 I had a contract with Hutch only. I enjoyed my three years working with Hutch and the relationship was mutually beneficial”. (Island Cricket 2005)

Public Relation activities:

Hutch Sri Lanka also besides paid advertising also involves in PR Public Relation activities to satisfy its consumers and create positive image among its consumers in which employee blood donation get much media attention. In this campaign hutch employees donate their blood to Sri Lanka National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) and mention about advantages of blood donation in society in which Hutch Sri Lanka encourage others to donate their blood often to saves life.( Hutch saves life 2010)

Least Customer Satisfaction:

Hutch telecom Sri Lanka still didn’t achieve its target of 1 million subscribers, currently it comprises last number in customer satisfaction ranking with little subscribers.In 2010 after launch of Etisalat Lanka and Airtel bharti limited .Hutch current ranking comes at number 5 in last among its competitors operators. Hutch Sri Lanka has better infrastructure and quality of service but lack of marketing personals and wrong choice of advertisement media its reputation is going down day by day. Sri Lankan consumers not willing to use its services due to less number of subscribers which force them to pay levy in order to call their family and friends through Hutch Sri Lana to other operators or non hutch numbers.


It’s communication tower coverage almost throughout all Sri Lanka. Fast Internet speed through 3G technology with maximum coverage area covered with 3G compared with competitors, such as Jaffna first covered by 3G by Hutch Sri Lanka.


Less brand exposure among its consumers
Low or weak signal coverage in remote areas.

Hutch couple sim, which allow call between two numbers at very cheap rate, unique service by hutch Sri Lanka Lowest IDD call rates which attract new customers

Declining in number of subscribers due to poor coverage
Mobile market is saturated due to five competitors in Market.

Research Objectives and Research Questions:

The topic under consideration is “The impact of Advertising on customer Satisfaction with special reference to Hutch Sri Lanka”. Research Objectives:
The objective of this research is to critically analyze least customer satisfaction issue facing by hutch Sri Lanka which pushes back Hutch Sri Lanka at last position in subscribers ranking. Hutch telecom has a potential to get more subscribers through correct advertising with correct selection of advertising media.

The following are the main objectives of the research:
1-To study the concept of advertising
2-To Study the concept of Customer Satisfaction
3-To analyze the Relationship between Advertising and customer Satisfaction

Research Question:
1-What is advertising?
2-What is the customer satisfaction?
3-What is the relation between Advertising and Customer Satisfaction?

Literature Review:

Advertising is the non personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media” (Bovee/Arens, 1992, p7).(Deborah F. Spake M Joseph 2009)advertising is one most fast growing industry in USA and direct to consumer effective advertising has change the way of advertising industry in USA, where consumers demand is monitor before placing of advertisement, this type of advertising is mostly done by pharmaceutical companies.

(P Nelson 1974) Advertising delivers the information of product attribute plus message to the target audience on selected media. Advertiser’s priority is to create sales through his message. Often more sales can be achieved by heavy bombardment of seller’s message through traditional and mass media. Any trustworthy and honest information deliver to consumer generate more sales and brand equity.(Julie A. Edell M Chapman 1987) Consumers feeling about any paid advertising create a lot of affect on sales. If advertiser convey the message which create positive feeling in consumer mindset than convincing potential consumer becomes easy else negative feeling creates negative effect. (Charles H Patti 1997)

When same seed is cultivated in two different fields with different production of crops or fertility rate even under same climate , one field with more average fertility rate will always give more crops compare with other field. Same case apply in advertising if quality efforts are applied on two different product in which one is high advertisement opportunities and while other is low than revenue generated and sales will differs from each other. He further elaborated that advertising spend should be high only on those products in which product life cycle stage not reach its maturity state. Advertise product and service should be have some uniqueness among its competitors and there f should be large size of potential consumer in that geographical area where product to be advertised.(Robert J L Gary A 1961)

In changing environment advertising purpose is to create sales , advertisers put their product or service on advertise to create sales in steps, in which in first is just share information about the product information and create awareness of the product after the launch than second step which comes after some period of time is an extreme buy now ad , design to create immediate sales. (Nikolaos K P1989) The current involvement in advertising consumer products is the Attributes of Advertising message has put great impact on consumer in decision making process.

If advertising message firmly designed and expose to mind of consumer than it went to long term memory of target consumer, such as “Jingle song of brand during advertising” which create positive affect to change target customer into prospect customers.Advertising is the main source of marketers to introduce their product and services in any geographical market. Electronic media has much considerable progress to help marketers to advertise their products at reasonable cost. Advertisement message reach millions of potential customers which help organization to grow its business and create more revenue.

Customer Satisfaction:

Any person who spend his income to get good or services through any organization is called as customer or a customer is a person who does the buying of the products and the consumer is the person who ultimately consumes the product (Solomon, 2009, p.34.) Any costumer can be pleased, unhappy or reject the product offered by advertiser, sales person or particular branded organization if its attributes does not match with its requirement and demands. Customer satisfaction definition is defined by (Tse & Wilson , 1998, p 204 ) consumer after purchase decision to judge the quality of product totally depend on consumer choice (Fornell, 1992, p.11) After cash transaction and receiving of product , customer satisfaction can be called as post choice evaluation judgment of the consumer after consume the product at very first time(Oliver,1980)

According to Schiffman & Karun (2004) Any individual consumer feel and look about any particular products or service which he/she judge his expectation after buying the product. Customer satisfaction is also described as the result of human feeling, Marketers in order to measure level of customer satisfaction they have to measure feeling of their customers after buying their product.(Levy,p.6;NBRI,2009). Levy (2009, p.6) mention three type of criteria to measure customer satisfaction 1- Through survey among current consumer of particular product or service in which feedback can be collected to measure customer level of customer satisfaction. 2- Through focus group discussion in which expert moderator can decide the level of costumer satisfaction after discussion with consumers. 3- Reading blogs and direct contact with customers.

Satisfied customer is customer who repeats purchase of the product and also refers helps organization to get more customers by words of mouth. Customer satisfaction increases the business of organization, where dissatisfied customer puts negative effect on company image and brand. Relationship between advertising and Customer Satisfaction:

Marketers spends millions of dollar every year in advertising budget to create favorable image of their brand, satisfy them and drive them to purchase. satisfaction makes advertising more affected as satisfied customers pay more attention in advertising of product whom they satisfies after previous purchase(E W Anderson 1994) Advertising creates a certain type of feeling in consumer mind which leads to consumer satisfaction of that particular brand in consumer mind.(Ew Anderson 1993) .Customer satisfaction are more essential aspect in any trade as at the end , customer is always the king because they create revenue for the organization.

Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction have direct impact on profit of any organization.(Naresh K Malhotra 2007) 2nd edition Marketing research p 92-107.Advertisers should understand the consumer behavior before start work on any advertising campaign, as advertising only be effective and satisfy its consumer if its design to get attention of target market by touch the internal emotion of consumer.(Gustav puth.P Mostert 1999)) Journal of product and brand management, consumers perception of mentioned product and brand attribute in magazine advertising.)


Anderson, E.W,& Sulivan m.W (1993) “ The Antecedents and consequences of Customer Satisfaction for firms”, Marketing science 2, 2 ( spring), pp 125-143
Anderson, E.W,Fornell, C, Lehmann, DR (1994) “ Customer Satisfaction Market share and profitability: Findings from Sweden, Journal of Marketing, 58, 53-66 Bovee, C.l and Arens, W.F, (1992), Contemporary advertising, 4th ed,, Richard P,Irwin Inc,, Homewood,IL. Deborah F Spake, Mathew Joseph, R Zachary Finney. (2009). Journal of Medical Marketing “Consumer opinion and effectiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising” 21-28 Dr Charles H Patti 1997, University of Sheffield “Evaluating the role of advertising” 32-35 Fornell,. (1992). “A National Customer Satisfaction barometer: The Swedish Expereience.”Journal of Marketing, 56, 6-21 Julie A and Marian Chapman Burke (1987), “The power of feelings in understanding advertising effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (December), 412-433 Lavidge, Robert J. and Gary A. Steiner. 1961. A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing. 25(October), 59-62. Micheal.R Solomon (2009).Consumer behaviour, buying having and being, 8th edition, Pearson education, inc Naresh K Malhotra 2007 “ A critical view of marketing research of diffusion of new products” 2nd edition Marketing research 92-107. Nikolaos K. Papavassiliou, (1989) “The Involvement Model in Advertising Consumer Products Abroad”, European Journal of Marketing, 23 ,1 Oliver,Richard L.1980 “A Cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.” Journal of Makreting research 17 (September):p 460-469 Phillip Nelson 1974, Journal of economy University of Chicago “Advertising as Information” 1 , 2-5 Puth, G, Mostert, P, & Ewing, M (1999) Consumer perceptions of mentioned product attributes in magazine advertising. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 8 , – 61-72 Schiffman,L.G and LazarKanuk, L.(2004) Consumer Behaviour. 8th edition. New Jersy Pearson Education Inc, Upper Saddle RiverTitus Tse, David K, &
Petter, C. Wilton. (1998). Models of Consumer satisfaction: An Extension Journal of Marketing Research, 25 .204-212 UK telephone history (2010) British telephone history [online] available from<> [10th January 2013]

Hutch staff blood Donation (2010) Hutch staff join save a life [online] available From <> [4th January 2013]

International telecommunication union ITU, (2013) Facts and figure Sri Lanka mobile telecom [online] available From <> [6th January 2013]
NBRI (2009) Customer Survey White paper:
[online] available From <> [November 27th, 2012)
Hutch Lose its Customer (2008) Lanka Business Online report [online] available From <> [5th December2012]

Piet Levy, (2009,),Advertising and Customer Satisfaction [Online] available From <> [November 5th, 2012)

Island Cricket 2005, Sangakkara Quits Hutch [online] available From <> [November 22th 2012)
Figure 1, Fixed lines and mobile market Growth in Sri lanka
[online] available from<> [5th January 2013]
Figure 2, Hutch Voice and Data coverage across Island ,
[Onlimne] Available from <> [2nd January 2013]

Figure 3:, Hutch Advertising Claim about 3G Coverage
[online] Available from <>[ 2nd January 2013] Tables
* Table 1-
* Number of Sri Lankan Mobile Subscribers in Millions

Aquarius Case Analysis Essay

Aquarius Case Analysis Essay

1) Analyze Aquarius in terms of the five contextual variables: * Goals: Aquarius has realized a huge problem in regards to the rapid turnover of their major accounts. An agency reorganization would be a realistic goal in changing their competitive techniques. This reorganization might be able to set them apart from the other agencies by reducing their response time and increasing the communication between the different departments to boost efficiency. * Culture: In my opinion I believe that Aquarius has a very low and undefined organizational culture.

It seems like the employees are all looking out for themselves and trying to get ahead of everyone else. These values although unwritten provide the glue to having everyone on the same page and are absolutely essential in providing clients with top of the line work. * Size: Since Aquarius is a mid-sized firm with various specialists on the professional staff of the operations and marketing divisions I would say they have anywhere from 1000-1500 employees. With this many employees it is critical to have effective communication between the different departments.

This would in turn increase flexibility in this unpredictable environment.

* Environment: Changes in the environment is the main reason why the agency is considering the need for reorganization. It is typical for advertising agencies to gain/lose clients quickly, this is why is it so essential to have everyone in the organization effectively communicating with each other in order to satisfy their clients and reduce turnover. * Technology: Aquarius has a number of different specialists on their team that work together in assisting their clients, but there is always room for improvement in regards to better communication. It would seem to me that Aquarius would have a number of different programs and internet sites to assist them achieving their services.

2) A new organizational structure that takes into consideration the contextual variables in the case and the information flows is the divisional structure. This structure is suited to fast change in an unstable environment and provides high product or service visibility. A major problem that occurs in Aquarius is that each client account is coordinated by an account executive who acts as a liaison between the client and various specialists. Unfortunately this isn’t followed because sometimes the account executives don’t even know what is going on until a week later.

The divisional structure leads to customer satisfaction because product responsibility and contact points are clear. This in turn involves high coordination across functions which will make everyone check with the executive first to get approval before contacting the client. Coordination across functions will allow their services to adapt to the requirements of the individual clients and perform beyond their expectations. This structure would allow Aquarius to achieve their goals while increasing their organizational culture as a whole and being able to adapt more quickly to this unstable environment.

3) Would a matrix structure be feasible for Aquarius? I my opinion I believe that a balanced matrix structure would be hard to implement and maintain. This is due to the fact that account executives as one side of the authority structure would often dominate over the specialists. In order for the account executive to do their job correctly they need everyone on their side and in coordination to run important information by them first.

Perhaps a better alternative would be a product matrix where the executives have primary authority and the specialists assign technical personal to the projects and provide advisory expertise as needed. With dual authority I feel that it would be frustrating and confusing for everyone, there needs to be a clear contact points. There would always be a need for frequent meetings to resolve any conflicts between the different authorities, it would simply just require to great of an effort to maintain the power balance.

How advertisement effects people’s lives Essay

How advertisement effects people’s lives Essay

As Americans we are exposed to advertisements everyday. People are pressured from every direction by advertisements which exploit their deepest fears, attractions, needs, and desires, shaping their behaviors, goals, and thoughts. They are led into believing false information and promises that are mostly never kept, all for the simple reason of selling the product and making profit. We see advertisements everywhere–in magazines and newspapers, on the radio, on TV, online, in the mail, even over the phone.

These advertisements use the basic ideas of either providing an elite status with the possession of the product, or giving a sense of belonging to a group or community.

Since the recent military activity in Iraq and Afghanistan, another ever present idea has been made prominent and that is using patriotism to evoke people’s desires. Americans are persuaded into buying unnecessary items everyday; however, we need to realize that no matter what advertisements say we should purchase items for their usefulness, not to fill voids in our lives, so we can help eliminate the problem we face today of being a materialistic society.

