Categories for Abuse
Sexual Harassment and Abuse Essay
Based on this week’s reading, what are the delimiting factors which determine whether or not an individual is experiencing sexual harassment or sexual abuse? In your opinion, how prevalent are these offenses and what is an appropriate response? Unfortunately in our society, we have been gradually increasing sexual liberties in the ways we dress, talk, and act in any and every public venue. This sexual liberation from both genders has helped to blur the boundaries of sexual harassment. Balswick and Balswick define sexual harassment as “any form of unsolicited language or touching containing sexual overtones.
It includes sexual jokes, suggestive talk and unsolicited physical advances (Balswick and Balswick, 2008). ” Based on that definition and what I know of many work places, especially hospitals, outsiders could perceive that sexual harassment is alive and well on any given day. Though many of those sharing sexual jokes and innuendos would adamantly deny that they were harassing anyone, they could not deny that they shared unsolicited material.
They chose to verbally pass along what they found to be funny from their experiences or mind, while simultaneously failing to consider how the information may be received and perceived by those listening.
Generally, those that object are thought to be sensitive people and are excluded from future exposure. Most institutions and work places today have established grievance policies for anyone that perceives they are experiencing sexual harassment. The boundaries of sexual abuse are clearer than the boundaries of sexual harassment. Sexual abuse is more profound, affords greater injury to the victim, and carries stiffer consequences for the perpetrator. Balswick and Balswick define sexual abuse as “a sexual act imposed on a child or person who lacks emotional, maturational, and or cognitive development (Balswick and Balswick, 2008.
Balswick and Balswick use the terms sexual abuser and sex offender interchangeably. Thus, for me the scope of the definition of sexual abuse should be broadened. Sex offenders exist that rape and sexually abuse women who are not lacking emotionally, maturationally, or in cognitive development. They were merely overpowered or feared for their lives, yet, the abuse they suffered was strictly sexual in nature. Victims of sexual abuse often carry the weighted burdens of shame and unwarranted guilt in addition to numerous other negative emotions, hurts, feelings of betrayal and abandonment, physical trauma, and more.
Though I believe more people report their experiences today than perhaps earlier decades, I believe that many never report; perhaps because of the time that has elapsed between the abuse and the time they feel safe enough to report; perhaps they feel they would heap on more personal shame by exposing a family member or that now their spouse and children would be hurt by the revelation; perhaps there are innumerable personal reasons for failing to report past abuses and hurts and maybe for the individual they are better dealt with in private counseling even if it negatively impacts our statistics.
I believe our responsibility should be guided by helping the injured rather than punishment or seeking vengeance against the perpetrator. I am reminded of God’s Word to us in Psalm 82, “Defend the weak and the fatherless; uphold the cause of the poor and the oppressed. Rescue the weak and the needy; deliver them from the hand of the wicked (NIV). In Ephesians 4 Paul includes some instructions for living as Christians, “Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths, but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen. And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, with whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and slander, along with every form of malice.
Be kind and compassionate to one another, forgiving each other, just as in Christ God forgave you (NIV). ” Finally, Paul reminds us in Romans of Jesus instruction, “Do not take revenge, my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: ‘It is mine to avenge; I will repay,’ says the Lord. On the contrary: ‘If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head. ’ Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good(NIV). ”
Drug Abuse Essay
Drug abuse has an effect on all aspects of life; overall health and wellness, family life, and the community. With there being so many different kinds of drugs the effects are endless. The effect of drug abuse does not discriminate or focus on any one person. Drug abuse can be found in any area of the world and the overall effects can be devastating to anyone involved. A person’s choice to use any kind of illegal drug or abusing prescribed medicines can have a damaging impact on their overall health and wellness.
This damaging effect on addicts overall health and wellness can be both short and long term. An active addict can face many health changes and challenges throughout the time that they choose to use.
There can be many short term effects that depend on exactly what drug is being abused. There are drugs that can raise your heart rate, make you hallucinate, and even dehydrate you badly. “The impact of addiction can be far reaching.
Cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are used at high doses or after prolonged use; however, some may occur after just one use.”
An addict can face many mental health issues during their addiction that can have a devastating effect on their own life. Women substance abusers are more likely than men to have poor self-concepts (low self-esteem, guilt, self-blame) and high rates of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar affective disorder, suicidal ideation, psychosexual disorders, eating disorders, and Post traumatic stress disorder.” “Chronic use of some drugs of abuse can cause long-lasting changes in the brain, which may lead to paranoia, depression, aggression, and hallucinations.”
The addict has a giant effect on their family and home environment. There can be many issues that a family must face when an addict is living in the home. There can be many forms of abuse in a home where there is an addict. There can be sexual abuse, financial abuse, physical abuse and emotional abuse in any home. The addiction is not responsible for the violence but can intensify and make it more common. When an addict is deep in their addiction they will often put financial responsibilities of the home off to get high instead. This can cause child neglect by no food being in home, no electricity or heat. There can be consequences for the children living in a home with an active addict. These consequences may not show up for years until the child of the addict is grown. “The disturbed home and family setup, the inter-parental and parent-child conflict, parental neglect in large families, defective disciplinary techniques (too lax or too strict) and family disorganization are considered as some of the causes of drug abuse.”
There is a higher risk of children of an addict growing up to become addicts themselves An addict has an effect on the community in which they live. This effect from an addict can cause problems for the entire community There is more possibility of crime and erratic behavior in the community where an active addict is living. A defining characteristic of addictive behavior is that they involve in the pursuit of short-term gratification at the expense of long-term harm When a person is under the influence of any drug they may not be fully conscious of the choices that they are making. When there is an active drug area in the community there is usually more violence and less desired living situations. When there are drugs in a common area that area becomes more prone to violence and could actually desensitize the people in the community When you have shootings, robberies, rapes, and murders in any area there will be less of a desire for anybody to want to live there.
Conclusion In conclusion with their being so much drug abuse in today’s society where do we begin to help break the cycle? We have seen that the problem is a mental health issue that begins with the addict; however drug abuse has an effect on all aspects of life; overall health and wellness, family life, and the community. If we stop judging the addicts and making them feel so much shame and embarrassment, we can lift them up, encourage them and support them to better then it can change the overall hurt and damage that is being inflicted on our people and society.
Intimate Violence and Sexual Abuse: Lived Experiences Essay
Abraham Maslow’s (1970) Hierarchy of Needs listed love and belongingness as the third level of human need (Kozier et al., 2006). Indeed, among the most basic needs of human beings is “belongingness.” Thus, humans go into intimate relationships to fulfill that need for love.
Intimate relationships cover a wide range of interactions. It may include marital relationships, but it is not confined to these. It may also include formerly married partners, dating partners, and live-in partners (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2006).
Unfortunately, though, instead of fulfilling the need for love and belonging, some of these intimate relationships cause more harm than good. Sadly, a lot of abuse and violence occur within the supposed “shelter” of these relationships. In US alone, 4.8 million cases of physical assaults and rapes recorded each year occurred within intimate relationships (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000).
With this, the study aims to examine the lived experiences of individuals in an abusive intimate relationship, focusing on its perceived cause, and its effect on the abused individual.
However, it is the study’s ultimate hope that with the data gathered; it may provide and serve as a basis for preventive and curative interventions for intimate relationship violence.
More specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:
1. What are the most common reasons and risk factors for abuse as perceived by individuals experiencing intimate violence?
2. What are the perceived physical and emotional/psychological health consequences of intimate relationship violence and sexual abuse on the abused individual?
Intimate partner abuse or violence, in its most basic sense, is defined as a maltreatment occuring between two non-blood-related individuals interacting in an intimate relationship (CDC, 2006).
The term “intimate relationship” is most commonly associated with marriage. However, it can also refer to any relationship between individuals not related by blood or consanguinity. Therefore, intimate relationships also cover “dating or courtship relationships, relationships where partners live together, relationships where two people have children in common but are no longer formally involved with one another, and marital relationships (Mouradin, 2000).” And in all these relations, intimate violence or sexual abuse can occur.
Intimate partner violence manifests itself in different forms. Physical abuse involves the actual use of force to inflict physical harm. It may include hitting, cutting, slapping, choking, spanking, kicking, hair pulling, pushing, and others (Mouradin, 2000). Emotional abuse, on the other hand, involves verbal and non-verbal acts that inflict harm on the other, without the actual use of physical force. It can include threats, yelling, swearing, insulting or belittling, and other treatments that lack the respect deserved by the other partner (Mouradin, 2000).
However, although physical and emotional abuse are most common, there are also other forms of abuse that exist. Economic abuse entails the deprivation of a partner’s right for financial independence. This type of abuse achieves the same result as emotional abuse by inflicting fear and dependence in the abused individual (Mouradin, 2000). Another type of intimate partner abuse includes social isolation. Social isolation refers to prohibiting a partner to go out, socialize and maintain social support networks (Mouradin, 2000). Still, perhaps among the worst kind of intimate partner violence is sexual abuse.
Intimate sexual violence includes a “range of coercive behaviors from suggestive comments to forced intercourse (Allen, Raimer, & Rothman, 2004).” Although research studies on intimate partner violence are limited, surveys have shown that this problem has increased in prevalence over the years.
In a national survey conducted by the National Violence Against Women, it was revealed that 0.3% of males and 7.7% of females experience in their lifetime an attempted or consumated rape by an intimate partner (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). In addition, statistics suggest that Hispanic and Native American women are at a greater risk for intimate partner sexual abuse (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000).
Further, a study conducted by Campbell et al. (2002), revealed that out of 2,005 women participating in an organization for health maintenance, around 361 reported that they were forced into sexual activities at least once in their lifetime (Campbell et al., 2002).
Overall, an estimated number of five women and one man out of 1,000 individuals, are documented as new cases of intimate sexual abuse cases per year (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000).
Survey organizations point out a lot of factors causing intimate sexual abuse. Among these factors include unemployment, drug or alcohol use, low educational attainment, early onset of sexual experience, and a lot others. Also, another cause of intimate sexual abuse is the existence of myths on rape (i.e. some people deserve or benefit from rape), and the idea that rape can serve as a proof of power or dominance (Allen, Raimer, & Rothman, 2004).
In all these, women respond to sexual abuse in different manners. However, most commonly, victims of intimate sexual violence sustain psychological trauma and negative effects, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (Allen, Raimer, & Rothman, 2004).
Primarily, this study utilized a qualitative research design. Qualitattive research focus on the quality, rather than the quantity, of a human experience. This study design gives emphasis on the “inherent depth of humans, and the ability of humans to shape and create their own experiences (Polit & Beck, 2006).”
This study follows the phenomenological qualitataive research tradition, by attempting to understand the social context in which intimate partner abuse occur (Polit & Beck, 2006).
Twenty individuals experiencing intimate violence and sexual abuse were chosen for this study through snowball or network sampling. All respondents were aged 18 y/o and above, with mixed genders: 17 females and three males. Race was not expressly considered among the respondents, but some cultural variations were noted. After being ensured of confidentiality and anonimity, the respondents gave their consent to participate in the study.
For this study, data was collected through secondary data analysis and surveys.
In secondary data analysis, previously existing data related to the study is examined. Data may come from journals, books, records, magazines, documents, previous studies, and others. This is done to establish a baseline and support for the study (Polit & Beck, 2006).
Surveys, on the other hand, are nonexperimental studies involving polls. In here, researchers use questionnaires, inteviews, and checklists to gather data (Polit & Beck, 2006).
For this study, after the analysis of secondary data, a simple questionaire was constructed. The questionnaire focused on the causes and perceived health consequences of intimate violence and sexual abuse on the abused individual. It was administered among the respondents and then was followed by an interviewed to expound on each specific topic.
This study aims to prove the following hypotheses:
1. The commonly perceived causes/risk factors for intimate abuse are drug and alcohol use, unemployment, childhood abuse history, conflicts, and stressful life events.
2. The perceived physical health consequences of intimate violence and sexual abuse on abused individuals are wounds and lacerations, fracture, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, bleeding, emaciated body state, eye/facial damage, and abdominal injuries.
3. The perceived emotional/psychological health consequences of intimate relationship violence and sexual abuse include post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, trust issues, depression, eating and sleeping disorders, and unsafe sexual behavior.
Discussion and Interpretation
This chapter deals with the discussion of the data gathered from the survey and analysis.
Perceived Causes/Risk Factors of Intimate Abuse
After the data was tallied and analyzed, it was revealed that most of the causes of abuse among intimate relationships are personal and situational, although some societal factors may also come into play. It must also be remembered that abuse is the effect of the interaction of multiple factors, and not just the effect of a single event or factor.
In the survey, 80% of the respondents said that their partners abuse them due to the influences of alcohol, while 55% responded that the abuse was due to the partner’s drug use. This was supported by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Report on Violence and Health that there is a direct relationship between a man’s drinking frequency, and a woman’s increased risk for being a victim of violence (World Health Organization (WHO), 2005).
Respondents also confirmed that unemployment was another factor for intimate violence. Nine out of 20 respondents said that their partners abused them because he/she has no job or is having a hard time finding one. This was verified by Allen, Raimer & Rothman (2004), who listed unemployement as a cause or factor for intimate abuse (Allen, Raimer, & Rothman, 2004).
Another reason agreed on by respondents are marital or relationship conflicts. Ten respondents claimed that they fight about a lot of things. Indeed, the WHO enumerated the following as parts of conflict that cause intimate abuse: lack of obedience on wife’s part, arguing back to the partner, questioning the man’s actions, refusing sex and the woman’s suspected infidelity (WHO, 2005).
Further, five respondents added that their partners beat them due to a sexual compulsion/ dysfunction. These dysfunctions may also be attributed to personality disorders that affect a person’s sexual behavior. Although research on this topic is limited, it was included as a risk factor for abuse by the WHO (WHO, 2005).
However, a most serious cause and risk factor for intimate abuse pointed out by respondents was the presence of a history of chilhood abuse. Ninety percent of the respondents reported that their abusive partners were abused emotionally, physically, and sexually as children. According to the WHO, history of violence in the family of origin is a powerful risk factor for intimate violence and sexual abuse. Studies all over the world showed that “rates of abuse were higher among women whose husbands had either been beaten as children or had witnessed their mothers beaten (WHO, 2005).” In addition to this, victims of intimate abuse themselves presented a history of abuse as children. Sixteen respondents claimed that they were abused as children. In an interview, a respondent revealed that this history of abuse made her feel “like abuse was a normal thing, since [she] grew up with it.”
Other factors pointed out was lack of education, lack of information on rights as a wife or partner, and the acceptability of intimate violence as a social norm. Among the respondents, abuse was greater among individuals who did not finish high school and among those with low self-esteem. Around 45% of the respondents did not finish high school, while 70% claimed that “they were ugly and worthless.” Abuse was also higher in those that experienced a recent stressful life event, and in some cultures that considered the wife as a “property” of the husband.
Perceived Physical Effects of Intimate Abuse
Depending on the prevalence of these causes, the severity of abuse can vary. However, the effects are all the same. Among the respondents, 100% of them reported that after each abuse, there were cuts, wounds, bruises and tears in their body, especially in the vagina or anus.
Seventy-five percent of the respondents reported abdominal or chest injuries and disorders, 60% reported the presence of fracture, 55% reported vaginal/anal bleeding, 50% reported fatigue or tiredness, 35% reported nausea, vomiting and eye/facial damage, and around 25% claimed that the abuse led to an emaciated body state.Still, some added that the sexual abuse led to unwanted pregnancies and that the intimate violence caused miscarriage or stillbirths in some pregnant women.
This finding was validate by the WHO’s report which enumerated physical effects of abuse very much similar to those found in the study (WHO, 2005).
Police Abuse Essay
Police brutality is the excessive, unreasonable use of force against citizens, suspects, and offenders. A study showed that most citizens complained against police officers because of the use of profanity and abusive language towards them, the use of commands to move on or get home, stopping and questioning people on the street or searching them and their cars without probable cause, the use of threats to use force if not obeyed, prodding with a nightstick or approaching with a pistol, and actual use of physical force or violence itself for no reason at all.
Police brutality causes a lack of communication between minority groups and the police department and a lack of trust because of previous run-ins with brutality.
In some cases police brutality runs over into an officer’s personal life as well. There have been several cases where an officer is arrested due to domestic violence and leads to an investigation of their work life. Most of the time there are cover ups, when domestic disputes occur so that the department does not get negative coverage if the incident was to get out, (2002, November).
Ethics are considered a structure for most departments in the United States.
There are several bad apples that get greedy and are cocky at times and think that they cannot be touched if they do wrong. Police departments around the U.S. have several issues with corruption, misconduct, and brutality. Most of the time these issues are covered up so that, these officers do not give the departments bad names and people do not trust them and they, are having more crime on their hands instead of defeating the crime. In recent years, police actions, particularly police abuse has come into view of a wide, public and critical eye. While citizens worry about protecting themselves from criminals, it has now been shown that they must also keep a watchful eye on those who are supposed to protect and serve.
This paper will discuss the types of police abuse prevalent today, including the use of firearms and recovery of private information. I will also discuss what and how citizens’ rights are taken advantage of by the police. Some measures necessary to protect ourselves from police taking advantage of their positions as law enforcement officers with greater permissive rights than private citizens. All citizens must take affirmative actions from physical brutality, rights violations, and information abuse. Members of the police force are government officials who enforce the law and maintain order. They are engaged in dangerous and stressful occupation that can involve violent situations that must be controlled. In many of these confrontations with the public it may become necessary for the police to administer force in order to take control of the situation.