The patriotic theme affecting people’s hearts, minds and senses, is commonly used to manipulate them into buying things. Since everyone has love for their country, using it to sell products is a brilliant idea, but I believe this is a bad practice. It makes people believe they are not ideal Americans, nor are they similar to the people around them if they do not buy that product. The Palmolive advertisement, in Seeing and Writing 2, is a key example, it appeals to the wives of the men at war in World War II (417). On the top of this advertisement there are three medals which contain picture of three different men in their uniforms and the words “For Him” appear next to each picture.

In the lower part of the advertisement there is a woman looking up at these medals and above her head are the words, “I pledge myself to guard every bit of Beauty that he cherishes in me”, and finally in the background there are several faces of women also looking towards the medals. This advertisement is basically communicating to the wives the idea of guarding their beauty, by using this soap, just like their husbands are guarding their country. The ironic fact is that soap cannot make someone beautiful, nor do people lose their beauty if they do not use the correct brand of soap. This advertisement is connecting a heroic and patriotic act to one used for mere beauty, in order to sell the soap.

The Palmolive advertisement was run in 1943, but a more current advertisement which uses similar attributes is Chevrolet and its slogan for its recent line of cars, “An American Revolution.” This slogan is always placed on a blue sky background and the writing is in bold white letters, except for the “E” in “Revolution”, this letter is written in red ink. So when you come across this slogan, not only does the slogan sound patriotic to you, it also appears to be patriotic because it incorporates the red, the white and the blue.

This phrase says to its audience that every American is buying and driving a Chevy car and so should they. Another detail that could be interpreted out of this advertisement is that since the U.S. is currently at war and fighting a revolution against terrorism, a person living in the U.S. can participate in this patriotic revolution by purchasing a Chevrolet. This would be true only if Chevrolet was funding the war, instead of the US government.

Along with this, another advertisement that exploits this concept was the Netzero advertisement run during the time before the elections. In this advertisement the spokesman was running for President under the alias of Candidate Zero. His main goal was to provide cheaper and faster internet to every family and household. In order to get people’s attention, this clever idea was used, and it certainly worked on people like me. Viewers could also connect the advertisement with the actual presidential race and that way the product of the advertisement was stuck in their conscious awareness. The whole patriotic theme is strange because the connection between patriotism and the product does not make the product function better, so why do we feel obligated to pay attention to the advertisement and even purchase that product.

Along with patriotism another concept used widely is the elitism the product brings to people with its possession. As Jack Solomon wrote in his essay Masters of Desire, “We Americans dream of rising about the crowd, of attaining a social summit beyond the reach of ordinary citizens” (1). He is basically saying that Americans want to be better then the people around them and this belief is what marketers feast on, creating status symbols like Rolex, Mercedes, BMW, etc. One advertisement that crosses my mind in terms of using elitism would be the new U2 iPod Special Edition advertisement. This promotes an iPod with a black cover and laser engraved signatures of the U2 band members; everything else is similar to a regular iPod; whereas, the price is $50 more. People are led into believing that the U2 iPod is better than the regular one only because it is endorsed by U2.

Another ironic detail is that a normal iPod itself is a product of elitism, because even though it has similar functions to a Sony or any other MP3 player, it costs $100 more only because it comes with the signature white headphones. These headphones, unique only because an iPod come equipped with them, have made themselves and the iPod a status symbol. Most people only buy an iPod because they want the headphones to show the illusion of superiority and uniqueness. Solomon says, “The explanation is quite simple: when an object (or puppy!) either costs a lot of money or requires influential connections to possess, anyone who possesses it must also possess the necessary means of influence to acquire it” (3). This explains why the white headphones have made the iPod a status symbol, since its shows possession of an expensive item, even though rationally speaking the color of the headphones does not make the iPod function better, they only make it different.

Solomon also talks about another part of the American Dream, in which belonging to a group is important. The Chevrolet slogan connects us to the entire American population; the iPod connects us to other owners of an iPod, and so on. We need a sense of connection and belonging, fulfilling our need for attention and affection. Abraham Maslow, a founder of humanistic psychology, created a triangle in which he placed a person’s needs in the order they needed to be fulfilled and the need for love and belonging was the third basic need. Disillusioned by the advertisements, people try to fulfill this need by buying the products. This proves that using this theme advertisers are able to affect the person on much deeper levels then recognizable, yet by no means does the product itself become more useful.

It is understandable that advertisers need to appeal to people in order to sell their product and that is why they use these tactics, but what is not understandable is while knowing the truth people believe the hoaxes and let advertisements dictate what they are going to buy. People need to realize that products should not be used to fulfill our weaknesses; they should be consumed based on our needs, because companies will keep manufacturing status symbols until we accept that products and items are only materialistic and we can never attain all the luxury items around us. We are scammed into buying false promises everyday, after we realize that we have a choice against it, we can choose not to let advertisements or minor details about the product like the endorsements, or the color of headphones, or the catchy slogan persuade us into buying a certain item.

Role of Public Relations in the Re Establishment of Failing Barands Essay

Role of Public Relations in the Re Establishment of Failing Barands Essay

These regions later set up their private stations pioneered by the West, at Ibadan, prior to independence. In 1960 and 1962 respectively, Enugu and Kaduna followed suit. And with the creation of more regions by the General Yakubu Gowon (rtd) administration and creation of more states by both Alhaji Shehu Shagari and Ibrahim Babangida regimes, more state government-owned television and radio stations were established. Daily Times, Express, Tribune, New Nigeria and Sketch were among the fore-runners in newspaper publishing. Some state governments also published 15 ewspapers that addressed their local audience.

Two major magazines- Drum and Spear from Daily Times stable were also at the time published. Between the early 1960’s and 1970, there was no spectacular development in the industry. But the promulgation of Nigeria Enterprises as promotion Decree of 1972 popularly known as Indigenization policy ushered in a new phase in the industry. The policy transformed key positions in corporate organisations to indigenes. Mr Silvester, Muoemeka was by the dictates of the policy to emerge the first indigenous chief executive of Lintas.

Lintas further empowered more Nigerians to take up the business of advertising some of whom had to leave broadcasting to embrace the new thinking. By the later 1970’s however, two ambitious agencies, Rosabel Advertising and Insight Communication, sprang up. The coming of the two agencies which till today are still doing very well, no doubt, was a watershed in the industry of advertising in Nigeria as the agencies brought new ideas into the industry while taking creativity to a higher. Before the turn of the decade, 23 agencies had been formed.

With the steady growth in the number of practitioners and agencies arose the need for associations to be formed to advance their common interests and a regulatory body to that would regulate and standardize advertising practice. A 16 meeting of the agencies held at Ebute Metta, Lagos in 1971 was to metamorphose into Association of Advertising Practitioners of Nigeria (AAPN) with the objective of protecting practitioners against unfavourable business. The association was later renamed Association of Advertising Agencies of Nigeria.

As the industry continued to grow in volume of business and complexity, more and more people were attracted to the industry. The need to establish an institution to regulate advertising practice became apparent. This gave rise to the establishment of Advertising Parishioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) by Decree 55 of 1988, later renamed Act 55 of 1988 by the civilian administration on November 1989, the first meeting of the association held somewhere in Ebute-meta, Lagos finally culminated to the birth of APCON. APCON started operation in 1990 with the employment of the pioneer registrar in the person of Dr Charles Okigbo.

The era of economic restructuring and liberalization opened up the Nigerian business to global economy. Foreign investments started flowing into the economy the expatriates who once left the shores of the land due to the indigenization policy gradually returned. And with them, the boom in economy. Aside, privatization of mass communication medium in the 1990’s also witnessed the setting up of private owned media houses which are platforms for advertisement placements. “But in the 1990’s the sector came alive. Not only that alarming and ambitions agencies such as Prima Garnet, Sotu and Caesers sprang up, the sector began to 17 xpand beyond advertising as full services public relation firms such as the Quadrant JSP and Quest were established. Also the era witnessed the mad rush of foreign affiliations. While some agencies sought this affiliation to help boost their human capital, others just joined the bandwagon just to feel among. ” As the business expanded, related services providers joined the fray to cash in on the boom. Not long after they formed themselves into association to also further heir cause and protect their interest. Media Independent Practitioners Association of Nigeria (ADVAN), outdoor Advertising Association of Nigeria (OAAN) emerged.

Not long the industry became an all corners affairs. Competition became very stiff and practitioners started adopting unwholesome means to undercut one another. Industry debt became a major issue to the extent that it attracted the attention of past federal government who encouraged the practitioners to find a way of resolving the perennial problem. Just as competition continued to get stiff, agencies did not rest on their oars as they embarked on training of their staff that will be able to meet the challenge of modern day advertising. As creativity took centre stage, the industry witnessed a lot of innovation and creative ideas.

The foreigners who started coming back brought with them standard and professional which changed the advertising landscape. Restructuring, training and brand building and creativity have taken centre stage. 18 Today, Nigerian advertising industry is making efforts to ensure that they measured up to global industry practice. Affiliations also avails them of technical know-how in the areas of creativity and training. From deploying foreign adverts, the industry has grown to shooting their adverts locally and injecting a lot of local content in their campaigns. . 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This research would critically consider three different theories that are relevant to the research topic. The theories are as follows: Excellence theory by J. E. Grunig DAGMAR theory by Mackay Lavidge & Steiners Hierarchy-of-effects theory EXCELLENCE THEORY The “Excellence Theory” (J. E. Grunig et al. , 2002) was initially developed, and is continually being tested, in order to demonstrate what makes for public relations practices that are both efficient and ethical for all parties involved. Public relations, as defined by J.

E, Grunig (1992), is “the management of communication between the organization and the publics that it interacts with”. Through the continued work of the Excellence Project, the “Excellence Theory” demonstrates how excellent public relations is able to interact and 19 work with both internal and external publics, recognizing that publics are not merely passive audiences accepting messages in a hegemonic structure,1 but that each public that comes into contact with the message is viable and enfranchised with agency. The “publics” in public relations exist within and outside the organization.

Each public, through the interaction with the public relations professional, allows for a variety of perspectives and insights toward a single goal or a collection of goals. If these groups are not allowed the choice to have their respective voices heard and recognized as active and important, decisions are made by the dominant coalition (L. A. Grunig et al. , 2002) without all of the mitigating factors and facts placed in front of them, resulting in the once dominant organization losing economic, political, and social capital within and among the publics served.

It is this critical perspective to public relations, respecting publics as ethical and moral beings, that L. A. Grunig et al. (2002) aligned with when they considered the most important question for ethical public relations: “How can one balance the interests of society, of the public relations profession, and of the individual professional” (p. 556). The “Excellence Theory,” originally proposed in 1992 (J. E. Grunig et al. , 1992), was grounded upon an “extensive literature” review and evaluation, examining theoretical positions from various academic disciplines and ontologies, including: marketing, psychology, communication, and feminist 20 tudies (J. E. Grunig, 1991). The project’s purpose was to develop a new approach to public relations, detailing to public relations practitioners what organizations must have (both in expectations and characteristics) in order to be excellent and how to communicate those same concepts. The resultant characteristics of excellent public relations programs look at all levels of organization: program, departmental, organizational, and societal, along with the desired effects of excellent public relations practice.

These characteristics not only present the “Excellence Theory” as a normative ideology, but also as an emancipatory system that strives for egalitarian opportunities for all publics. The characteristics and effects of excellent public relations, as presented by L. A. Grunig et al. (2002, p. 9), offer an opportunity for the critical inquiry of the dominant coalition within either an antonymous public relations organization or an organization with a public relations component.

This new possibility for the theory and its pragmatic capabilities position the “Excellence Theory” as a critical paradigm applicable to the current calls for critical research within public relations. DAGMAR Russell Colley created DAGMAR when he prepared a report for the Association of National Advertisers. This report was entitled Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results, shortened down to 21 DAGMAR, and thereof the name, (Belch & Belch, 1995) and was later in 1969 published as a book with the same title (Mackay, 2005).

DAGMAR was created to encourage measurable objectives for each stage of the communication (Smith & Taylor, 2002) and does not deal purely with the message (Mackay 2005). DAGMAR focuses on the levels of understanding that a customer must have for the organisation and on how to measure the results of an advertising campaign (Belch & Belch, 1995). The main conclusions on the DAGMAR theory were expressed in the following quotation: All commercial communications that weigh on the ultimate objective of a sale must carry a prospect through four levels of understanding. . The prospect must first be aware of the existence of a brand or organisation 2. He must have a comprehension of what the product is and what it will do for him 3. 4. He must arrive at a mental suspicion or conviction to buy the product Finally he must stir himself to action. (Mackay, 2005, p. 25-26) 22 The communication has to be specific and measurable, and is therefore based on a hierarchical model containing the four stages set out above in the quotation (Mackay, 2005).

The DAGMAR approach has had a huge influence on the how to set objectives in the advertising planning process and many planners use this model as their base. However, just as the other approaches within advertising, DAGMAR has been met with critique. One of the major criticisms towards DAGMAR is on its reliance on the hierarchy-of-effects theory, just as with AIDA. Customers do not always pass through the stages in a linear way. Another criticism made towards the DAGMAR approach is that it focuses too much on strategies.