As unfortunate as it may seem however, police officers are injuring and even killing people through the use of excessive force and brutal treatment. In regard to police abuse, there will be many officers who feel that their job of fighting escalating street crime, gangs, narcotics violations, and other violent crimes is difficult already, to such an extent that worrying about excessive policy for abuse behavior will only further decrease their ability to fight crime effectively, efficiently, and safely.
This abuse must be monitored so that police do not forget who they are serving; not themselves, but the public. This means that even the criminals, who are a part of the public, have certain rights, accurately identified as civil rights. One of the main police abuse problems is physical brutality. I think that there should be some kind of written policy that would restrict physical force to the narrowest possible range of specific situations. For example, there should be limitations on the use of hand to hand combat, batons, mace, stun guns and firearms.
However, limiting policies actions will bring much debate, especially from police officers and administrators themselves. Many feel that their firepower is already too weak to battle the weapons that criminals have out on the streets, thus limiting their legality of gun use will not only endanger them, but the innocent bystanders who must endure the hierarchy gun power creates in the benefit of criminals. In simple terms, corruption in policing is usually viewed as the misuse of authority by a police officer acting to fulfill personal needs or wants. For a corrupt act to occur, three distinct elements of police corruption must be present simultaneously: Misuse of authority, Misuse of official capacity, Misuse of personal attainment, (Kornblum 1976: p 71).
It has been said that power inevitably leads to corruption, and it is yet to be recognized that , while there is no reason to suppose that policemen as individuals are any less fallible than other members of society, people are often shocked and outraged when policemen are exposed to violating the law. Not only should officers use brutality in very limited situations, I think that it would help requiring officers to file a written report after any use of physical force, regardless of how seemingly insignificant. Although, if every incidence of police abuse was requested to be reported, how many actually would be? Maybe only those serious enough, as depicted in new guidelines, would make it, leaving some space for officers to exert pressure without crossing serious and abusive policy. Another good tactic to control police brutality is to establish a system to identify officers who have been involved in an inordinate number of incidents that include the inappropriate use of physical force.
The incidents should then be investigated. For those offices who are frequently involved in unnecessary police brutality, they should be charged, disciplined, re-trained, and offered counseling. If such treatment proves ineffective, officers who violate abuse standards should be brought up on review before an administrative board made up of citizens and police officials. Officers will most likely ask, “Is identifying abusive officers a form of prejudice? The police officer is there to serve and protect the public who pays his or her salary. The officer should then be subject to any investigations into his or her abusive actions on the job.
Yet even if internal policy and external government supervision is successful, it is difficult to say how the ethics of police officers will affect abuse policy as they are based on personal background and upbringing that have little to do with the issue at hand. While there are specific solutions to brutality and rights abuse, there are also some general solutions that could be implemented before the problems even arise. For example, there should be changes in police officer training. Some communities have demanded their officers receive higher education. However, there is no proof that well-educated officers rely less on abuse and more on departmentally sound investigation techniques.
The length of training of police personnel should be increased, as has been the recent trend throughout the years. “The average length of police academy programs has more than doubled, from about 300, to over 600 hours; in some cities, 900 up to even 1200 hours has become the new rule.” (Silverman 1999: p 124) As the time devoted to training has increased, the institutions should also stress the importance of the growing trends in criminal activity so that they are prepared to deal with them. These include such areas as race relations, domestic violence, handling the mentally ill, and so on.
This will, in turn, enable operations run more smoothly, hopefully avoiding police abuse problems in the future. Methods must be implemented which effectively deal with police who tend to cross the line, from simple situations to serious firearm use or prejudice. Some of the solutions, particularly the policy changes, will be met with controversy and will be difficult to implement. Keeping track of police actions is the next step in self-protection. There have been thousands of reported incidents of police misconduct in the countless cities throughout the nation, and probably thousands more that transpire without any mention. Law enforcement officers in the United States have been granted powerful authority to assist them in serving and protecting the people of this country.
Many of them use their authority to uphold their duties with honor and integrity. However, the abuses of these powers are taking place with more and more frequency. The police scandals that have surfaced within the past decade have been multiplying. If drastic measures are not taken to restore the integrity of the United States Law Enforcement, chaos will permeate throughout the nation. As citizens begin to lose their trust for law enforcement, they will gradually lose their trust in the “system”.
While the threat of a world war has diminished, the violence on the streets across America has increased at a dramatic rate. Police are forced to face this violence and are sometimes caught up in the same violent and abusive cycle whole trying to fight it. Citizens realize that there are limits as to what a police officer can do. To make society a safe place for both citizens and officers, it is imperative that they work together for a comprehensive checks and balances system.
The United States Constitution guarantees certain rights for everyone, and is the very backbone of this country. If these rights are to be ignored, either through permissive laws enacted by law enforcement against private citizens, or through a lack of maintenance of existing protective legislation, private citizens; which means the entire country, will become paralyzed. Because of this, the opportunity and freedom which this country is built on must be enforced, and those charged with doing so must not abuse their power.
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(2002, November) Addressing police misconduct, http://www.usdoj.gov
(2002, November) Police brutality: the cop crimes homepage for law enforcement and government
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Kornblum, Alan N. The Moral Hazards. New York: D.C. Heath, 1976.
Silverman, Eli B. NYPD Battles Crime. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press, 1999.
Alcohol Abuse And Alcohol Dependence Essay
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, Alcohol Abuse is defined as the harmful use of alcohol. Harmful use of Alcohol also implies the abusive use of alcohol and its physical and mental effects. Alcohol abusers according to the study are more prone to drink- seeking behaviors and alcohol tolerance. They can consume large amounts of alcohol to Alcohol abusers also have the psychological capacity to think of alcohol as a way to cure hangovers and exhibit the compulsion or the urge to drink or the compulsive need to consume alcohol.
Those who exhibit alcohol abuse also show signs of alcohol abuse.
Alcohol dependence is defined as a chronic disease that is influenced by the social and environmental factors. According to experts, Alcohol dependence is used by a person to avoid social and emotional problems in life. There are four signs of alcohol dependence:
- Constant craving for alcohol
- Withdrawal symptoms associated with the sudden stop of alcohol consumption
- Inability to stop alcohol consumption
- Alcohol tolerance
Alcohol dependence brings about certain signs that show that a person is alcohol dependent:
- The urge to drink every morning
- Drinking alone and to feel comfortable around people
- Drinking to the point of experiencing blackout or results to intoxification
- Drinking to relieve tension or settle emotional or mental problems
Alcohol Dependence. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Health Authority: http://www.healthauthority.com/AlcoholDependence.htm
Statistical Analysis Paper Essay
The article was a cross- sectional, non- experimental case study of social worker’s perceptions of bullies at the workplace and the social worker’s ability to create coping responses to workplace bullying. To collect quantitative information a mail questionnaire was gathered, and individuals’ semi-structured interviews were assessed. The qualitative sample included 111 male and female social worker’s from Washington D.C. the final outcome result were three to five social worker’s reported that he or she were recipients of rude, unpleasant, and unfavorable workplace environmental interactions within a year.
The bullies’ targets generally worked in military and mental health outpatient organizations or government agencies. About 35% of the targets held a discreet service role, and 29% held a management or administration role. The results outcome from the study provided evidence that in the social working profession the agencies and organizations need guidelines or tools to help discover, confront, and stop bullying behaviors in the workplace ( Whitaker, T., 2012).
See more: how to write an analysis of a research paper
Statistical Analysis in the Article
The article incorporates tables, descriptive statistics that helps with the understanding of the data, it also provides five tables of illustrations.
Table one is about the demographic characteristics of the targets of the workplace bullies, it displays the characteristics of social workers ranging by age, gender, and demographics (Whitaker, T., 2012). Table two is about organizational settings and roles of target, it displayed supervisors, colleagues, subordinates, and clients were all identified as bullies. It showed that women were more than twice as likely (65%) to be identified as bullies as were men 33% (Whitaker, T., 2012). Table three is about the most troubling bullying behaviors, showing that verbally, and covertly hostile actions were the most troubling bullying behaviors in the workplace.
In addition, being treated with disrespect and having work de-valued as the hardest aspects of being bullied at the workplace. Table four was the summary characteristics of bullies, the study showed characteristics were either passive or assertive by the coping scale. The passive behavior ranging score of 24 and assertive score of 60. The median and mean scores were 42.5, and a multiple modal score. The last table, which was five was the classification of Reponses to the coping scale as passive or assertive coded in the same direction the table explained coping strategies and responses (Whitaker, T., 2012).
Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics
In the article several questions were asked in a questionnaire. The more passive the response, the lower the value assigned to it, the more assertive the response, the higher the value was assigned to it. The targets had a range of coping strategies, the biggest response strategy was talking about the bullying with someone he or she trusted, 93% used this strategy more than once, 66% used the strategy of confronting the person more than once. However, only 17% used formal complaint (Whitaker, T., 2012). The data supported the research problem of workplace bullying. It was noteworthy and explained that three out of five social workers were recipients of rude, unpleasant, and unfavorable workplace environmental interactions. However, the article did not provide inferential statistics. The data was collected through questionnaire and based on actual results to determine the statistics (Whitaker, T., 2012).
In conclusion, this article explored the issues of workplace bullying of social workers and the coping responses, it included a number of concerned issues for the social working profession. Among these issues included the characteristics of workplace bullies, and coping Reponses. The article suggests that workplace bullying is a serious issue for social workers and needs to create guidelines and tools to help stop bullying behaviors (Whitaker, T., 2012).
Whitaker, T. (2012). Social workers and workplace bullying: Perceptions, responses and implications. Work, 42(1), 115-123.
Report will focus on analysing the existence of power Essay
This report will focus on analysing the existence of power, control and resistance within an organisation with particular reference toward Australia’s largest and most successful telecommunications provider, Telstra (Telstra, 2013). Applying widely recognised theoretical frameworks and concepts against these focus areas, a critical analysis has been conducted and assessed with the findings referenced throughout the report determining the positive and negative impacts each are having on Telstra the organisation and its stakeholders. The three focus areas of power, control and resistance are major influences within any organisation and critical to its success.
Power and control can be perceived as being the same within an organisation, however there are key differentiators between the two that is important to identify and understand. Both power and control of an organisation can have various levels of influence on its stakeholders depending on a companies geographical or workforce size and culture. A level of power labeled as “Domination” identifies the way that an organisation can ultimately shape the preferences, attitudes and even political outlooks of its stakeholders (Sadan, 1997).
The area of control stems from the introduction of “scientific management” introduced by (Taylor, 2007). Taylor’s methodologies of control are still predominant in many modern organisations that adopt various means to maintain a controlled workplace. Such means can consist of forms of surveillance such as email and phone scanning, remote working arrangements and segmentation of skills. Jermier, Knights, & Nord refer to resistance within an organisation as constituting forms of power that’s exercised by subordinates within a workplace. Example forms or “faces” of resistance are refusal, voice, escape and creation. With an understanding of the theoretical frameworks and concepts of these three focus areas, various stakeholders of Telstra have been interviewed to construct a comprehensive analysis on what impact power, control and resilience is having on the organisation and its stakeholders.
Being one of the largest organizations in Australia, power, control, and resistance is spread throughout the companies multiple functions and sectors. It is these elements that aid in shaping the way Telstra operates.
This fact has led to various methods being utilized to collect and critically analyse information on Telstra regarding these three aspects of organizational behaviour. Both primary and secondary research was conducted for this report. Primary sources include conversations with Telstra stakeholders in conjunction with online secondary research. Stakeholders include employees of Telstra as well as the customers themselves. By learning about their experiences with Telstra a better understanding of the organization was created as well as how power, control, and resistance are evident in Telstra. The use of primary and secondary research allowed for power, control and resistance to be critically analysed in Telstra. A number of theories were also addressed in the analysis of Telstra. Relevant aspects of power, control, and resistance were explored and applied to Telstra to develop this report. As power, control, and resistance are different elements of organizational behaviour, a range of theories needed to be used in order to properly analyse Telstra. This also led to the stakeholder interviews being less formal due to questions having to cover such as large industry and often transparent elements of organizational behaviour. To address the issue of power in Telstra, a number of cases were used to identify the scope of power itself in Telstra and how those in power are at times abusing it or using it as a tool for manipulation. In some cases, the extremities of Telstra are clearly shown. Alongside this evidence and research, the theoretical framework of the ‘four faces of power’ derived from Lukes (1986) and Foucault (1977) was used for analysis of the company. As Telstra is a very large company, appropriate control systems and management of control is essential throughout all the functions of the business. To analyse how control plays a critical role in Telstra, different functions of the organization and their appropriate control mechanism were explored. This was done through researching into examples and cases of how Telstra has managed it’s control systems. Similarly to the use of the ‘four faces of power’, resistance was also analysed using a comparable framework. The framework used was the ‘four faces of resistance’. This framework helped to highlight areas where employees show resistance and how far they can take it. Research and cases gathered coupled together with the four faces of resistance aided in presenting and analysing the various issues of resistance and how it exists in Telstra.
“Power is derived from owning and controlling the means of production and how this power is reinforced by organisational structures and rules of governance” (Weber and Marx, 1948) Telstra as an organization consists of management hierarchy comprising of numerous Directors and Executives that hold responsibility for the direction and public image of Telstra. These positions at times are extremely demanding as their everyday decisions can, and will have an effect on the business profits and customer satisfaction levels. Power is crucial amongst these ranks as it is required to make necessary changes and improvements to policy and procedure in the highly competitive industry of telecommunications. Ultimately the responsibility of the performance of Telstra resides with the CEO (David Thodey) and the supporting Directors (executive and non-executive). As the ‘Top-level manager’, David Thodey makes decisions affecting the entire company. He does not direct the day-to-day activities of the company; instead he sets goals for the organization and directs the company to achieve them. An example is the announcement of a strategy of market differentiation and a renewed focus on customer service and satisfaction (Telstra Website, 2009). Top managers are ultimately responsible for the performance of the organization (Simmering, 2007). Following the top-level management group is the middle-level managers, who set goals for their departments and other business units. Middle managers are charged with motivating and assisting first-line managers to achieve the company’s objectives. They also play an important role by communicating and offering suggestions to the top managers, as they are more involved in the day-to-day workings of the company. The next level of management is the first-level. This level is responsible for the daily management of the employees who actually produce the product or offer the service. Although first-level managers typically do not set goals for the organization, they have a very strong influence on the company, as they are the managers that most employees interact with on a daily basis. Telstra’s use of coercion internally has become evident in various situations. By assessing the four faces of power we can see how intimidation towards workers has resulted in a number of public outbursts. An unethical and undisclosed strategy was introduced by Telstra during 2008
whereby 15,000 employees were targeted to sign up to Australian Workforce Agreements (AWA) before the ban on agreements was to be imposed by the Government (Eastley, 2008). A confidential Telstra document showed that managers were given 29 pages of tips on how to best convince workers to signing up to AWA’s (Hawley, 2008). The document urged managers to use psychological profiling of employees when considering who to target and were rewarded with bonuses once successfully signing workers up to workplace agreements. This method of power is an example of coercion. Telstra has clearly done something unethically in this situation. The company’s actions have demonstrated a coercive environment that maximises pressure through psychological manipulation.
Domination is a level of power that identifies the way in which an organisation can ultimately shape the preferences, attitudes and even political outlooks of its stakeholders Lukes (1986). Telstra’s domination of most communications markets and its ability to leverage market power across markets is a consequence of its structure. The result is the failure of competition affecting all consumer groups. The ideal solution is a form of structural separation of Telstra. This objective can be achieved through the creation of a regulatory package that delivers as much of the benefit as possible that would be derived from structural separation, while acknowledging the limitations of real separation to address the core incentives of Telstra to favour itself (Competitive Carriers’ Coalition Inc, 2005). Workplace bullying is a widespread issue that can only be resolved through an implementation strategy targeting all employees. Employers need to be held accountable and have a strategy in place to protect the employees from this offence. Unfortunately this is not always the case, in some instances the employer is the one orchestrating the bullying. A recent case in which the Administrative Appeals Tribunal overruled Telstra’s decision not to pay compensation to an ex-employee for stress and psychological injury shows that it is possible to resist intimidation (Sdrinis, 2012). Mr Sami was successful in wining his compensation claim against Telstra for work-related psychological injuries and in particular in relation to bullying and harassment by his manager over a period of time. This case underlines that management’s often-used tactics of subtle bulling and
harassment to push people out the door has a human cost which the law is prepared to recognise. Within most major companies, including Telstra, workers have to live with the threat of losing their jobs and this case should encourage workers to stand up to workplace harassment and, if victimized, seek legal advice and compensation.