Many creative people within advertising are looking for the great unique idea that can result in a successful campaign and feels that the DAGMAR approach is too concerned with quantitative measurements on the campaign (Belch & Belch, 1995). LAVIDGE & STEINERS HIERARCHY-OF-EFFECTS MODEL This model was published during the same period as DAGMAR. The model was named the hierarchy-of-effects model which is the same name as some authors used on the foundation theory, and will therefore go under the name, Lavidge & Steiners Hierarchy-of-effects model in this study. 23

According to this model customers do not switch from being completely uninterested to become convinced to buy the product in one step. Lavidge and Steiners hierarchy-of-effects model is created to show the process, or steps, that an advertiser assumes that customers pass through in the actual purchase process (Barry & Howard, 1990). The model is based on seven steps, which as with the other models must be completed in a linear way. The big difference between this model and the others is not only the steps, but also the view on how to pass them. Lavidge and Steiner (1961) write that the steps have to be completed in a linear way, but . potential purchaser sometimes may move up several steps simultaneously. (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961, p. 60) which is supported by Munoz (2002) who writes that normally ultimate customers do not switch directly from being interested to become convinced buyers. Lavidge and Steiner identify the seven steps in the following order: 1. Close to purchasing, but still a long way from the cash register, are those who are merely aware of its existence. 2. 3. Up a step are prospects who know what the product has to offer. Still closer to purchasing are those who have favourable attitudes toward the product. 24 4.

Those whose favourable attitudes have developed to the point of preference over all other possibilities are up still another step. 5. Even closer to purchasing are customers who couple preference with a desire to buy and the conviction that the purchase would be wise. 6. Finally, of course, is the step which translates this attitude into actual purchase. (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961, p. 59) Lavidge and Steiner (1961) also wrote, in their article, that they are fully aware of the impulsive purchases that customers can make, but they mean that for higher economical goods these steps are essential for the advertiser to include.

This model also has as a premise that advertising occurs over a period of time, and may not lead to immediate response and purchase. It is rather a series of effects that has to occur, with each step fulfilled on the way towards the next stage (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961) Behind this model is according to Belch & Belch (1998) the premises that advertising effects occur over time and advertising communication may not lead to immediate behavioural response or purchase, but rather, consumers must fulfil each step before (s)he can move to the next stage in the hierarchy. Belch and Belch 1998, p. 146). 25 As with the former models discussed, this model has also been criticised. The criticism on Lavidge & Steiners model is very similar to the one made on DAGMAR and AIDA. There is still no evidence on the fact that awareness of a products leads to purchase, and the steps are still unclear. Criticism has also been made on each individual step in the model. Critics do not think that the model explains how the customers will go from one step to another and to point out the steps without explaining them further is not seen as enough.

CRITICISM ON THE HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS THEORY. The models that are based on the hierarchy of effects theory (Mackay, 2005) can be very helpful but are not conclusive. There are several factors that these models do not take in consideration. 1. Not all buyers go through all stages, 2. The stages do not necessarily occur in hierarchical sequence, 3. Impulse purchases contract the process. (Smith & Taylor, 2002, p. 97) The hierarchy models help the advertiser to identify the stages that buyers generally passes through, but cannot be used as obvious guidelines (Smith & Taylor, 2002). 26

As seen earlier in this chapter the criticism on the models and theories are very similar. They have all been met with the criticism that customers do not always follow a straight line of steps when purchasing a product. Not all customers pass through all the steps before buying a product, some may stop at one stage, and some may go back several steps before later on going back for the product. 2. 3 REASONS WHY PRODUCTS FAILS It would surprise one to hear that, a staggering 70-80% of all new products in the retail grocery industry fail (www. allbusiness. com). In Great Britain, the rate may be as high as 90% (www. rchives. tcm. ie/irishexaminer). Of every 3,000 raw ideas for new products, only one makes it to the marketplace (www. faculty. msb. edu). And a whopping 46% of all resources allocated to new product development process in the U. S. are spent on products that fail (www. faculty. msb. edu). Marketing Wise Group in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX is of the opinion that no company can do without introducing new products or extending their brand line if they want to remain afloat in a competitive market or if they do not want their products and brand image to go stale.

It is the opinion of this group that Quisp Cereal, Ipana Toothpaste or Commodore Computers failed because they failed to implement a new product development process to keep their 27 stable of brands vital or had a flawed new product development process to begin with. According to Gwinavere Johnston; founder and CEO of Johnston Wells Public Relations, if your answer to one or more of the following questions is yes, then chances are that is the reason your product failed. 1. Did you do the right amount and kind of marketing research in the initial stages of your new product development process? . If you conducted research, did you follow the results or ignore them? 3. Was your product launched ahead of its time? 4. Was your product launched on the downward side of a waning fad or trend? 5. Did your product take on a life of its own and you got to a point your new product development process couldn’t turn back? 6. Were you as a company able to execute the product to the consumer’s desires? 7. Did your new product development process create a “me-too” product? Second in the marketplace is a grim position to be. How many flavoured waters does the world need? 8.

Was your company too financially conservative and too aggressive in its expectations for a quick ROI? 9. Is your new product development process as streamlined as it should be? 28 10. Is your product hitting a little before or on top of a trend, or is it a fad? According to Gwinavere Johnston when such a problem arises what is oftentimes needed is an overhaul in your new product development process, which is difficult to see from inside the organization. One may need a specialist in the new/returning product development process, someone who has been in the trenches and has had a fare share of successes and failures.

That person has the unique ability to observe your new product development process and, from their years of observing other organizations, is able to pinpoint where in your new product development process modifications need to be made. According to Glenn Moray, companies that fail or that are at the verge of collapsing, at one point in time all made the same mistake that brought about their waterloo: failing to focus on the concerns of their publics. If publics are the groups a company relies on for success, it is dangerous to neglect them by ? ? ? ? Focusing on share price to the detriment of quality and integrity, Forming boards that are not designed for strong corporate governance, Misleading shareholders, employees and others by not sharing the full story, Emphasizing what is legal, rather than what is ethical, and/or Jeopardizing employee jobs and savings through business misconduct. 29 From the above statement by Glenn Moray, it can be deduced that customer awareness and understanding is paramount to the success of any company or product.

When a company is in distress, tell shareholders and indeed all stakeholders that full extent of the damage and what are in place to curb the problem or mitigate the effect of the problem/distress. 2. 4 THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MARKETING A CONSUMER B R A N D . According to Glenn Moray of the Moray Evans Advertising, The strategic role of PR for consumer brands is critical to extending the impact and credibility of advertising. The questions we so often ask from a PR effort are: (1) what are you trying to achieve with your PR over the long run, and (2) how does it integrate with your marketing and communications plan?

The most obvious strategic role for PR-a role that meets a communications objective that is difficult for conventional advertising to address-is to create community affinity while at the same time complementing consumer affinity for the brand. PR is uniquely capable of building relationships with communities (geographic, demographic, social, political, special interest, etc. ) through events, sampling, causes, in-kind support, and sponsorships, to name a f e 30 w . PR delivers messages not normally addressed in conventional advertising.

For example, good news about the client’s business, new services or new level of commitment to service, how well the client is measuring up within its competitive set, the client’s business heritage, or the client’s involvement in the community. These types of messages are critical to creating a positive selling environment for our advertising. Equally important, it creates buzz for our client as a company. According to Leana Clark (2002), PR builds momentum into the launch of a new ad campaign. This provides exposure between media flights and increases frequency of brand exposures during the duration of the advertising period.

In the fight for brand awareness and top-of-mind consideration, there are few substitutes for pure frequency. And last, but certainly not least, we like to see PR reinforce, in the consumer’s mind, those moments when a company chooses to put a stake in the ground: The launch of a new market, acquisition of another company, a new partnership, a product release, relevant differentiation, or new leadership with a new vision. All of which provide value to the consumer. 2. 5 ROLES OF THE PR PRACTITIONER IN AN ORGANISATION 31

According to Gwinavere Johnston, there are four principal roles for a corporation’s chief public relations officer. The first is to serve the corporation as a sensor of social change. He/she perceives those societal rumblings that auger good or ill for the organization. In a way, he/she is like the radar chief who gives the early warning. And after pondering the yearnings and stirrings, he/she interprets the signals for the management team. Part of the job as corporate sensor is to keep management focused on those external problems not usually considered part of managing a large business.

He/she is the one who says “you don’t care for the likes of a Ralph Nader or a Jesse Jackson, but you should never underestimate the power they wield over people and problems that can damage our business. ” The second role is that of corporate conscience. I trust you — and your colleagues in management — will not infer that only public relations executives have a conscience — or that public relations people are either more ethical or more moral or have a greater commitment to serving the public interest than executives with other titles.

In fact, there may be others with more of these qualities than the person with the public relations/ communications title. But the fact is that being the corporate conscience is not in the job description of other 32 executives. It is — or should be — in the job description of the chief public relations officer. The third role of the chief public relations/communications officer is that of communicator. The tendency — especially in recent times, as I referred to earlier — is to think that communications, mainly working with the media, print, electronic and digital — is his/her only role.

Though communications is an important part of the job that is hardly the case. The global corporation has two distinct audiences; one external, the other internal. Communications with both audiences move in two directions: what the corporation says to its external stakeholders and what it says to its employees, distribution and supply chains, and shareowners. Listening is as important a part of the job as speaking — and the chief public relations officer should be equally adept at both. For both audiences, the “why” and “how” of an action or policy is invariably as important, if not more so, than the “what” and the “when. The goal of communications is more than to tell or inform; its primary purpose is to bring about understanding. No matter how effective the dissemination of information about a corporation, it will not succeed unless it truthfully reflects the corporation’s behaviour. Above all, the corporation must always deliver on its promises, whether guaranteeing the reliability of a product or achieving earnings goals. In the words of the rapper, if you’re gonna talk the talk, you gotta walk the walk. 33 The fourth role is to serve as corporate monitor.

Since the public relations/ communications department is the company’s voice and also has so major a role dealing with and commenting on public issues, there is a need for constant monitoring of policies and programs to make sure they accord with both the company’s commitment and with public expectations. If they fall short, it’s the job of the chief public relations officer to agitate for new programs and policies. Failing to do so means, simply, that he/she is not living up to the requirements of the job.

To summarize, the chief public relations officer has four roles: corporate sensor, corporate conscience, corporate communicator and corporate monitor. As corporate sensor and corporate conscience, he/she contributes to and participates in the decision making process. It is his/her job to anticipate changes in the social environment and make sure the corporation’s response is in the public interest and accords with public expectations. In the roles as corporate communicator and corporate monitor, he/she speaks for the corporation both truthfully and timely and makes certain the corporation is delivering on its promises. . 6 BRANDING A very famous proverb goes: What is in a name? A rose will still smell the same, even if it is called by another name! 34 However, with the advent of latest technology and changing trends, the time has come when we need to do some rethinking. Today, everything is online and virtual: virtual money, online business and so name or rather branding is the most important facet for anything. Not just any business, but for any particular entity, branding is the key word. A brand is the identity of an entity.

Just think of Marilyn Monroe and the first thing that comes in your mind is flying skirt. When we talk about online business, the brand identity is the foundation for building a relationship with your customer beyond product, distribution, pricing, or location of your business. It plays an integral part behind the success of any product. Brand is the relationship that secures future earnings by securing customer loyalty. Leana Clark (2002), states that, “Usually consumers have lot of choice of products in the same market segment so brand loyalty plays a very important role for your business growth.

A company with high credibility and brand loyalty succeeds in keeping consumers re-buying their product rather than going to a competitor. Statistics tell that it takes five times as much money to gain a customer as it does to retain one. Moreover a satisfied customer also helps in generating word of mouth publicity which increases your potential c u s t o m e r s ” . Branding goes beyond marketing. All aspects of your business should reflect 35 and support your intended brand to create a long term and fruitful relationship with your customers.

According to Helen Katz in her book Advertising Principles, A lot of effort goes in developing a brand. It involves more than just picking a catchy name. The following steps may be followed to create a brand: * Define your brand * Determine the objective of your brand * Identify your target audience * Identify the barriers and crush them * Package your brand then sell and market your brand 2. 7 REPUTATION AND WHY IT MATTERS The reputation of a company or product is what determines how a strong a product is in the long run and how their customers perceive such a product.

It would be remembered that in 1986, Coca-Cola made a blunder by trying to change the flavour of coke which reduced their sales drastically. This reduction in sales was largely due to the perception customers have about coke. The taste of a product ultimately defines the brand and is also part of what customers perceive when they see the product. So when the taste changes, then of course perception changes. Customers want to see their brands as reliable and constant, and for a company to maintain its reputation, such a company must 36 ensure that it gives it customers what they want. This statement was upported by Gwinavere Johnston (2002), when he said, “Reputation can account for a large portion of a company’s market capitalization, and can be its most important long-term asset. It impacts an organization in a myriad of ways, including stock price, and the ability to attract and retain customers and employees. Corporate reputation is based on factors such as ? ? ? ? ? ? Quality of products or services, Earnings and business performance, Stability and fairness as an employer, Level of integrity in business practices, Degree of honesty and openness, and Involvement in local communities.

Today, with distrust of the corporate world at an all-time high, corporate credibility is an over-riding factor. Whether they like it or not, companies today are at the mercy of public constituencies. That means there is growing recognition of the need to foster a good reputation by developing positive relationships with various publics. ” 2. 8 HOW COMPANIES CAN RESTORE TRUST If business is to regain the trust it has lost due to questionable ethics and other business practices, it must provide public relations with a seat at the executive 37 evel management table rather than just relying on public relations when a crisis a r i s e s . Consumer confidence is at its lowest point, as evidenced by ongoing studies in 2002, by Schenkein’s research partner Roper ASW. Corporate wrongdoing, stock market plunges, and layoffs were cited as reasons for the erosion in corporate trust. Americans put the blame squarely on the shoulders of CEOs, Nigerians also put the blame on those in power and CEOs of large organisation and financial organisations such as banks, insurance companies, investment firms and the likes, who according to Roper, won’t be “let ff the hook” easily. Consumers view CEOs as the “bad guys,” and blame their greed for the ensuing crises that have elicited their anger. Clearly, we live in an environment where every company is under the microscope and negative business stories appear every day on the front page of our newspapers. According to Jerry Donovan, “Quite literally, public relations is managing relations with various publics, a role that grows in importance as reputation becomes ever more critical to business success. Companies can restore trust in a number of ways, many involving traditional PR strategies, such as: ? ? ?