In order to regulate and manage organisational activities and resources, so that accomplishing goals and objectives are possible, organisations need control. It is a significant part of running any business so that a targeted element of performance remains up to organisational standard. There is a considerable amount of responsibility that goes into managing control, as there are many different levels and areas in which organisations define control. Information Resources is an area of control in which include sales forecasting, environmental analysis and production scheduling. In a recent article, Telstra has reported a 12.9 per cent increase in net profit, reaching $3.9 billion, and an increase in revenue up two per cent to $26 billion (Bartholomeusz, Technology Spectator, 2013). Telstra chief executive officer David Thodey said it was the “third consecutive year of significant customer growth for Telstra mobile, driven by $1.2 billion of investment in the network during the year.” As profit results slightly bettered expectations, this can only leave a positive impact on employees, shareholders and the organisation itself. For instance, as a result of meeting organisational goals and objectives, employees get to keep their job, and keep the shareholders content. In any organisation, operations control is needed to control the processes used to transform resources into products and services. As Telstra is constantly aspiring to grow as a company and are faced with new business opportunities, changes in operational processes takes place as a result, workers find themselves jobless. The terminal decline of Telstra’s once-dominant telephone business and the rise of new business opportunities have forced the telco giant into a major operational restructure that will affect half the company’s 30,000 strong domestic workforce (Bingemann, 2013). (Telstra Chief Operations officer Brendon Riley, is likely to see hundreds of jobs cut from the telco as it transitions its operations and IT divisions from infrastructure-based
businesses to more of a software and services future (Bingemann, 2013). Although this may mean good news for Telstra advancing as an organisation, this change in operations control is affecting the lives of 30,000 loyal employers and their families. Telstra’s financial control plan has an upside and a downside. Like most organisations, a budget control provides a way of measuring performance across different aspects within the company. Also control the financial resources as they flow into, are held by, and flow out of the organisation. Telstra while having generated some $2 billion in savings has punished workers by cutting 1,000 net local jobs over the past two and a half years (Bartholomeusz, Business Spectator, 2013). Although the savings are benefiting Telstra’s fast-growing mobile business, the price to pay is substantial for those 1,000 workers who need to make ends meet. Telstra has insisted that it can simultaneously cut costs while improving customer service by reducing errors, queries and complaints that allow it to, for instance, reduce call centre staff (Bartholomeusz, Business Spectator, 2013). As technology advances, so does the way people do things. With the new possibilities of using apps and online resources to ask questions, queries and form complaints, the need for call centre workers reduces sizeable
Within the multinational telecommunication company Telstra, numerous accounts of resistance both internally and externally have risen from management decisions by the company’s head. Several incidents have occurred in which the public and workers have raised their voice in resistance against some of the giant’s actions. By assessing the four faces of resistance, we can see typical and expected responses from the public and workers. One incident occurred earlier this year in February. Telstra slashed over 700 jobs from their Sensis network, which resulted in mass rallies and protests by union leaders and workers alike (Conifer, 2013). This method of resistance is an example of ‘voice.’ By publicly displaying and enforcing their dissatisfaction against the loss of their jobs, the union workers are resisting Telstra’s actions. The rally and protests have been constructed to highlight the unsatisfactory methods of Telstra. As Telstra grows as a company, many Australian jobs are being sent offshore, particularly to Asian
nations. The rapid growth of the company forces management and corporate heads to expand the company to increase revenue and profits, at the expense of Australian jobs. In July of this year, over 170 jobs were sent offshore to India, which lead to widespread union outrage (Bingemann, www.theaustralian.com.au/business, 2013). The Communication, Electrical and Plumbing union, as well as the Community and Public Sector unions protested and demanded negotiations in regards to job losses. The fact that unions stood up and resisted to sacrifice their jobs highlights an internal voice of the company. This resistance from the unions demonstrates a type of power that workers have within their job, to stand up against unsatisfactory managerial decisions. (Bingemann, www.theaustralian.com.au/business, 2013) The third face of resistance represents the ‘escape’ side of work. This face is made up of three tools: cynicism, scepticism and dis-identification. Dis-identification refers to the disconnection from ones identity and the work environment. In an incident that occurred in April of 2007, a young girl committed suicide after been given unrealistic work goals and hassled by management staff of Telstra to return to work during her stress leave (Masanauskas, 2007). This amount of pressure lead to her suicide, and the change from her once “vibrant personality” was transformed into a “nervous wreck” (Masanauskas, 2007). The young women’s parents described the Telstra staff to be treating their daughter “like a machine.” From this tragedy, the union demanded realistic work goals and targets. The dis-identification from ‘human’ to ‘machine’ within the workplace highlights the third face of resistance, to escape work. However, this escape was much more serious and punishing, for it was not just a mental escape from work, but a suicide.
Throughout this report it is made evident that the three focal behavioral characteristics of organisations can have a major impact on its stakeholders. Although these impacts can be both positive and negative it is clear from the examples provided that a balance between what’s positive to both an organisation and its stakeholders remains a huge challenge to maintain. Telstra has been used as a case organisation due to its operational size and market reach throughout the country and spreading to different cultures internationally. Various methods were used to gather and analyse information specific to the affects of power, control and resistance from both internal and external stakeholders of the company which formed the basis of or report. Power of an organisation over its stakeholders is seen almost always as a negative characteristic but is critical to an organisations success. It was found that power in Telstra is delegated down through a hierarchal management structure to manage staff and performance. This lead onto analysing which control methods are being used within Telstra such as performance goals and project deadlines, which have been founded to be a major cause of many bully and stress related complaints. Due to the mismanagement of power and control various cases of industrial action and even suicide has been reported as a form of resistance from stakeholders. This resistance has a negative impact on the public image of the organisation and can potentially affect its market value. It is critical for organisations to achieve a balance between economic growth and ethical practices. Until this happens cases such of those highlighted in the report will continue causing restraint and harm to both the organisation and its stakeholders.
Alcohol abuse Essay
Alcohol is absorbed from all parts of the gastrointestinal tract largely by simple diffusion into the blood. However the small intestine is by far the most efficient region of the gastrointestinal tract for alcohol absorption because of its very large surface area. In a fasting individual, it is generally agreed that 10% to 20% of a dose of alcohol is absorbed from the stomach (the volume of alcohol affects the absorption) and 75% to 80% is absorbed from the small intestine. Because of this peak blood alcohol concentrations are achieved in fasting people within 0.
5 to 2.
0 hours, (average 0. 75 – 1. 35 hours depending upon dose and time of last meal) while non-fasting people exhibit peak alcohol concentrations within 1. 0, and in extreme cases up to as much as 4. 0 hours (average 1. 06 – 2. 12 hours). Because it is distributed so quickly and thoroughly the alcohol can affect the central nervous system even in small concentrations. In low concentrations, alcohol reduces inhibitions. As blood alcohol concentration increases, a person’s response to stimuli decreases markedly, speech becomes slurred, and he or she becomes unsteady and has trouble walking.
With very high concentrations – greater than 0. 35 grams/100 milliliters of blood (equivalent to 0. 35 grams/210 liters of breath ) – a person can become comatose and die. The American Medical Association has defined the blood alcohol concentration level of impairment for all people to be 0. 04 grams/100 milliliters of blood (equivalent to . 04 grams/210 liters of breath). The following is a generally accepted guide to the effects of alcohol.
Distribution Alcohol has a high affinity for water and is therefore found in body tissues and fluids inasmuch as they contain water. Absorbed alcohol is rapidly carried throughout the body in the blood and once absorption of alcohol is complete an equilibrium occurs such that blood at all points in the system contains approximately the same concentration of alcohol. Elimination The liver is responsible for the elimination – through metabolism – of 95% of ingested alcohol from the body. The remainder of the alcohol is eliminated through excretion of alcohol in breath, urine, sweat, feces, milk and saliva.
The body uses several different metabolic pathways in its oxidation of alcohol to acetaldehyde to acetic acid to carbon dioxide and water. Healthy people metabolize alcohol at a fairly consistent rate. As a rule of thumb, a person will eliminate one average drink or . 5 oz (15 ml) of alcohol per hour. Several factors influence this rate. The rate of elimination tends to be higher when the blood alcohol concentration in the body is very high. Also chronic alcoholics may (depending on liver health) metabolize alcohol at a significantly higher rate than the average.
Finally, the body’s ability to metabolize alcohol quickly tend to diminish with age. Body Weight and Body Type In general, the less you weigh the more you will be affected by a given amount of alcohol. As detailed above, alcohol has a high affinity for water. Basically one’s blood alcohol concentration is a function of the total amount of alcohol in one’s system divided by total body water. So for two individuals with similar body compositions and different weights, the larger individual will achieve lower alcohol concentrations than the smaller one if ingesting the same amount of alcohol.
However, for people of the same weight, a well muscled individual will be less affected than someone with a higher percentage of fat since fatty tissue does not contain very much water and will not absorb very much alcohol. Rate Of Consumption Blood alcohol concentration depends on the amount of alcohol consumed and the rate at which the user’s body metabolizes alcohol. Because the body metabolizes alcohol at a fairly constant rate (somewhat more quickly at higher and lower alcohol concentrations), ingesting alcohol at a rate higher than the rate of elimination results in a cumulative effect and an increasing blood alcohol concentration.
Alcohol Content It’s not how many drinks that you have, but how much alcohol that you consume. The concentration of the drinks that one ingest can have a slight effect on the peak alcohol concentration due to the differences in absorption rate of different concentrations of alcohol. Alcohol is most rapidly absorbed when the concentration of the drink is between 10% and 30%. Below 10% the concentration gradient in the gastrointestinal tract is low and slows absorption and the added volumes of liquid involved slow gastric emptying.
On the other hand concentrations higher than 30% tend to irritate the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract and the pyloric sphincter, causing increased secretion of mucous and delayed gastric emptying. Food Food taken along with alcohol results in a lower, delayed blood alcohol concentration peak (the point of greatest intoxication). There are two major factors involved in this phenomenon. First, because alcohol is absorbed most efficiently in the small intestine, the ingestion of food can slow down the absorption of alcohol into one’s system.
The pyloric valve at the bottom of the stomach will close in order to hold food in the stomach for digestion and thus keep the alcohol from reaching the small intestine. While alcohol will be absorbed from the stomach it is a slower and less efficient transition. Second and equally important is the fact that alcohol elimination rates are inversely proportional to alcohol concentration in the blood. Therefore the suppressed levels of alcohol due to food ingestion cause the body to eliminate the alcohol that is absorbed at a faster rate.
The type of food ingested (carbohydrate, fat, protein) has not been shown to have a measurable influence on this affect but the larger the meal and closer in time between eating and drinking, the greater the diminution of peak alcohol concentration. Studies have shown reductions in peak alcohol concentration (as opposed to those of a fasting individual under otherwise similar circumstances) of 9% to 23%. Medication If you are taking any medication, it could increase the effects of alcohol.
You should always consult your physician or the medical information that accompanies the medication when drinking alcohol in conjunction with any medication. Fatigue Fatigue causes many of the same symptoms that are caused by alcohol intoxication. These and other symptoms will be amplified if alcohol intoxication is concurrent with fatigue. Tolerance Tolerance is the diminution of the effectiveness of a drug after a period of prolonged or heavy use of that drug or a related drug (cross-tolerance).
There are at least two types of tolerance at work with alcohol. The first is metabolic tolerance in which the alcohol is metabolized at a higher rate (up to two times as quickly) in chronic users. Because of the higher metabolic rate for alcohol lower peak blood alcohol concentrations are achieved by chronic alcohol users than the average drinker when the same amount of alcohol is ingested. The second is functional tolerance in which there is an actual change in the organ or system’s sensitivity to the drug.
Studies have shown that chronic alcohol users can have twice the tolerance for alcohol as an average person. It is important to note however that even in light of these tolerance factors, it has been shown conclusively that even in heavy alcohol users functional impairment is clearly measurable at the blood alcohol concentration levels that are currently used for traffic law enforcement and safety sensitive job performance. Gender Differences As outlined above in the section on Body Weight and Body Type different body types coincide with different body water percentages.
In general, but by no means in all cases, women tend to have a higher percentage of body fat and thus a lower percentage of body water. Therefore, in general, if a man and a woman of the same weight ingest the same amount of alcohol the woman will tend to achieve a higher alcohol concentration. This, of course, would not be true if the woman was very fit and the man was somewhat obese, but on average, this is the case. Furthermore, total body water tends to decrease with age, so an older person will also be more affected by the same amount of alcohol.
According to the table below the differences in alcohol concentration due to average body composition differences based on gender would be between 16% and 10% depending on age. ________________________________________ Average Total Body Water as a function of Sex and Age AgeMaleFemale 18 to 4061%52% over 6051%46% ________________________________________ Another gender based difference is in the elimination of alcohol. Although not explained, studies appear to show that women eliminate alcohol from their bodies at a rate 10% greater than that of men.
Alcoholism and alcohol abuse Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) and alcohol abuse are two different forms of problem drinking. •Alcoholism is when you have signs of physical addiction to alcohol and continues to drink, despite problems with physical health, mental health, and social, family, or job responsibilities. Alcohol may control your life and relationships. •Alcohol abuse is when your drinking leads to problems, but not physical addiction. Causes, incidence, and risk factors There is no known cause of alcohol abuse or alcoholism.
Research suggests that certain genes may increase the risk of alcoholism, but which genes and how they work are not known. How much you drink can influence your chances of becoming dependent. Those at risk for developing alcoholism include: •Men who have 15 or more drinks a week •Women who have 12 or more drinks a week •Anyone who has five or more drinks per occasion at least once a week One drink is defined as a 12-ounce bottle of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a 1 1/2-ounce shot of liquor. You have an increased risk for alcohol abuse and dependence if you have a parent with alcoholism.
You may also be more likely to abuse alcohol or become dependent if you: •Are a young adult under peer pressure •Have depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, or schizophrenia •Have easy access to alcohol •Have low self-esteem •Have problems with relationships •Live a stressful lifestyle •Live in a culture alcohol use is more common and accepted Alcohol abuse is rising. Around 1 out of 6 people in the world have a drinking problem. Symptoms People who have alcoholism or alcohol abuse often: •Continue to drink, even when health, work, or family are being harmed •Drink alone.
•Become violent when drinking •Become hostile when asked about drinking •Are not able to control drinking — being unable to stop or reduce alcohol intake •Make excuses to drink •Miss work or school, or have a decrease in performance because of drinking •Stop taking part in activities because of alcohol •Need to use alcohol on most days to get through the day •Neglect to eat or eat poorly •Do not care about or ignore how they dress or whether they are clean •Try to hide alcohol use •Shake in the morning or after periods when they have not a drink
Symptoms of alcohol dependence include: •Memory lapses after heavy drinking •Needing more and more alcohol to feel “drunk” •Alcohol withdrawal symptoms when you haven’t had a drink for a while •Alcohol-related illnesses such as alcoholic liver disease Signs and tests The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your medical and family history, including use of alcohol. The following questions are used by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to screen for alcohol abuse or dependence: •Do you ever drive when you have been drinking?
•Do you have to drink more than before to get drunk or feel the desired effect? •Have you felt that you should cut down on your drinking? •Have you ever had any blackouts after drinking? •Have you ever missed work or lost a job because of drinking? •Is someone in your family worried about your drinking? Tests that may be done include: •Blood alcohol level (this can tell whether someone has recently been drinking alcohol, but it does not necessarily confirm alcoholism) •Complete blood count (CBC) •Liver function tests.
•Magnesium blood test Medical Illness Associated With Chronic Alcohol Abuse DisorderIllness MetabolicAlcoholic ketoacidosis, alcoholic hypoglycemia, water and salt disorders NeurologicChronic problems with thinking such as Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff’s psychosis, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, and central pontine myelinolysis leading to problems walking and other motor activities, acute and chronic dementia, alcoholic peripheral neuropathy MuscularAcute and chronic alcoholic muscle weakness.
GastrointestinalFatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic pancreatitis, poor pancreatic function, gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal carcinoma, erosive gastritis, chronic diarrhea, malabsorption, esophageal varices leading to bleeding into the GI tract Metabolic-endocrineHigh cholesterol, high levels of uric acid, low testosterone levels, impotence, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, irregular menstrual periods, reversible Cushing’s syndrome BloodAnemia due to poor production of blood cells or slow intestinal bleeding, poor white cell production, destruction of platelets, blood too thin to clot properly.
CardiacDecreased cardiac function, arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, high blood pressure PulmonaryIncreased incidence of pneumonia, increased incidence of tuberculosis OtherIncreased incidence of severe intestinal infections, fetal alcohol syndrome, vitamin deficiency syndromes, trauma, sexual dysfunction, insomnia Social Problems Associated With Alcohol Abuse Accidental death and injury50% of fatal car crashes 25-fold increased risk of falls or drowning 50% of fire-related burns or deaths 20% to 30% of trauma seen in emergency rooms.
CrimeFrequently involved in violent crime SuicideInvolved in up to 35% of suicides Economic cost$148 billion annually (estimated); 15% for health care and treatment OtherAssociated with increased rates of spouse or child abuse and increased spread of sexually transmitted diseases Treatment Completely stopping the use of alcohol is the ideal goal of treatment. This is called abstinence. A strong social network and family support are important in achieving this. Completely stopping and avoiding alcohol is difficult for many people with alcoholism.
There will be times when it is difficult. You should aim to avoid drinking for as long as possible. Some people who abuse alcohol may be able to simply reduce the amount they drink. This is called drinking in moderation. If this method does not work, you should try to quit drinking completely. DECIDING TO QUIT Many people with alcohol problems do not recognize when their drinking gets out of hand. The ideal approach to treatment is to help the person realize how much their alcohol use is harming their life and those around them.