Using integrity and fairness as criteria for all business decisions; Maintaining an emphasis on quality of products or services; Openly sharing truthful information with all publics; 38 ? ? ? Actively seeking input from publics and being responsive to concerns; Renewing a commitment to local communities; and Creating forums to encourage dialogue with constituencies. The bottom line is that companies must make it a priority to value the needs of all publics, and to forge good relationships with them. The cornerstone of a good relationship is trust, and trust is based on open and honest communication.

Effective public relations tell a company’s story in a way that is accurate, honest, and easy to understand, helping to establish a reputation for credibility. ” A good relationship also requires a willingness to listen, and true public relations is a two-way process. PR professionals recognize that to manage relationships, they must understand and respect public concerns and viewpoints. They must also go a step further, to serve as the public’s advocate within an o r g a n i z a t i o n . In effect, corporate public relations professionals frequently play the role of an outsider.

By questioning decisions and their impact on customers, the community, employees, and others, public relation professionals bring the public perspective to an organization, fostering its ability to be responsive to public concerns. 39 CHAPTER THREE 3. 0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY According to Jacobsen (2002: pg 34) there are two ways to conduct scientific research, one is the qualitative approach the other is the quantitative approach. The qualitative approach is more appropriate for research that aims to get a deeper knowledge about a certain subject, i. e. explorative.

An explorative research method aims to investigate a small number of units since it is used to explore nuanced data (Jacobsen 2002: pg 38). Researchers using a qualitative approach are more into finding how people experience their lives and their goal is rather to come to an understanding rather than to reach a static analysis (Bell, 1999). A quantitative approach on the other hand is more appropriate when the research is a broad spectrum of units since it is a theory testing research method. A research like this has a goal of getting broader knowledge about a certain subject (Jacobsen, 2002: pg 29).

A researcher using this approach collects data and then tries to analyse the relation between the different 40 productions. The researcher measures and uses scientific techniques that can give quantifiable and possible general conclusions. Since Advertising and public relations is all about emotions and catching people’s interest. Quantitative research used alone could lead to faulty conclusions because it could give the researcher difficulties when trying to understand attitudes and perceptions among the interviewees.

But when used alongside the qualitative approach, it gives the researcher a broader perspective about the subject area. The researcher shall therefore make use of the survey method and the in-depth interviews (which is a combination of the qualitative and the quantitative research methods). 3. 1 DATA COLLECTION METHOD CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF SOURCES Critical analysis of sources is according to (Bell, 1999: pg 80) divided into two examinations: Internal and external examination.

The external examination is used to investigate how genuine and correct the source is whereas the internal examination is the one usually used when investigating smaller projects. Internal examinations looks more into which type or source it is, under which circumstances it devolved and if it has changed lately etcetera. 41 The researcher for the purpose of this research would use in-depth interviews and also the questionnaires/ survey method. The in-depth interview would be directed towards owners of the shops and also the account officer in charge of the Vita foam campaign in Tie Communications.

These interviews were conducted to get first hand information on why Vita foam almost went out of the market and what the company did to get back in business focusing on advertising and public relations. The questionnaire, would be used to gather the opinions of customers and potential customers of Vita foam products 3. 2 CHOICE OF STUDY OBJECT The selection of Vitafoam PLC as the case study has been based on the fact that they had experienced drop in sales, which fits the definition of a failing brand by the researcher and as risen today to become one of the market leaders in their product category. A bar chart on the sales of Vita foam product since 2004-2008 by PeaceWaterCoopers House for Vita foam Nigeria Plc) 42 The reason for using Mushin, Ikeja and Agege local government areas as my sample population is because there is a high density of mattress sellers in these areas. Another reason is that these areas are easily accessible. Choice of interviewing officials of Tie Communications Ltd is based on the fact that they were responsible for the rebranding campaign of Vitafoam in 2005/2006 that eventually brought them to their present position in the market. . 3 CHOICE OF ORGANISATION The organisation (VITAFOAM) selected for this study was used because the researcher aims to explore the roles advertising and public relations play in re-establishing a failing product into the market. The case study was chosen based on the fact that it is today one of the leading mattress brands in Nigeria and had in 2005 experienced a rapid decrease in sales of their products. How they overcame this period and what they did to achieve their present position in the market is what piqued my interest in them.

Below are bar charts showing the dividend and earnings of Vitafaom Nig. Plc form the year 2004 to the year 2008. 43 FIG 1: DIVIDEND VS EARNINGS PER SHARE FOR VITAFOAM (extracted from the 2008 annual report compiled by PeaceWaterCoopers House) FIG 2: PROFIT AFTER TAX VS SHAREHOLDERS’ FUNDS 44 (extracted from the 2008 annual report compiled by PeaceWaterCoopers House) FIG 3: PROFIT AFTER TAX VS DIVIDENDS 45 (extracted from the 2008 annual report compiled by PeaceWaterCoopers House) 3. 4

CHOICE OF CUSTOMERS/RETAIL OUTLETS In the selection of customers to be interviewed for this study, the researcher has been looking for persons that have been exposed to advertising from the chosen organisation and that have bought their products at least once, but not 46 necessarily the product that have been promoted in the chosen advertising campaign. The researcher shall interview ten (ten customers) in three different retail outlets from each of these local government areas; namely: Ikeja, Mushin and Agege local government areas.

Making it a total of 90 (ninety) customers to be interviewed. The customers shall be selected randomly. Also the researcher shall also be interviewing 5 shop owners from each of these local government areas, making it a total of 15 shop owners that would be interviewed. Also the account officer in charge of the advert campaign of Vitafoam shall be interviewed. 3. 5 PROCESSING OF THE RESULTS In the work of analysing the findings found during the interviews the researcher has chosen to record the interviews to make it easier to go back and go through them again later on.

The interviews have also been written down to paper from the recordings to make it easier for the researcher to go through them and compare them to points in the literature. By doing it this way it is easier for the researcher to go back without missing out on something. 47 3. 6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What caused the decrease in sales of Vita foam products? 2. How did public relations and advertising help restore Vita foam into the market? 3. How do we identify a failing product? 4. What strategies do public relations experts employ in re-establishing Vita foam in the market? 5.

What advertising strategies were employed in re-establishing Vita foam in the market? 48 CHAPTER FOUR DATA PROCESSING, PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4. 0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the information gained in the interviews with the account officer that handled the adverts for Vita foam in 2005/2006, shop owners around the speculated local government areas in Lagos, and customers of Vita foam products will be presented. The information will be presented by first retelling the information gained in the interview with the interviewee from TIE COMMUNICATIONS, and then shop owners around Lagos.

Also information gotten from the questionnaires distributed among customers of polymer products generally would be presented in this chapter. 4. 1 DATA PRESENTATION SHOP OWNERS From the interviews conducted by the researcher on shop owners in Ikeja, Mushin and Agege local government areas, it was found out that, Vita foam Nigeria has been a very popular brand since the 1990s. They all agreed that around 2004, sales for the product had remarkably reduced and by 2005, Vita foam product was hardly in demand. 49

The interviewees said the reason for this decrease in sales can be attributed to the fact that other brands where springing up and where willing to sell the same or almost the same quality of products for a lesser price. They gave examples of this price differences that might have caused this reductions in sales one of which is; the queen size mattress (ordinary) was selling for Thirteen thousand Naira in 2005 and Mouka foam was selling the same type of mattress with the same quality for eleven thousand five hundred naira.

The interviewees speculated that even the less popular brands like Vono foam, Sarafoam etc where producing good quality mattresses for a reduced price. The interviewees said that Vitafoam’s greatest rival in the polymer market was Mouka foam and Sarafoam, because these brands were not as expensive, available and also of good quality. It is the opinion of the interviewees that the adverts Vita foam did though were not so popular; they left an impression in the mind of anyone that was exposed to the advert.

They are of the opinion that the rigorous Vita foam campaign carried out from year 2005 though to 2006, helped boost the sales of the product and helped re-establish their relevance in the market place. 50 ACCOUNT OFFICER FROM TIE COMMUNICATIONS. The interviewee asserted that the company was in charge of the Vita foam account in the year 2005/2006 and were responsible for the PR and Advert campaign carried out by Vita foam in the same year. The interviewee said that the company was approached by the client (Vitafaom) to help organise and advert and PR campaign to help boost sales and popularity level of the brand.

The interviewee went on to say that the client was troubled about the constant decrease in sales of its product. The interviewee said that the first thing they did when they got the account was to carry out a research to find out why Vita foam is facing the problems there are facing, also to get a clear picture as to how Vitafaom is faring in the consumer market and to test the popularity of the brand. After which they came back to brainstorm on the strategies to use to tackle the problems discovered in the cause of the research.

It was discovered that the major cause of the problem was the fact that the competition was giving the same quality for a reduced price and Vitafaom was also losing its name as people hardly knew their name anymore as products like Mouka foam was quickly taking over the market. 51 So they (TIE COMMUNICATIONS) advised Vita foam to carry out a line extension program to develop a product under Vita foam that would be the same quality with Mouka foam but that would be cheaper than Mouka foam. This brought about Rainbow foam which is a brand of Vitafaom and is relatively cheaper than most of the other quality brands in the Nigerian market.

The company also proposed a 9 month advert and PR campaign for Vitafaom products which would promote all the products Vitafaom is producing including Rainbow foam. Also they made their presence felt in the Nigerian market by organising scholarship and other social responsible programs in the society. He asserted that in the world of advertising and Public relations it is believed that out of sight is out of mind, so it is important that a product is never out of sight for the consumers. According to the interviewee, an evaluation was conducted at the end of the campaign and it was the general c consensus then that the campaign was successful.

The interviewee went on to say that the evaluation was based on the following criteria: 1. After campaign sales volume vis-a-vis sales volume before the campaign. 2. Popularity of the brand. 3. Current market share of Vita foam products. 52 According to the interviewee, a product can fail when it stops satisfying a need, when a competing brand is producing the same quality for lesser prices, when a product is not readily available in the market, when adequate advertisements and Public relations campaign and activities are not carried out, amongst others.

The interviewee explained that, though times were hard for Vita foam during the period under review, what made them remain relevant simply was the fact that they kept producing quality products, but ensured that they improve the Public Relations and advertising activities. They started giving out scholarships, giving Vitafoam products to orphanages, also sponsorship of events and programmes were carried out to ensure that the brands image is secure in the minds of the consumers/publics.

Some of these events includes, donations to professional bodies like ICAN, donations to clubs and associations like Business Club, National Union of Chemical, Footwear Rubber, Leather and Non Metallic, Standards Organisation of Nigeria, Federal road safety Corps, donations to schools such as Jextoban Secondary school, Ketu, Lagos, end of the year children party sponsored and also organised by the company, sales promotion, price slash etc. The interviewee went on to explain that media relations is an essential tool when trying to win back the loyalty and trust of your consumers.

He explained 53 that Vitafoam organised series of facility tour for both media houses and also the regulatory agencies such as Standard Organisation of Nigeria and Manufacturer Association of Nigeria, Polymer Institute of Nigeria, Chemical and Non-Metallic Products Employees Federation and National Union of Chemical, Footwear Rubber, Leather and Non Metallic so as to get endorsements and approval for the products and also for the media to promote them in a positive light. QUESTIONNAIRRE TO CUSTOMERS Ninety questionnaires were distributed and ninety were returned.

Based on the data collected through the questionnaires, the following is the outcome of the research. TABLE 1: AGE OF RESPONDENTS Variable 18-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 60 and above Total No. respondents 5 27 29 16 9 4 90 Of Percentage 5. 6 30 32. 2 18 10 4. 5 100 TABLE 2: AWARENESS ABOUT VITAFAOM 54 VARIABLE I AM AWARE I AM NOT AWARE TOTAL NO. OF REPONDENTS 79 11 90 PERCENTAGE % 87. 8 12. 2 100 TABLE 3: USAGE OF VITAFOAM PRODUCTS VARIABLE YES NO TOTAL NO. OF REPONDENTS 48 42 90 PERCENTAGE % 53. 3 46. 7 100 TABLE 4: WHEN DID YOU START USING VITAFOAM?

VARIABLE MORE THAN 20 YEARS AGO LESS THAN TEN YEARS LESS THAN 5 YEARS DO NOT USE IT TOTAL NO. OF REPONDENTS 5 23 20 42 90 PERCENTAGE % 5. 6 25. 5 22. 2 46. 7 100 TABLE 5: DID YOU EVER NOTICE A PERIOD WHEN IT SEEMED OTHER BRANDS WERE TAKING OVER THE MARKET VARIABLE YES NO TOTAL NO. OF REPONDENTS 65 25 90 PERCENTAGE % 72. 2 27. 8 100 TABLE 6: REASON VITAFOAM LOST MARKET SHARE VARIABLE NO. OF REPONDENTS PERCENTAGE % Reduction in quality of the 5 7. 7 product 25 38. 4 55 High price of the product Better quality by competition Better price by the competition Lack of availability of the product TOTAL 23 5 65 10. 8 35. 4 7. 7 100 TABLE 7: WHAT GAVE YOU THE IDEA THAT VITA FOAM MIGHT NOT BE FARING WELL VARIABLE NO. OF REPONDENTS PERCENTAGE % When it was no longer available for sale When I stopped seeing or hearing their adverts When other brands of mattresses became very prominent When friends and colleagues advised me to buy other products TOTAL 0 45 25 20 90 0 50 27. 8 22. 2 100 TABLE 8: IN YOUR OPINION DO YOU THINK VITAFOAM HAS MADE A COMEBACK INTO THE MARKET VARIABLE YES NO TOTAL NO. OF REPONDENTS 70 20 90 PERCENTAGE % 77. 8 22. 2 100

TABLE 9: WHAT MADE VITAFOAM’S COMEBACK POSSIBLE VARIABLE Vigorous advert and PR campaign Reduction in price Increase in quality 56 NO. OF RESPONDENTS 50 7 3 PERCENTAGE % 55. 6 7. 8 3. 3 Creating another competing brand to 20 tackle the competition 10 Friends and colleagues attesting to the 90 quality of Vita foam and the good price TOTAL 22. 2 11. 1 100 TABLE 10: HAVE YOU EVER SEEN OR HEARD ANY VITAFOAM ADVERT ON ANY LOCAL MEDIUM VARIABLE YES NO TOTAL NO. OF REPONDENTS 80 10 90 PERCENTAGE % 88. 9 11. 1 100 TABLE 11: VITAFOAM ADVERT RATINGS VARIABLE VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR POOR VERY POOR TOTAL NO.

OF REPONDENTS 50 20 5 5 0 80 PERCENTAGE % 62. 5 25 6. 25 6. 25 0 100 TABLE 12: WHAT INFORMED YOUR DECISION TO START USING VITAFOAM VARIABLE The new packaging The adverts on TV and radio Recommendations from friends Attractive price Sales promo Innovative additions to the product TOTAL 57 NO. OF REPONDENTS PERCENTAGE % 2 40 20 10 10 8 90 2. 2 44. 4 22. 2 11. 1 11. 1 8. 9 100 TABLE 13: MOST EFFECTIVE VITAFOAM ADVERT VARIABLE The radio advert The TV advert The Billboard adverts Print adverts Road shows TOTAL NO. REPONDENTS 10 15 25 40 0 90 OF PERCENTAGE % 11. 1 16. 7 27. 8 44. 4 0 100 4. 2

ANALYSIS OF PRESENTED DATA Based on the data gotten from the interviews conducted and questionnaires distributed, the researcher shall now attempt to answer the research questions this research aimed to answer. RESEARCH QUESTION 1: What caused the decrease in sales of Vita foam products? From the interviews conducted with the shop owners and the account officer in charge of the Vita foam account in year 2005/2006, it is clear that the main reasons for the drop in sales of Vita foam products are; stiff competition from Mouka foam, who was producing a similar product with almost the same quality, but was selling at a lower price.

Another reason for the decrease in sales of Vita foam products was lack of advertisement and Public Relations 58 activities on the part of the Vita foam Nig. Ltd; this reduced their popularity in the market place. From the responses gotten from the questionnaires distributed to the customers in different retail outlet around Agege, Mushin and Ikeja local government it is clear that price of the product played a major role in diminishing the sales of the Vita foam products. 38. 4% of the 90 respondents said that the high price of Vita foam products caused the decrease, while 35. % of the same respondents said that better prices offered by competition might be the cause, 5% said Vita foam products were not readily available, 7% said better quality offered by competitors might be a cause for the reduction in sales of Vita foam products. Form the above it is clear that the major reason for the decrease in sales of Vita foam products can be attributed to high price and lack of advertisement and Public Relations activities RESEARCH QUESTION 2: How did public relations and advertising help restore Vita foam into the market?

From the interviews conducted with the account officer in charge of the Vita foam account in the year 2005/2006, it is clear that Public Relations and advertisement played a major role in restoring Vita foam into the market. The 59 interviewee pointed out that, through Public relations activities such as giving scholarships, giving free Vita foam products to orphanages etc, the company was able to register in the mind of the consumers as a socially conscious organisation which helped in promoting their image.

Also the advert campaign proposed and executed by Tie Communications helped re-establish the Vita foam presence in the polymer industry and also in the long run helped boost the sales of the product. All of which helped restore Vitafaom back into the market place. Data gotten from the questionnaires distributes also asserts that advertising and Public relations activities played a major role in restoring Vita foam into the market place. 55. 6% of the 90 respondents said that vigorous adverts and PR campaign made the comeback for Vita foam possible. While 44. % of the respondents also claim that the adverts they saw informed their decision to buy Vita foam products. RESEARCH QUESTION 3: How do we identify a failing product? Based on the questionnaires distributed and interviews conducted. A product can be said to be failing if there is a sudden and constant decrease in sales. Also about 50% of the 90 respondents that got the questionnaires said that they knew Vitafoam was failing when they stopped hearing or seeing their adverts, 27. 8% of the respondents said that they noticed when other brands became very 60 prominent, while 22. % of the respondent said they noticed when friends and colleagues advised them to buy other products. From the above statistics, a product can be said to be failing, if they is a constant reduction in sales of the product, when adverts are suddenly not heard or seen any more, when other brands become more popular, when friends discourage you to buy the product. RESEARCH QUESTION 4: What strategies do public relations experts employ in re-establishing Vita foam in the market? From the interviews conducted, it can be said that Public Relations played a major role in re-establishing a failing products.

The interviewee said that scholarships and Cooperate Social Responsibility were carried out to ensure that the brand name Vitafoam is registered in the minds of the consumers, also sponsorship of important programmes and events were carried out to boost the popularity of the brand. Media relations were also used, series of facility tour for both media houses and also the regulatory agencies such as SON and MAN were organised. RESEARCH QUESTION 5: What advertising strategies were employed in re-establishing Vita foam in the market? 61 From the research, the advertising strategy used to re-establish Vitafoam ack into the market was to create a nine month advert campaign that would run through 2005 and parts of 2006 on radio, television and print media. 55. 6% of the respondents that filled the questionnaires distributed agree that the Vigorous advert campaign embarked on by Vitafoam made it possible for vitafoam to come back into the market, also 44. 4% of the 90 respondents said that the print adverts were most effective in making them buy Vitafoam products. 27. 8% of the respondents said that the billboards advert were most effective in making them buy Vitafoam products, while 16. % said it was television and 11. 1% said it was the radio adverts that got them to buy the product. The strategies used were billboard adverts, radio, TV and print adverts that ran over a period of nine months. 62 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. 0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the major findings of this study will be discussed and summarized, recommendations will also be given. 5. 1 SUMMARY In this study, it was observed that public relations and advertising played a very crucial role in re-establishing Vitafoam into the market after the company experienced an alarming decrease in sales.

It was also found out in the cause of the research that through Public relations activities such as giving scholarships, giving free Vita foam products to orphanages etc, the company was able to register in the mind of the consumers as a socially conscious organisation. This 63 helped in promoting their image. Also the advert campaign embarked on by the company helped re-establish the Vita foam presence in the polymer industry and also in the long run helped boost the sales of the product. All of which helped restore Vitafaom back into the market place.

It was found out in the cause of the research that a failing product can be identified when; ? The product is no longer available in the market ? When other brands become more prominent ? When the product no longer satisfy a need ? When there is a sudden and constant decrease in sales. ? When friends and colleagues discourage you to buy the product. It was discovered that stiff competition from rival products, high price of Vitafaom products, lack of advertisements and Public Relations activities were the major factors that caused the failure if Vitafoam as a brand in 2005/2006.

It was also discovered that through Public Relations and advertisement, Vitafoam Nig. Ltd was able to re-establish dominance in the polymer industry. 64 5. 2 CONCLUSION This study has shown that advertising and public relations play a major role in re-establishing and also maintain a product in the market. The study has shown that high prices of products, availability of the product, lack of PR, advert and other promotional activity might lead to a product failing. The major findings of this study are summarized below: ?

Price, availability of the Vitafoam products, lack of adverts and public relations, and competition, caused the failure of the Vitafoam brand in the market place. ? Advertising and public relations helped restore consumer trust and helped restore Vitafoam back into the market. ? A product can be said to be failing if there is a sudden and constant decrease in sales, when adverts are suddenly not seen or heard anymore by the consumers, when friends and colleagues advised them to buy other products. 5. 3 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Due to the time limit and the level of this study the outcome has been limited.

For future research within this area it could be interesting to investigate this in a deeper study. The use of various products can give a better perception on the 65 roles Public Relations and advertising plays in re-establishing a failing product into the market. Also a study can be carried out to find out how advertising and public relations if not done properly could lead to a product’s extinction. This study could help advert and PR practitioners understand the value of advertising and public relations and know the dangers they stand to face if they are not done properly. 5. 04

RECOMMENDATIONS Looking at the outcome of this study, it is suggested that organisations in the Polymer industry should not look down on adverts and public relations as they can make the difference between a successful company and a failing company. Organisations should ensure that their products and services are constantly in the mind of the consumers because they are the most important factor in the growth of the company. Brand colours and logos of companies in this industry should be used in every retail outlet, as this could attract customers to buy and also tell the public that they are available.

Also Public Relations activities that covers a wide geographical area should be embarked on by companies on this industry ion a regular basis, because it boost the goodwill of the organisation and helps maintains consumer/customer loyalty. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barry. T, Howard. D, (1990) A review and Critique of the Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 9, Iss. 2, P. 121 Bearden. W, Ingram. T, LaForge. R. , (2004) Marketing: Principles & Perspectives, 4th Ed, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, USA: New York Belch. G, Belch.

M. , (1995) Introduction to advertising and promotion: an integrated marketing communications perspective, 3rd Ed, McGraw-Hill, Boston Berge B. G and Katz H. (1999) Advertising principles, NTC Publishing Group, A Division Of NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group, INC. 4255 West Touhy Avenue, Lincoln (Chicago), Illinois 60646-1975 U. S. A. 67 Brierley. S (2002) The Advertising Handbook, Routledge, London: UK Butterfield. L (1997) Excellence in Advertising, The IPA guide to best practice, British Library Cataloguing, Oxford: UK Ciadvertising. (2007) Hierarchy-of-effects models, [online article], http://www. ciadvertising. org/studies/student/97_fall/theory/hierarchy/modern. html, 2007-04- 26 Kirk & Miller (1986) Reliability and validity in qualitative research, Sage Publications, USA: Beverly Hills Lavidge. R. J, Steiner. G. A. , (1961) A model of predictive measurement of advertising effectiveness, Journal of Marketing, 52, p. 59-62 Lavidge. R. J, Steiner. G. A. , (1961) A model of predictive measurement of advertising effectiveness, Journal of Marketing, 52, p. 59-62 Mackay. A. , (2005)

Advertising and Promotion Essay

Advertising and Promotion Essay


Advertising and promotion are part of marketing which are very important. Without advertising and promotion the company cannot communicate the message of their product to the target customers. Through advertising the organisations use mass media to communicate the message to a large group of people. This can also be said as above the line promotion. Below the line promotion includes when the organisation is directly involved such as direct mailing and telecommunication. The assignment has been done on extensive research work to find out the various strategies used by organisation for advertising and promotion.

The advantages and disadvantages, the competitive edge, etc. Requirement 1:


Advertising as we know is when there is the usage of paid announcement through media specially to bring in to attention of the people the knowledge of some product or service. Any medium that can take a message from an association to a potential purchaser can be utilized for promoting. Obviously, the most well known media are TV, print (daily paper, magazines, and so on.

), radio, and the Internet. TV is well known in view of its vast range, however it is additionally exorbitant. The 2012 Super Bowl was viewed by in excess of 111 million individuals, and organizations that needed a 30-second business amid that game paid a normal of $3.5 million. The communication process involves the following:

Source – A source is likewise alluded to as an sender. The sender has a message to pass on to others. The sender can be anybody from a brand specialist (in a significant company, for example, Nike or Budweiser) to a businessperson in a more diminutive association. Now and again, famous people are utilized to underwrite items and go about as an issue for the item. It is constantly vital to verify that the source is solid and reliable. An immediate source can be a sales representative conveying a message around an item. A indirect source utilizes a well known open figure to attract thoughtfulness regarding an item.

Encode – The source encodes or makes an interpretation of thoughts into a message. Case in point, a brand director chooses to promote another item.

Message – After characterizing the target advertise, the advertiser outlines a viable message that will accomplish the communication objectives.

Recipient – The beneficiary is the individual or gathering with whom the sender endeavours to impart thoughts. Advertisers need a reaction, the responses of the recipient, in the wake of being presented to the message: for instance, a customer getting the message about the new item.

Translate – The recipient deciphers or translates the message. For a message to be decoded by a beneficiary the way it was expected by the sender, the sender and receiver need to have regular encounters. As such, a recipient may not interpret a message the way it was proposed to on the off chance that her background and experience vary significantly from the sender’s. A marketer has to be sensitive to the intended audience.

Noise – Noise meddles with or upsets compelling correspondence. This can incorporate a poor TV or radio signal.

Feedback – Feedback is checking and assessing how precisely the expected message is consistently gotten. This is possible by directing statistical surveying. Basically, this includes inquiring as to whether they have seen the message, on the off chance that they review the message, and what their attitude was towards the product. There are various channels that companies uses in order to communicate their goods or services to customers in the market. BMW for instance uses BMW website, magazine, newspaper, trade shows, billboard, etc. (, 2013)


Promotion is a part of the marketing business. Basically, if marketing can be considered as the methodology of bringing an item or service to the consideration of purchasers, marketing is the selection of methodologies to keep the product or service in the personalities of buyers and stimulate continued demand for it. In marketing sales, distribution and target market are closely linked with promotion and advertising. There are a few potential roads of actions that the marketing group can use.