Studies find that more people with alcohol problems opt for treatment when their family members or employers are honest with them about their concerns, and try to help them see that drinking is preventing them from reaching their goals. Withdrawal from alcohol is best done in a controlled, supervised setting. Complications from withdrawal can be life threatening. For more information, see: Alcohol withdrawal Your health care provider should order blood and urine tests to check for health problems that are common in people who abuse alcohol. LONG-TERM SUPPORT
Alcohol recovery or support programs can help you stop drinking completely. These programs usually offer: •Counseling and therapy to discuss alcoholism and its effects and how to control your thoughts and behaviors •Mental health support •Medical care You may be treated in a special recovery center (inpatient), or you may attend a program while you live at home (outpatient). Medications are sometimes prescribed to prevent you from drinking again. •Acamprosate is a drug that has been shown to lower relapse rates in those who are alcohol dependent.
•Disulfiram (Antabuse) produces very unpleasant side effects if you drink even a small amount of alcohol within 2 weeks after taking the drug. •Naltrexone (Vivitrol) decreases alcohol cravings. It is available in an injectable form. You cannot take these medications if you are pregnant or have certain medical conditions. The medications are often used with long-term treatment with counseling or support groups. Depression or other mood or anxiety disorders may be noticed after you stop drinking. These should be promptly treated. It is important that the patient has a living situation that supports their need to avoid alcohol.
Some programs offer housing options for people with alcoholism or alcohol abuse. Support Groups Support groups are available to help people who are dealing with alcoholism. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a self-help group of recovering alcoholics that offers emotional support and specific steps for people recovering from alcohol dependence. The program is commonly called a “12-step” approach. There are local chapters throughout the United States. AA offers help 24 hours a day and teaches that it is possible to participate in social functions without drinking.
AL-ANON Family members of a person with an alcohol abuse problem often need counseling. Al-Anon is a support group for partners and others who are affected by someone else’s alcoholism. Alateen provides support for teenage children of people with alcoholism. OTHER SUPPORT GROUPS Several other support groups are available. •SMART recovery teaches you have to change your thoughts and behaviors to help people with alcoholism recover. •LifeRing recovery and SOS are two nonreligious programs that offer support for people with alcohol abuse.
•Women for Sobriety is a self-help group just for women. Moderation Management is a program for those who want to reduce how much they drink. It recommends abstinence for people who cannot do this. Expectations (prognosis) How well a person with alcoholism or alcohol abuse does depends on whether or not they can stop drinking. Alcoholism is a major social, economic, and public health problem. Problem drinking can affect every part of a person’s life. If you have an alcohol problem, abstinence can help improve your mental and physical health and possibly, your relationships.
Treatment programs can help you quit. However, drinking again after treatment is common. It is important to have a good support system. Complications Alcoholism and alcohol abuse can increase your risk of many health problems, including: •Bleeding in the digestive tract •Brain cell damage •Brain disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome •Cancer of the esophagus, liver, colon, and other areas •Changes in the menstrual cycle (period) •Delirium tremens (DT’s) •Dementia and memory loss •Depression and suicide •Erectile dysfunction •Heart damage •High blood pressure.
•Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) •Liver disease, including cirrhosis •Nerve damage •Poor nutrition •Sleeping problems (insomnia) Alcohol use also increases your risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and violence. Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can lead to severe birth defects in the baby. Prevention The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism recommends: •Women should not drink more than 1 drink per day •Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day One drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1? ounces of liquor.
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Academia and Classroom Essay
Question 1 1. 1 Conflict> The practice of recognizing and dealing with disputes in a rational, balanced and effective way. Conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scare resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals. ” 1. 2 Decision- making > Is the choice of the most suitable way of solving a problem or handling a situation . 1. 3 Communication> Is a means by which the teacher and pupils’ different needs, feelings and attitudes are conveyed to each other in order to establish cooperation and achieve goals.
1. 4 Motivation> Is the process by means of which motives are provided by, amongst others, a manager or situation in order to bring about certain actions and thus to achieve certain goals. 1. 5 Leadership> Leadership consists of actions that help the group to complete its tasks successfully and maintain effective working relationships among its members. Leadership is a set of skills that anyone can acquire Question 2 2. 1. 1 AUTOCRATIC CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STYLE When dealing with pupil behaviour the teacher will intervene and try to control the behaviour of the pupils.
The teacher is mainly interested in the pupils’ completion of tasks and learning performance . Pupils’ participation in the classroom situation is limited to listening, working and doing. The following are some advantages of this approach: ? Some pupils may feel secure in this kind of situation. ? Because the teacher lays down fixed rules and procedures, pupils know what is expected of them and what they can expect in the classroom. The following are some disadvantages of this approach: ? The classroom atmosphere is characterised by competition, unwillingness to work together and poor discipline when pupils are left unsupervised.
? Creative thinking is suppressed. ? There is no cooperation. ? Pupils may develop a negative attitude towards the subject. 1 Student no : 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no : 2 719493 2. 1. 2 DEMOCRATIC CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STYLE A democratic style of classroom management correlates with an interactive teaching style. This teaching style requires that teachers should have a sound knowledge of their subject and of human nature so that they can encourage their pupils to participate actively and meaningfully in teaching and learning activities.
The control of pupil behaviour in the classroom is jointly controlled by the pupils and the teacher. As a management style it requires the teacher to maintain a balance between the task aspect and the human aspect of the classroom situation. Teaching and learning tasks are completed with the pupils’ willing cooperation and co responsibility which are the hallmarks of democratic classroom management. The following are some advantages: ? ? ? Pupils participate confidently in classroom activities. It encourages initiative and creativity.
The classroom atmosphere is relaxed, yet productive. ? Pupils feel that they are involved in teaching activities. 2. 2 Five styles of conflict management ? Avoidance: avoiding conflict is a short-term solution because the conflict will not go away. Sometimes, however, avoidance could be a temporary measure to calm emotions. ? Giving in or accommodating: teachers who badly want the pupils to accept them use this style. With this style the real differences are underemphasized. Sometimes teachers have to give in to avoid hostility in the classroom and to ensure that the work can get done.
? Domination: teachers who want to impose their will on pupils use this style. In the long run this style is seldom effective, although teachers sometimes have to dominate. ? Compromise or settle: this style is marked by a search for compromises and settlement. The teacher will try to meet everyone halfway and to let the majority view prevail. Because a settlement might not satisfy everybody, the dissatisfaction could again cause conflict at a later stage. ? Integrate or collaborate: this style is also known as the problem-solving approach.
The parties cooperate in order to find a satisfactory solution. 2. 3 A proper balance between the: task-oriented and the human relations aspects, required in every teaching-learning situation , enables teachers to create a teaching-learning situation with a positive atmosphere. Maintaining a balance between the structural (formal) and human relations (informal) aspects requires a holistic approach to classroom management. The combination and integration of these two dimensions represent the actual structure of the classroom situation, which includes all areas of the teacher’s management task.
These studies revealed a clear correlation between classroom atmosphere and pupil performance of grade 9 and grade 10 pupils in 12 secondary schools in Ontario as follows: ? Classroom atmosphere has a significant influence on pupil performance. ? Although the personal and social characteristics of pupils are important factors in their school performance, classroom atmosphere is sometimes more important. ? The psychosocial and academic aspects of teaching are interrelated. 2 Student no : 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no : 2
719493 ? Variables that relate directly to teaching-learning activities in the classroom have a special, unique influence on pupil performance. The following are the guidelines for teachers to cultivate positive attitudes in their pupils: ? Put the pupils in the centre. ? Respect pupils’ opinions and treat all pupils respectfully. ? Give pupils a group feeling. ? Help pupils to feel secure in school. ? Make sure that pupils understand their assignments. ? Realise that pupils are children, not adults.
? Deal with individual behaviour problems in private interviews with the pupil rather than in front of the whole class. ? Involve pupils in decision making where appropriate. ? Do not label pupils. 3 Student no : 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no : 2 719493 2. 4 CLASSROOM POLICY 1. In all instances, civility and respect for classmates and the instructor are expected. 2. Book bags, briefcases, etc. are not allowed on your desk during class. They must remain on the floor near your chair. 3. You may not use cell phones in class. a. All ringers must be turned off. b.
You may not text message, place or answer calls. c. All earphones, headphones, headsets or any other accessory for your cell phone may not be used in class – that means, out of sight and not on your head or in your ear. 4. You may not use any device (for example, IPod, MP3 player) to listen to or view music or other programming in class. 5. You will be asked to leave class if you disregard classroom policy. ATTENDANCE / WITHDRAWAL POLICY 1. Since the course is conducted in a seminar format, your attendance is mandatory. 2. You will sign the Attendance Signature sheet at the beginning of each class.