Advertising may emphasize in one or more media stations, including TV, film theaters, print media, for example, daily papers and magazines, and online entries. Organizations might likewise distribute posters, announcements and pamphlets to promote their items. An product or service is liable to have one sort of notice for its dispatch, and may have diverse adverts that constitute the ongoing promotion campaign. These later adverts may specify grants that the product or service has won, or confirmation of past sales success

It is the centralized system that runs the organization of advertisement and promotion. There are different level of hierarchy who work together to make this industry successful. The organization includes advertising and marketing managers, directors, sales agents, staff from finance department, etc. The media works very closely with the advertising and promoting. There are agencies that are in charge of the production of these advertisements and their distribution. There are also collateral service providers. For instance for BMW there are artists, painters, photographers, directors, who support the advertising. (Kotlar et al., 2005)

1.1 Assess how promotion is regulated (P1.3)

The regulation of activities of promotion relies on the risks and likely effect of marketing. In some cases the company may withdraw their promotional campaign as because it may have potential risk, instead of doing good, it could bring about more catastrophic events (Bagwell, 2007). Formal authorization activities are likewise instrument for managing promotions. Analytical work is carried out to recognize if there is a marketing issue being overlooked. They may concentrate in deceptive message, error of message, adequacy of pages and profit on promotional investments.

On reading the case study of BMW it is seen that they changed and strengthened their promotional approach in 2005 after a research study on extravagance auto purchasers. The promotional activity transformed its regulatory directions to assemble new brand picture. In the wake of finding that their message is not being accurately seen by purchasers BMW strengthened and enlisted another notice org in May, 2006. Who supplanted the organization’s overemphasis on ‘performance driving’ in the course of recent years with the idea “organization of thoughts” Thus regulatory tools are connected to control the stream and impact of promotional activities. .


The universe of promoting and advertising is changing and the patterns of the business are extending, adjusting and developing as customers change. The key is to staying on top of things and using an alternate level of considering products, groups, organizations and promoting channels accessible.

Mobile Marketing :Yes, this trendy expression was thrown around a considerable measure in recent years yet it’s at last turning into a need, being put into improvement and being advanced. Publicizing on cell phones is going to increment exponentially not long from now as cell phones keep on becoming a top technique for correspondence between buyers. Regardless of what industry, the measure of the business or different components, mobile advertising specialists will be looked for after more than ever.

Interactive Banner Ads : Individuals hear the expression, “banner advertisements” and flinch. They are a bad dream for buyers and advertisers. Customers scorn that they take up the page and advertisers can’t get individuals to click on them. Be that as it may, what everybody knows is that they are an extraordinary source of product placement – right in the middle of your target market’s website..

What we’re starting to see is that advertisers are making banner of things their intended focus group needs to see and needs to recall. Basically, organizations are making their advertisements the feature story. As opposed to controlling buyers to their sites, they utilize interactive marketing segments to make these promotions shareable by means of social media.

Local Advertising : Local advertising, in short, portrays promoting that purchasers aren’t altogether mindful that they are generally presented to on the grounds that it is flawlessly incorporated into how individuals use specific mediums. tricky for advertisers to attempt to evaluate how to discretely make their advertisements would appear to be a piece of the substance on the page the client is survey, yet imaginative promoting has truly taken off in this business sector and its fame is expanding exponentially among the promoting and advertising industry.

Brands Look beyond Fans and Likes: This point is about understanding the motivation behind diverse social networking outlets, discovering which ones suits their target group best and realizing what purchasers use it for. At last, organizations understand that piece of the overall industry can’t be measured by the quantity of preferences on a Face book page or supporters of whatever other social media. Organizations are using collaboration, correspondence and content sharing. (Infinitee, 2013)

Requirement 2:

We all know that marketing is a broad subject; advertisement is just another element of it. We have discussed before that advertising is closely connected with media. There are different types of advertisement which severe different types of purpose in the process of communicating message via media to potential target markets. Marketing being broad has various tools apart from advertising such as public relations, direct marketing, digital marketing, promotion, etc. The various forms of media which are used for the purpose of advertisement are T.V, radio, newspapers, magazines, internet, SMS, etc. In order to pass on the brand message it is very important to choose the appropriate media. When the intention is to reach out to large group of people it is perfect to use advertising.

Role of marketing can be interpreted as use of appropriate strategy is vital for marketing mangers to get the right message to the right customers using tools such as promotions, product price and distribution. In order to determine the most productive and effective communicational vehicle, it is necessary to understand the importance of the promotional strategy. In order for advertising to be a effective tool for a promotional strategy, it is necessary to understand the characteristic of the potential customers and hence a series of steps needs to be carried out.

Following are some: Segmentation: In order to make communication via advertising more effective it is essential to divide the customers in to different groups. If it is unknown to whom the message is intended to, it may not get any response at al. Once it is known who the advertisement message is intended for, there needs to be further drilling to know more. In this scenario the marketers go in for research and surveying, etc. Targeting: In order for advertisement to get the best response it is necessary to know that communication is being made to the right segment. Targeting plans should closely be related to marketing objectives. Other important steps include positioning and messaging.


Branding is more than simply a business trendy expression. It has turned into the ‘must’ of selling in the new economy. On the off chance that the old promoting mantra was,” Nothing happens until some individual sells something,” the new rationality could be” Nothing happens until someone brands something. “in its most straightforward structure, a brand is like a name. It is the name appended to an product or service. However it may be, brand is more related to the physical aspects of products or services: for example, color, image, status, quality, etc. It plays physiologically in the minds of the customers, gives them a perception of the product or service.

In short, a brand offers the client a certification and then delivers on it. You might infer, then, that if you build a powerful brand, automatically it becomes possible to make strong marketing programs. Nonetheless, on the off chance that you can’t persuade customers that your product is deserving and worthy of purchasing, no other measures such as fancy packaging or public relations will help to achieve sales goal. Successful branding programs are characterized by good quality product and services accompanies by good customer service which boosts the functioning of the entire organization.


When it comes to creativity in advertising, it basically means what to say and how to say it. The message in the advertising is very important. Thus, what to say is the message that will be passed on to the potential clients. How to say it on the other hand is basically the appropriate format that is to be used for the message. There are many creative specialist who are hired in the organization who deals with the creative aspect of advertising. Most companies these days pass on the work of the creative aspect of the advertising to advertising agencies. These agencies either hire specialists or has their own team of specialists. There are various steps which are involved in the creative design process which is also used by BMW. Following are the steps:

a) Decision regarding objective of advertisements.
b) Gathering of necessary information customers, products and competitors.
c) Production of brand new ideas by creative specialist.
d) Approval of these ideas by the managers of marketing and advertising.
e) Coming to decision regarding the content of the message, message format, layout, etc.
f) Testing and final check before the launching of the advertisement. The message in the advertisement has to be appealing to the desired customers. Ad appeal can be of many different types. It usually depends on what kind of message is the marketers most are focusing on. For instance they may want to say how high quality the product is or how low priced it is, etc. (Mukesh and Ranju, 2011)


Projects initiate in one department and when their work is done, it is passed on to the next. Organizations these days intentionally hire advertising agencies in order for the advertising work to be more promising and strong.

Four Tips to Working Successfully with Your Advertising Agency

Once the agency of choice is selected by the business, it is necessary to know how you would expand that relationship. How would you function adequately with your organization group to guarantee your advertising project is the best it can be? Consider these four tips for an effective org customer relationship.

Set clear objectives.

Plot what achievement “looks like” at each stage as your org creates your promoting arrangements. Without clear objectives, it is difficult to judge the adequacy of promotions, outlines, mottos, or any piece of your campaign. Make certain your office is mindful of what you would like to perform with your system and characterize a particular estimation of achievement, whether regarding new clients, call-backs or strict deals.

Cover the budget bases.

Nothing jeopardizes a positive vendor relationship like squabbles over cash. Work with your advertising agency to set a particular plan for each one piece of your promoting campaign and in addition a general plan for advertising your business. Likewise, audit individual assessments for particular plan and printing tasks, office promoting commissions and managerial expenses.

Establish specific timelines.

Make sure you and your group are mindful of the proposed timetable of dispatch for your advertising program and additionally transitional dates for improvement paving the way to dispatch. React immediately when your office needs data from you to execute components of your fight, and catch up rapidly with sealing and asked for amendments. (H. Montgomery, 2011)

Requirement 3:

Any techniques which are intended directly for the customers and are well within the control of the customers can be called as below the line promotions. Below the line promotion includes techniques which are creative and interesting meant for the targeted customers. BMW has used various below the line promotions to gain many customers.

a) Public relations: This involves various public activities. In order to get the attention of political parties’ worldwide and general public, BMW has created and donated to many charities. Activities as such has given them wide recognition, which is apart from the recognition they get from quality cars which they produce.

b) Direct marketing: This is a form of marketing where the customers are reached out directly through flyers, leaflets. BMW does take part in this kind of direct marketing but not to a large extent. They usually do this when they represent them self in trade fairs and exhibitions.

c) Internet: Internet as it does not need much introduction has become widely popular in the last decade. Internet is used to mainly use to reach out to various target groups. BMW has cars which vary in class, sizes, color and prices. Different customers have different preference. Internet is used as a medium of promotion to reach these messages to different target groups. It is also a medium to get feedback from clients.

d) Events: Events include exhibitions and trade fairs. In these kind of events products are directly showcased, where the people can try the products or services and gain detailed knowledge about it. This is method of providing immediate good perception of the product or service in the mind of potential customers.

e) Promotional campaigns: Companies includes certain number of individuals who widely participate in promoting the company. They usually design and execute campaigns. (, 2013)


Following are other techniques which can be used as below the line promotional techniques:

Door to-Door Marketing

Door to door promoting takes selling to an personal level, and this is a standout amongst the most well-known manifestations of below the line promotion. This procedure obliges profoundly prepared sales staff that knows how to construct customer relationship and can walk that barely recognizable difference of being tenacious without being irritating. Most door to door promoting campaigns allows the person doing it some commission on the sales, so forthright expenses can be kept low and salesmen have more motivation to make sales. Most common door to door promoting is in the case of insurance companies.

Exterior Location Marketing

Exterior location marketing includes driving enthusiasm to an event or sale through the key utilization of employees set outside the area. Ordinarily, these systems incorporate sandwich-board style promotions or actually sprucing up the employee in an outfit to attract more attention on the location. These workers may remain nearby the street, getting the consideration of passing drivers. While this system is not frequently utilized, it can be helpful for small organizations, restaurants and car dealers. Thus, dealers dealing with BMW cars can be provided with incentives to do such activities to increase their sales.

Email Marketing

Email marketing can likewise be a manifestation of below the line promoting if your organization directs the campaign all alone. You are speaking specifically with the buyer through this manifestation of promoting and can steer them to a point of arrival where they can take in more about what you are putting forth. This thus provides for you the capacity to measure campaign effectiveness. Email promoting is for the most part economical, and results can be great if the email rundown is focused on fresh and follows double opt-in guidelines Double opt-in refers to the process where consumers have to confirm their subscription to an email list before emails can be sent to them. (K. McFerlin, 2014)

Requirement 4:

Surviving in the market is not easy for the company. For companies to be prosperous they have to continue to attract and serve targeted customers within their budget. Hence budget for promotional strategy is very important. Following are some of the steps involved in the process of formulation of appropriate budget for promotional strategy: a) Observing market climate: Market can be unpredictable at time. Trends move in and out very quickly. Company’s market department has their eyes like eagles on the market. They are always on the look for the that little gap which they can fill in. They are always looking for windows of opportunity. Not observing the market climate can leave them way behind, furthermore not having a appropriate budget estimation.
b) Evaluating brand weakness and strength: This is important as because no brand is perfect. Even sometimes when a brand is created by the best of marketing managers, it may not be accepted well by the public or targeted groups. Hence, not keeping anything set in mind, marketers are always looking to find those weaknesses which they can improve on.
c) Creating competitive marketing strategy: What sets your product, service and organization separated from your competitors? What quality do you give and how is it not quite the same as the plan B? Competitive strategies is about characterizing how you’ll “separate” your offering and make esteem for your business sector. It’s about cutting out a spot in the competitive scene, putting your stake in the ground, and winning mindshare in the commercial marketplace – being known for a certain “something” d) Up to date plans: As the name suggests, plans are necessary to be on time rather than behind time for the estimation of appropriate budget. e) Getting feedback: One of the most important thing as without feedback companies cannot know where they stand. (, 2014)


An promotion plan diagrams the limited time instruments or strategies you want to use to achieve your promoting goals. To the new or unpractised advertiser, the promotion plan may be mixed up as the whole promoting arrangement on the grounds that it plots where most of the advertising plan will be used. It is, nonetheless, only one part of the advertising plan – there are extra procedure and arranging segments portrayed in a marketing plan.

You may decide to incorporate the accompanying components in your promotion plan:

The significant segment to your Promotion Plan is the portrayal (or posting) of the planned promotional tactics you plan to use.

Anticipated expenses for the year. Estimate your expenses as precisely as could be expected under the circumstances.

Demonstrate the Relationship between the Promotional Tactics and Marketing Objectives

Show the Relationship between the Promotional Tactics and Marketing Objectives Refer to or list again relevant objectives from the Marketing Objectives section of your marketing plan and point out how you will accomplish them using the promotion plan (Smallbusinessnotes, n.d)

And appropriate promotional plan for BMQ product would incorporate the following:
a) Define specific objective
b) Distribution plan and targeted customers.
c) Creating a theme to make it unique.
d) Creating a supporting message with the product.
e) Most important of all hiring a professional promotional consultant.


The integration of promotional techniques such as price incentives for a business or product must focus on the needs of the market, the condition and elasticity of demand, need for price incentives, and consumer responses towards price incentives (Dimitropoulos, 2012). A luxurious product such as BMW may use promotional technique of focusing on research and development for innovating new product features. Setting high prices also positions the product and represents it as a status symbol in consumer’s mind. Thus the integration of promotional techniques such as setting high price, branded entertainment, high performance, exclusivity eventually formulates an overall promotional strategy. However if not communicated properly or if the techniques are conflicting the brand message will be misinterpreted by consumers. Overemphasizing or underemphasizing features or overlooking the actual consumer needs should be avoided (Terence, 2010)

An appropriate plan for the integration of promotional techniques for BMW has the following steps to be incorporated: a) Assess the marketing communication opportunities for BMW. For example understanding the needs of the target market b) Determining the mode of communication that is going to be used for BMW. Example using intermediaries or selling products directly in BMW show room. c) Determine promotion mix. Gathering resources for sales promotion, adverting and publicity. d) Developing promotional budget. Gathering financial resource to afford the plan. e) Determining campaign effectiveness. Using various tools, like project appraisal techniques, analysis of the situation, etc to understand the viability.


Promotion is not a definite science. There’s no exact approach to measure the achievement of a promotion campaigns. You can’t, for instance, decide what number of sales cash are created by each one promoting cost used. However there are strategies that will provide for you a harsh thought of whether your promotions are hitting the imprint.

Verify you have clear promoting goals. You may need to help business generally, however your destination ought to be more particular: to increase sales of a new product or service, to assemble attention to your organization, to increase volume amid a certain time period, or to stretch your business in a specific market.

To evaluate the viability of your promoting campaign, you can monitor sales, new clients, demands for information, telephone request, retail location activity, site movement, or navigate rates. Utilize these strategies to gauge the force of the promotion campaign

A straightforward approach to tell if your campaign is working is to track retail activity by tallying the individuals who enter your store. Bear in mind to monitor activity before you begin the promotion campaign, so you’ll have a premise for correlation. What’s more ask new clients how they came to know about the business. (Smallbusinessnotes,n.d)

a) Kotler, Veronica, Saunders (2005). Principles of Marketing:. 4th ed. London: Prentice hall. 34-56. b) elearnportal. (2013). Marketing Communications Process. Available: Last accessed 25/11/14. c) Infinitee. (2013). 5 Advertising and Marketing Trends for 2013.Available: Last accessed 25/11/14. d) Mukesh and Ranju (2011). Advertising and sales management. New Delhi: V. K Enterprise. 55-67. e) H. Montgomery. (2009). Tips for Working Effectively with an Advertising Agency. Available: Last accessed 25/11/14. f) Business case studies. (2013). Using promotion to campaign for public services. Available: Last accessed 25/11/14. g) K. McFerlin. (2014). Examples of Below-the-Line Advertising. Available: Last accessed 26/11/14. h) MarketingMO. (2014). Competitive Positioning. Available: Last accessed 26/11/14. i) Smallbusinessnotes. (n.d). Promotion Plan. Available: Last accessed 26/11/14.

Justify The Proposed Approaches Essay

Justify The Proposed Approaches Essay

My campaign has various links to the national campaign which has the same topic as mine. This campaign is called ‘reducing underage drinking; a collective responsibility. This campaign used the mass media approach and the community development approach similar to my campaign. In my campaign I have used three approaches and have embedded them into the creation of my campaign. These are the role of mass media, national campaign and involving health e educators. The first approach would be the role of mass media.

As I have mentioned in a previous task, media can be presented in various forms such as through the television, radio, Magazines newspapers and billboards. I have chosen to use the media approach because I think it will be more applicable to my target audience. The age group that my campaign applies to are very knowledgeable in the world of media. Having our own twitter page gives our campaign the opportunity to be seen on a large scale, on an off change that someone could see our twitter account it could be very beneficial for them.

However using the media as an approach does some with some disadvantages, such as not being able to teach vital skills. Using the media in our campaign didn’t allow us to go into detail and give the personal support that some individuals may need. Using twitter didn’t allow us to write much, only short sentences. This approach relates to the health belief model. The health belief model suggests that people will only seek help when they have to. Our target audience was forced to listen to our campaign as we were presenting it to them. But to them go away and search our twitter page because they needed help happens on their own accord, and has nothing to do with us. They will be seeking help because they believe that they may have been one of the teenage binge drinkers we aware talking about. The second approach is uses were the social marketing approach. Using this approach made me use my brain strategically to see if what I was doing in my campaign would had related to my audience.

Using the social marketing approach I decided to use an app to get some information across. Using an app was a good idea for my target audience. Most people in the room had an iPhone and were excited to hear that there was an app available. The excitement made people download it, hopefully the information on the app, and the help that is provided will have a positive effect on the adolescence. The model I used the theory of reasoned action. This is because my audience had had the intention to drink when they drink. But after my campaign and the information I showed them that intention changed. They now realised the problems that come with drinking at obsessive measures, and have changed their intentions to not wanting to drink. Now that the people who were in my audience have changed their intentions. According to the theory of reasoned action they will no longer be involved in drinking activity.

Advertisements: How Do They Persuade Us Essay

Advertisements: How Do They Persuade Us Essay

Advertisements are part and parcel of our lives. Perhaps, they are one of the most decisive and, at the same time, imperceptible factors moulding and channelling our “purchasing habits,” so to speak. On the face of it, advertisements promote products and services; they create demand by dint of inducing and increasing consumption. Yet, the ways in which they convey their messages have a profound effect on all aspects of our lives: our happiness, our culture, family and interpersonal relations, business, stereotypes, wealth and status, individuality, and so forth.

According to Leiss et al. (1990: 1), advertising is ‘a “privileged form of discourse”’, in that it can attract our attention, insinuating itself into our thought processes and carving out a niche in our lives. As we shall see, advertisements succeed in selling us a lot more than merely products; in fact, they contrive to reconstruct our relations to things and other people—in short, they interfere with our sense of identity, they equate us with things, and manipulate us.

Williamson’s observation succinctly encapsulates their power: ‘Advertisements are selling us something else besides consumer goods: in providing us with a structure in which we, and those goods, are interchangeable, they are selling us ourselves’ (Williamson, 1978: 13). In the present study we are concerned with how advertisements, or rather ‘ad men’, to quote Packard (1957), persuade us to buy their products, and exploit our “hidden” needs—both processes taking place beneath our level of awareness.

See more: First Poem for You Essay

In searching for more effective ways of persuading people to buy goods, a great many merchandisers or ‘probers’ (Packard, 1957) turned to psychologists in order to gain insights into the deepest recesses of the psyche and the factors that motivate people, and then to capitalise on their expectations and fears. Equipped with this knowledge, ad men nowadays exert a remarkable influence on people’s habits and conceptualisation of the world and themselves in relation to values—values which are, in great measure, determined by the marketplace.

Packard (1957: 14), perhaps one of the most vehement critics of “the hidden persuaders” who have ensnared us by appealing to our unconscious or subconscious needs, eloquently captures the “state of the art”: The symbol manipulators and their research advisers have developed their depth view of us by sitting at the feet of psychiatrists and social scientists (particularly psychologists and sociologists) who have been hiring themselves out as ‘practical’ consultants or setting up their own research firms.

These ‘motivation analysts’ have definitely become our shamans who, ‘having helped to inspire the fear of the devil [in us], [they offer] redemption’ (Bolinger, 1980: 2) by means of the products they sell. They are not only interested in moving their merchandise off the shelves; they are actually seeking out powerful communicative cues, ‘a discourse through and about objects’ (Leiss et al. , 1990), which will weld together people, products, and cultural models.

In view of this, ‘we no longer buy oranges, we buy vitality. We do not buy just an auto, we buy prestige’ (Packard, 1957: 15). The sale of ‘self-images’ (ibid. ) is now the norm. Advertisements barely focus on products alone; it is the prospective buyers that they make “overtures” to—which is mirrored in the language used and in such features as the colours in the ad, its layout, and so on (we will consider some of these aspects in due course).

As Ewen (1976, cited in Leiss et al. 1990: 23) notes, advertisers have effected a ‘self-conscious change in the psychic economy’ by inundating the marketplace with suggestions that consumers should buy goods in order to enter realms of experience previously unfamiliar to them. Gradually then, advertising has become a ‘highly organized and professional system of magical inducements and satisfactions’ (Williams, 1980 [1962], cited in Leiss et al. , 1990: 25) which can sell us emotional security, reassurance of wealth, ego-gratification, creative outlets, love objects, a sense of power and roots, and immortality (see Packard, 1957: 66-74 for further details).

Many people would, at this juncture, hasten to defend advertising on the grounds that the consumer is a rational decision maker who avails herself of technology; advertising cannot create new needs but can only help increase or speed up consumption (Schudson, 1984, cited in Leiss et al. , 1990: 36); and without the help of advertising, consumers would have limited information about the products circulating around them.

What they lose sight of, though, is the fact that ‘[w]e never relate to goods only for their plain utility; there is always a ymbolic aspect to our interactions with them’ (Leiss et al. , 1990: 45). Now that we have briefly outlined the “state of the art,” we move on to the actual study of advertisements and the ways in which they persuade us. There are many approaches to this end, but we will draw upon two: semiology, or the study of signs, and content analysis. Semiology, on the one hand, is concerned with the emergence and “movement” of meaning within the text and between the text and the world surrounding it. Content analysis, on the other, focuses on the surface meaning of an ad, detecting similarities and differences.

Indisputably, the growing predominance of visuals in ads has resulted in a kind of ambiguity of meaning, which renders the interpretation of the message more complex and challenging. Earlier advertisements explicitly stated the message by describing the product and adducing arguments in its favour. In the 1920s, however, visuals were more frequently used, and these two, text and visual, became complementary. Still, in the 1960s, the text shifted away from describing the visual toward a more elaborate and mystic form, whereby it functioned as a “key” to the visual (Leiss et al. 1990: 199).

Against this background of radical changes in the form and content of advertisements, the abovementioned approaches, semiology and content analysis, offer us an insight into the structures of ads and help throw light on the subtle elements, expectations and assumptions, with which they are imbued. Roland Barthes (1973, cited in Leiss et al. , 1990: 200-201), following Ferdinand De Saussure’s tradition, divides a sign into two components: the signifier and the signified.

The signifier is the material object; the signified is its abstract meaning. Let us illustrate this with Barthe’s own example: Roses signify passion or love. If we analyse their “meaning,” we have three elements: the signifier—the roses; the signified—passion or love; and the sign—the “passionified roses” as a whole. Of course, there is nothing inherently “passionate” or “amorous” about roses; they are viewed as such within the context of western culture. In another culture, roses could signify something different, even the opposite of passion or love.

Thus, any interpretation of advertisements from a semiotic perspective is bound up with cultural norms and values which may be at odds with those operating in different cultures or different systems of meaning. After all, the power of advertisements lies in, and appropriates, these very norms and values, with a view to reconstituting reality, while “tinging” it with an arcane suggestiveness and elusiveness. Drawing upon several advertisements, we will endeavour to probe into the ‘probers’’ minds, weaving the two approaches together.

More specifically, we will focus on the rhetorical devices employed (e. . , metaphors, metonymy, jingles, etc. ), as well as the ways in which the text and the visual element prevail upon us to react, i. e. , to buy the product (e. g. , their proclivity for creating a problem, only to consign it to the “omnipotence” of the product, their spatial arrangement, etc. ). Unfortunately, an in-depth analysis is outside the remit of this study. Let us consider the following ad: A black Ford Zetec covers two pages in the magazine, while the text reads: “When the lorry in front loses its load, most drivers would find themselves losing control.

Not if you’re driving the new 2. 0 litre Ford Focus Zetec ESP. One of the first cars in its class available with an Electronic Stability Program. ESP constantly assesses the angle you are steering against information received from sensors on the behaviour and direction of the car. By reducing engine power and braking individual wheels it helps you to maintain control and stability, allowing you to stay on track. It’s almost like it knows what to do before you do. So sit back, enjoy the ride and expect more. ”

And the motto just above the car is: “just steer. This common, albeit “catchy,” ad addresses the prospective buyer directly through the use of the pronoun you. What is more, the strategy it employs is that of creating a problem—or rather setting a scene familiar to many a driver (“When the lorry in front loses its load, most drivers would find themselves losing control. ”)

Only in the first sentence is there any mention of “most drivers”—apparently in order to juxtapose them to you, the prospective buyer. “You” are not like “most drivers” because “you” are driving “the new 2. 0 litre Ford Focus Zetec ESP. Another device employed in the ad is the use of personification, as in “ESP constantly assesses…it helps you…It’s almost like it knows…” The new Ford Focus is more of a jinee in a bottle waiting for you to rub it than merely a car. All “you” have to do is “sit back, enjoy the ride and expect more,” revelling in the security its omnipotence affords.

Finally, the pun in “just steer,” referring to the actual steering of the vehicle and, only obliquely, to the idiom “to steer clear of,” consciously or unconsciously, dares us to pop into the car and drive, reminding us of our inability to resist the temptation vs. he omnipotence of the vehicle. As Williamson observes, ‘puns perform the correlating function seen in all ads, but in a way that begs to be deciphered…condensation draws together both the denoted and connoted meanings of the ad, therefore making a deterministic connection between them’ (Williamson, 1978: 87). Yet, not all ads are so straightforward and direct. Let us examine the following ad (found in Williamson, 1978: 25). The ad shows Catherine Deneuve’s face and a Chanel No 5 bottle. There is no text linking these two; they are simply juxtaposed. But are they really linked, in the first place?

One could say that they are supposed to be linked, in terms of an assumption that they are inextricably related. This link, though, is arbitrary, drawing upon our knowledge of a glamorous world of films and magazines, which Deneuve has come to be associated with. Thus, in juxtaposing her face, which signifies beauty and glamour, with Chanel No 5, there is a “latent” transference of meaning from Deneuve’s face to the product, and back again. Not only is her face rendered an object that is summoned to “argue” in favour of the product, but it also depends on that product for the beauty and glamour ascribed to it.