3. Your class participation points may be reduced from if you are late in class. 4. You may be withdrawn from COS 133 if you are absent from 20% of the class. LATE WORK 1. No late work will be accepted. MAKE-UP QUIZ POLICY 1. There are no quiz make-ups. No exemptions. GRADING POLICY 1. Your grade for COS 133 will be based on the points you accumulate for assignments, quizzes, and class participation. 2. Your grade for COS 133 is calculated as follows: Topic 1. Assignments 2. Quizzes 3. Classroom Participation Weight 30% 55% 15% 4 Student no : 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no : 2 719493.
Topic Weight A 94 -100 1. Assignments 30% A- 90 – 93 2. Quizzes 55% B+ 87 – 89 3. Classroom Participation 15% B 84 – 86 B- 80 – 83 C+ 77 – 79 C 74 – 76 C- 70 – 73 D+ 67 – 69 D 64 – 66 D- 60 – 63 F < 60 1. Assignments = 30 Points ??? COS assignments consist of a variety of activities designed to promote a successful college experience at MCC. Your assignments will consist of reading textbook chapters and answering related exercise questions. In addition, you may be using your MCC student email to submit Web assignments. ??? Assignments are due at the beginning of the class.
However, you may submit your assignments before the due date. ??? Distribution of points are as follows: 10 textbook assignments (3 points each) = 30 points 2. Quizzes = 55 Points ??? Quizzes are based on your chapter reading assignments. o You may use your textbook to answer the questions. However, be well prepared for a very challenging quiz. o If you are late for class and miss the quiz, you will receive a zero for the quiz. ??? Distribution of points is as follows: o 11 textbook quizzes (5 points each) = 55 points 3. Classroom Participation = 15 Points ???
Classroom participation points are earned by behaviors that demonstrate o prompt attendance for class 3 o active listening o positive involvement in small group work o thoughtful contributions during whole class discussions o civility and respect for classmates and the instructor ??? Distribution of points is as follows: o 1 point per week = 15 points o You cannot earn classroom participation points if you are absent. MCC REGULATIONS AND POLICIES Academic Honesty Policy In the academic process, it is assumed that intellectual honesty and integrity are basic responsibilities of any student.
However, faculty members should accept their correlative 5 Student no : 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no : 2 719493 responsibility to regulate academic work and to conduct examination procedures in such a manner as not to invite violations of academic honesty. Such violations consist mainly of cheating and plagiarism. For more details regarding MCC’s Academic Honesty policy regarding definitions, disciplinary action, and procedure for appeal check the MCC Catalog and Student Handbook or MCC Website. Policy Statement on Sexual Harassment 1.
Monroe Community College strives to recognize human dignity and therefore does not tolerate sexual harassment or any other type of harassment within or connected to this institution. 2. Sexual harassment is illegal and unfairly interferes with the opportunity for all persons, regardless of gender, to have a comfortable and productive education and work environment. 3. We are committed to taking all reasonable steps to prevent sexual harassment and to discipline those who do harass. Code of Conduct The following actions or conducts are prohibited.
1. The obstruction or disruption of any College function or activity, including the classroom instructional environment, administration of the parking program and service functions and activities. 2. The detention, physical abuse or intimidation of any person, or threat thereof, or any 4 conduct which threatens or endangers the health, safety, or welfare of any person on College-owned or operated property or at College-sponsored activities. 3. The use of obscene or abusive language or any other means of
expression, language, or action which may reasonably be expected to provoke or encourage physical violence by other persons. 4. The refusal to obey any reasonable or lawful request, order, or directive of a College public safety officer, a teacher, College administrator, or any other identified representative of the College. MCC LEARNING CENTERS 1. Monroe Community College has a number of Learning Centers at Brighton (for example, Accounting, Math, Psychology, Writing, the Electronic Learning Center, etc. ) and at Damon (for example, the Integrated Learning Center, Electronic Learning Center, etc.).
2. Learning centers are staffed with instructional personnel and may be equipped with computers and software to assist students. 3. It is recommended that students use the Learning Centers to get additional help with concepts learned in the classroom and with their homework. SERVICES FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES 1. Students with a documented learning difficulty should make an appointment with the Coordinator of Services for Students with Disabilities on the Brighton or Damon Campus to arrange for support services. 2.
All deaf or hard of hearing students should contact the Counseling and Advising Center. 3. You must provide the instructor with appropriate documentation regarding accommodations within the first two weeks of class. EMERGENCY CLOSINGS 1. If the College is closed due to inclement weather or some other emergency, all Rochester area radio and television stations will be notified no later than 5:30 a. m. 2. In addition, the homepage on the MCC website (www. monroecc. edu) will display a message indicating the College is closed. 3. Please do not call the College to avoid overloading the telephone lines.
5 6 Student no : 43713009 EDA 201W Ass no : 2 719493 CLASS CANCELLATION To access a list of daily class cancellations, you may 1. Call the Public Safety Department (292-2066) at MCC, press 1 for a list of cancelled classes at Brighton and press 2 for a list of cancelled classes at Damon; 2. Go to the Internet, access MCC, go to the A-Z listing to C for Class Cancellations and see the list of cancellations; 3. Check your student email for a cancellation notice from your instructor 6 COURSE SYLLABUS AGREEMENT Detach and return this signed sheet to Professor Rodriguez.
______________________________________ M00______________________ Student’s Printed Name Student MCC College ID Number COS 133 Section Number: _________ Semester / Year: _____________ The Course Syllabus 1. The Course Syllabus (course information sheet) is a written legal covenant between you and your professor. 2. It clarifies the professor’s expectations and your responsibilities. Your professor expects you to meet deadlines for assignments, papers, projects and tests. 3. It is your responsibility to review the course syllabus and clarify any aspect of the syllabus.
Therefore, read it carefully and ask questions you may have about its content. Check the appropriate box. ??? I have read the course information sheet for COS 133 – Introduction to College Studies. ??? I understand my responsibilities for this course. I do not have any questions. ??? I do not understand the requirements stated in the COS 133 Course Information Sheet. I will schedule an appointment to discuss my questions with my professor. List your questions for discussion here: ______________________________________ _____________________ Signature Date.
Alcohol Abuse Essay
• • • • Alcohol is a drink containing ethanol It is a lipid that is highly water soluble A psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. Distribution: Ethanol is distributed equally in all body tissue according to water content. • Metabolism: A healthy body can metabolize 15ml of alcohol/hour • Alcohol is metabolized by the liver but 10% is excreted unchanged in the breath, sweat and the urine
Metabolism of alcohol
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde (Toxic) Alcohol Dehydrogenase H2 and Acetic Acid (Nontoxic)
• A psychiatric diagnosis describing the recurring use of alcoholic beverages despite its negative consequences.
• Also termed as “Alcoholism” • Pattern of drinking that results in harm to one’s health, interpersonal relationships, or ability to work.
Cause of Alcohol Abuse
• There is no known cause for alcohol abuse. • The reason for alcohol abuse is complex. • A. Psychodynamic Theory • Attitudes and behaviors of the client • Problems • Stress, anxiety, depression • Peer pressure.
• B. Biologic Theory • G.enetic predisposition of the client
MANIFESTATIONS OF alcohol abuse
• Continue to drink, even when health, work, or family are being harmed • Are not able to control drinking — being unable to stop or reduce alcohol intake • Miss work or school, or have a decrease in performance because of drinking • Need to use alcohol on most days to get through the day.
Manifestations of alcohol abuse
• Do not care about or ignore how they dress or whether they are clean • Try to hide alcohol use • Shake in the morning or after periods when they have not a drink • Poor judgment • Irritable.
Complications of alcohol abuse
• Elevated liver function test • Alcoholic Hallucinosis • Withdrawal symptoms such as: x Tremors x Sweating x Palpitations x Agitation • Delirium tremens • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome • Peripheral Neuritis • Gastric ulcers
Treatment for ALCOHOL ABUSE
• Abstinence from alcohol • Medication treatment such as: • Long-acting Benzodiazepams: tx of alcohol withdrawal • Chlorhexidine (Librium) • Diazepam (Valium) • Lorazepam (Ativan) • Disulfiram (Antabuse) • Naltrexone (ReVia) • Subject to a rehabilitation facility.
• Teach the patient the effects of chemical abuse on the body. • In communicating with the patient be in a matter-of-fact and respectful manner. • Maintain a positive, supportive environment. • Build a therapeutic rapport with the patient by providing relief from his or her symptoms and meeting physiologic and safety needs.
• Present reality without challenging or escalating the patient’s anxiety and thought disturbances. • Remain objective to the patient and the family. • Closely monitor your patient during your shift to identify subtle changes and intervene appropriately. • Assess mental status and sleep pattern, and provide emotional support to reduce anxiety.