Here, the use of language is irrelevant, as the ad appropriates the relationship obtaining between signifier (Catherine Deneuve) and signified (glamour and beauty). In other ads, the visual, not only complements, but virtually transcends, the text, to convey a meaning which is not always easy to decipher. Consider the Gordon’s Gin ad, where there are two different photographs of a famous actor of the 1950s, the second one being obviously altered to the point where the actor is barely recognisable. On the left side of the first photo, there is a text in italics, reading: Gordon’s is made with the pick of the Tuscan Juniper.

On the right side of the second photo, the text written in a regular typeface reads: “Other gins are made with what’s left. ” Finally, at the bottom of the page, there is a Gordon’s Special Dry London Gin bottle in the middle of the sentence: “If you’re not drinking (bottle of Gin) what are you drinking? ” Apparently, the significance of the ad resides in assumptions and values outside its ‘grammar’ (Williamson, 1978).

First of all, the juxtaposition of the two photographs appropriates the general belief that a good photograph means good quality, which then invites the reader to make the connection between he quality of the first photograph with that of the product through the association of the text in italics with the first picture, and the regular text with the second. Furthermore, the thin typeface (i. e. , italics) stands in stark contrast to the regular text, as it is associated with glamour and prestige and arouses “elegant” feelings.

So, the last sentence “If you’re not drinking (bottle of Gin) what are you drinking? ” could easily be rephrased as: “If you’re not one of those who prefer our gin, then who are you? Once again, the product is “put on a pedestal,” while tinkering with our desire for approval, that is, suggesting to us that we will find our identity only if we indulge in it. In addition, the use of the calligram, i. e. , the picture of the bottle, instead of the words naming it, establishes the product as something that has a substance all its own, which is beyond words. As Williamson (1978: 91) has noted, the calligram playfully seeks to erase the oldest oppositions of our alphabetical civilisation: to show and to name; to figure and to speak; to reproduce and articulate; to look and to read…[It is a] double trap, an inevitable snare.

Rin vs Tide Essay

Rin vs Tide Essay

In the first move of its kind by HUL, homecare brand Rin has openly taken on rival P&6s Tide, without the typical airbrushing or pixellation to hide the rival brand name on TV and ads on radio. The current high profile aggressive stand of Rin has a background story. There was a proxy war going on between Rin and Tide since December 2009. In order to retain its market share, in December P&G introduced a low-cost detergent, Tide Natural, claiming in its ads that it provided “whiteness with special fragrance”.

The product was positioned against HI-IL’s Rin and Wheel.

Tide Naturals was priced significantly ower to the Rin. Tide Naturals was launched at Rs 50 per Kg , Rs 10 for 200 gms and Rs 20 for400 gms. Rin was priced at Rs 70 per Kg at that time. The reduced price of the Tide variant was an immediate threat to Rin. Since Tide already has an established brand equity, Rin was bound to face the heat.

Although HUL had another low priced brand Wheel priced at Rs 32/Kg, Tide was not in the same category of Wheel. Rin had to cut the price to resist the market share erosion. HUL was facing a steady erosion in the market share in most of the categories.

In the detergent category itself, he brand faced a market share fall of 2. 5% in December 2009. With P;G starting a price war, HUL had to react and it did by cutting the price of Rin by 30% to Rs 50 per Kg. HUL also reacted to the Tide Natural’s price war in a ‘ Guerrilla Marketing ‘ way. It took P&G to the court regarding the Tide Natural’s advertisement. The contention was that Tide Naturals was giving the impression to the consumers that it contained natural ingredients like Sandal. The court ordered P;G to modify the campaign and While P;G opened a war in the price front, HUL retaliated by opening two war fronts.

One was the direct comparative ad and other through the court order asking P;G to modify Tide Naturals Ad and to admit that Tide Naturals is not ‘ Natural’. So we can that HUL retaliated with an aggressive two-pronged strategy. * First, it challenged Tide’s claim of whiteness with special fragrance in the Chennai High Court, which passed an order on 25 February 2010 (CS 189/2010), directing P&G to modify the advertisement since it was not really able to substantiate the claim of “whiteness with special fragrance”. The court has granted an injunction and directed P&G to respond within three weeks.

Three days later on 28 February, HUL launched an aggressive TV campaign aired during prime time It was Rin which won the Round 1 of this war. It generated enough Buzz about the brand with all the media talking about the campaign. Rin was also able to neutralize the aggression of P&G to certain extent. Tide chose not to respond because further fuel to the fight can highlight the fact that Tide Naturals does not contain any ‘Natural Ingredients ” which may negatively affect the brand’s standing in the consumer’s mind. So it is better to play the role of a “poor” victim at this point of time.

P&G can celebrate because of the free advertisement it got for Tide Naturals because of the comparative ad of Rin. Although Indian marketing world have seen lot of comparative ads, the Rin Vs Tide is a rare case of direct comparative ad where the brand has taken the competitor brand’s name and challenging it head on. That is the main reason behind the media noise about the campaign. P&G India always was a laid back competitor in the FMCG market. Despite having the product portfolio and market strength, it never realized its potential. The company was happy with their minuscule market share in the various categories in the FMCG usiness.

For television viewers, it was hard to miss the now infamous Rin commercial, which was unleashed on Indian television screens on Thursday (February 25, 2010). Perhaps bombardment would be a better word: the high-voltage TVC was supported by a media plan that included primetime slots across all major GECs and news channels, in an effort to deliver maximum impact over the long weekend. The ad shows two mothers waiting at a bus stop for their children, who are returning from school. They spot each other’s shopping baskets – one woman’s basket sports a packet of Rin, while the other has purchased Tide Naturals.

The Tide lady looks proudly at her purchase and brags about Tide’s ‘khushboo aur safedi bhi’ offering When the school bus rounds the corner and drops off the two children, the Tide lady’s boy is wearing a visibly dull shirt, while behind him emerges a boy clad in a spotless white shirt, who runs past the shocked Tide lady, over to his ‘Rin’ mother. To make things cheekier, the boy asks his mother, ‘Aunty chaunk kyun gayi? ‘ (Why is aunty so shocked? ), where the word ‘chaunk’ could easily be a reference to Tide’s punch line, ‘Chaunk gaye? ‘ The voiceover concludes that Rin is ‘behtar’ or superior to

Tide, when it comes to whiteness, and at a ‘chaunkane wala’ price of Rs 25, at that. A super, ‘Issued in the interest of Rin users’, completes the commercial. Comparative advertising is, quite obviously, not a new phenomenon by any standards. Every other brand has dabbled with it at some point, while it is almost formulaic for some categories. However, to make comparisons with competition involves discretion in execution, such as air-brushing or pixelating a competitor’s brand name/pack shot, and most definitely, keeping away from referring to rival brand names.

With this ad, however, Rin seems to have broken every rule in the book. But what may seem like a publicity stunt to some, is, in all probability, a well-thought out strategy on the part of Rin’s makers, Hindustan Unilever (HUL). There are two debatable issues in this advertisement: * The advertisement clearly shows a packet of Tide Naturals, which has green packaging and is a cheaper extension of Tide, which orange packaging) whereas the woman in the commercial says ‘Tide se kahin behatar safedi de Rin’ (Rin gives better whiteness than Tide)- Does this amount to misleading the public as per the Indian Law? At the end of the advertisement, a line is displayed on the bottom stating hat “this claim is based on laboratory tests done through globally accepted protocols in independent third-party laboratories’ and Schematic representation of superior whiteness is based on Whiteness Index test of Rin Vs Tide Naturals as tested by Independent lab” .

Keri 2006 Advertising Campaign Essay

Keri 2006 Advertising Campaign Essay

This is a 2006 advertising campaign of Keri new skin-care product, Keri Nourishing Shea Butter lotion. It is a remake and reproduction of a well-known painting “La Grande Odalisque” by French artist Jean-August-Dominique Ingres. The written message states this “experience the timeless beauty of being a woman with Keri Shea Butter. Enriched with nourishing Vitamin E, it makes skin feel truly touchable”. It seemingly means that this new product can help improve the consumer’s skin performance.

But indeed, this ad contains intended meanings which include symbolic properties and commodity fetishism.

First of all, this Keri’s ad produces symbolic meanings. In this ad, it is not a simply a case that the conventions and themes of an artist or a style are copied, but rather it is a carefully and close reproduction of the original painting. If we compare it to the origin, the head cover, the fan and pose of the nuked woman is almost the same. The product itself has no meaning.

However this careful reproduction of particular elements obvious makes the ad as a reference to the original painting, a classic and wide international recognized work of art which is meaningful to most consumers. As a masterwork of art in the history, the painting is regarded as an important icon of an immortal and timeless signifier of classical female beauty. By creating correlation between the ad and Ingres’ painting, the image, ideas of Ingres’ panting become attached to Keri’s new product. The sexy female nude, the material object, becomes the signifier, and it signified the idea of timeless female beauty.

Therefore, Keri’s new product becomes a sign of timeless female beauty. Moreover, the advertisement creates differentiation between new product and the other products in the same series (Williamson, 1978, p24). Keri’ ad introduces a new product that is enriched with nourishing Vitamin E, an important element to make skin smooth and vibrant. In fact, there are more six more products in this category. The function and content of Keri Nourishing Shea Butter make it unique and independent to other product, such as Original, Advanced and Moisture Rich Oil.

In addition, the advertisement makes the product and a feeling of “experience of the timeless beauty of being a woman” equal in value. Every woman wants to be beautiful and timeless. However money cannot buy you beautiful and timeless. Thus, by generating a connection between Keri’s product and feeling, it adds a value to timeless beauty, because money can buy Keri’s product. Secondly, the Keri’s lotion product exists as a commodity in the market place. The lotion has a nature priority of making skin smooth.

As Marx says the nature priority decides the use value (Marx, 1867). The use value of Keri’s product is to improve your skin quality. In Capital, Marx says the objective form of social relations is called reification (1867). As the advertising campaign says “experience the timeless beauty of being a woman with Keri Shea Butter”, the consumers will experience “timeless beauty of being a woman” if they purchase and consume the product. The human relationship of timeless beauty is expressed in a commodity form of lotion.

The abstracted social relations are taken out of their actual organic context”, abstraction separates the use value and exchange value of a commodity (Goldman, 1992, p21). In this ad, the meaning of using its product is transformed into the experience of timeless beauty. In this process, the exchange value of Keri’s product now refer to the timeless beauty. It equivalents the value of the product and the value of a history work of art of beauty female by putting the product and reproduction image together into the same frame.

Paul Lutus Advertising Essay

Paul Lutus Advertising Essay

In his article entitled Consumer Angst written in 2007, Paul Lutus claimed that “No matter how true any single advertisement is, modern advertising, taken as a whole, tells a lie — that you need the thing being advertised. ” To explain his point, Paul Lutus further claims that valuable consumer goods need not be advertised because it is a necessity by itself and no promotion is needed for it to attract and obtain sales. Moreover, he explained that the quality of the product should speak for itself and there is no need to “waste company’s money asserting the obvious”.

In his above-mentioned arguments, Paul Lutus obviously focuses only on one aspect of advertising which is to sell. He missed to appreciate the other function of advertising which is to inform. Advertising, as defined by Wikipedia. org, “is the form of communication whose purpose is to inform potential customers about products and services and how to obtain and use them”. The primary purpose of advertising is to create public awareness about a certain product or service that is being advertised.

It aims to communicate to the intended audience that such a product or service exists.

As Taflinger (1996) claims “the basic purpose of advertising is to identify and differentiate one product from another in order to persuade the consumer to buy that product in preference to another. ” Advertising is usually used to create a unique image that will be identified to a product or service. The message that is being communicated usually highlights the best features of the product – its uniqueness, usability, best characteristics, etc. – that will customer’s attention to it. After providing information on the product or service features, advertising’s goal is to entice customers to try out the product.

It is therefore safe to claim that the end-goal of any advertisement is to generate sales in terms of product or service. However, while it is true that every advertising campaign is aimed at generating revenue for the brand that is being advertised, it is not proper to claim that all advertisements are lies. Even premium brands such as Nike, Armani, Prada and others do advertise their products. These brands are sought after and have all proven to be of good quality. But these brands still invest on advertisement. Advertising has become an important part of today’s business.

With new products sprouting like mushrooms everyday, competition has become stiff and advertising has taken a big role in allowing the product or service to compete in the market. In his article entitled “Educating the Consumer about Advertising: Some Issues” Stephen Gotlieb (1991) explains that advertising “promotes competition among producers of products and services, keeps prices low through the development of mass markets, encourages store owners to stock a variety of items, supports free expression by funding media sources, and spurs invention”.

The more you are seen and understood by your customers, the bigger chance you have to stay in the mainstream. It is therefore important to get you message through, so that your product or service gets noticed. Or else, your offer will just perish. Also, with the competition getting tighter, advertisers today cannot afford to rely on false claims for their products of services. With a lot of other options available in the market, a single wrong claim will trigger the customer to try out other product. It is the role of advertising to entice customers and encourage them to try out the product.

Once the customer is convinced with the advertising claim and decides to avail the product or service, it is now the role of the product to prove itself and embody what is being stated in the advertising claim. It is therefore crucial to communicate the message that best embodies the product. Once advertised, the product or service is already exposed to t he public eye and scrutiny. Unless the customer has already tried out the product or service, their perception of the product will depend on the advertisement. It will either make or break the future of the product or service depending on how you position the message about the product.

Therefore, while an advertisement is typically used to create or alter the consumer’s perception of a product and induce them into buying it, it cannot be said that it is Always a lie. For obvious reasons, advertisements only highlight the good side of the products or services. We cannot blame the advertisers to do this. While they are obviously banking on the good side of their offer, we cannot accuse them of telling us a lie. The beauty of advertising is it gives the customers the chance to evaluate the competing products or services even before purchasing it through the product claims.