Broadcasting Study Guide

BCA 210 Study Guide – Exam 2 Terms: Audion tube: Created by Lee de Forest, this improved the clarity of radio noteffectual acceptation in 1907. This detected radio thrives and pin points investigates. Lee de Forest perfected this glass bulb. Payola: 1960s, the habit of accepting reimbursement to dramatize peculiar recordings on the air. Disc jockeys were full for bribery for accepting currency to dramatize voicelessness, the most far-famed, Alan Freed who performanceed in Cleveland who was confidenceed after a while coining the account for shake 'n' flatten. Peevish proprietorship: The habit of one union owning radio and TV places in the corresponding indiscriminately trade. This was a fruit of the telemessage Act. Narrowcasting: Identifying a peculiar hearers member and programming for it. Unconcealed supervisor (in radio): Runs the radio place. Program supervisor (in radio): They supervise what goes on the air, including the intelligence programs, the place's format and any on-air persons. Kinetoscope: 1888, Thomas Edison's notion, William K. L. Dickinson caused. Perforated film and sprockets to minimize jumps. Peeppomp lighter. The original parlor was in April of 1894 in New York City. Talkies: Investigate pretended to movies. The vitaphone preludes, 1926, splain deficients w/ investigates. Al Jolson, original component-length agitation delineate after a while investigate. It contained two sections after a while synchronized investigate made by the Warner Bros. Digital Projectors: Attendant division: internet division: Ancillary directs: Marketing opportunities allied to a movie, in observation to frequented proceeds from the movie itself. The “Big Five”: 1930s, Warner Bros. , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount, RKO and Twentieth Century Fox all dominated the movie transaction. They were all vertically integrated; they executed movies, nice them universewide and owned theater chains, which guaranteed their delineates nature pompn. The “Hollywood Ten”: J. Parnell Thomas summoned 10 “unfriendly” witnesses from Hollywood to endorse encircling their Communist integrateions. Consisted of 8 hollywood wardwriters and two frequentedors. Their diplomacy was to answer anteriorly the committee as a collection and to shun obedient the frequented interrogation. They familiar to perform statements that interrogationed the committee's instance to question their political beliefs. The witnesses were build in disaffection, some were sentenced to jail and others were fined. By the end, they all obsolete their jobs. Ceffectual television/CATV: Community antenna teleexpectation or ceffectual tv. Cathode Ray Tube: Created by Philo T. Farnsworth in California, he named it the dissector tube. It used an electronic scanner to represent the electronic conception fur aggravate evidently than Nipkow's prior habitual scanning invention. He patented his electronic scanner. Advertiser Executed TV: Programs: Quiz pomps, multiplicity pomps, office comedies, drama, westerns, detective stories, detective stories, movies, soap operas and colloquy pomps. HDTV: The US switched to unconcealedly-known high-definition tv transmission plummet in 2009. It scans 1,125 cords opposite the ward. It requires aggravate spectrum quantity than social tv notables. Digital tv performs it easier for manufacturers to coalesce the functions of TV and the functions of a computer in the corresponding diexpectation of equipment. A. C. Nielsen: The union dominated the tv ratings transaction. Ratings recount the hearers to advertisers; fixed on the Nielsens, advertisers pay for the interchangeeffectual opportunity to arrive-at the hearerss they insufficiency. Rating: The percentage of the sum number of households after a while TV sets tuned to a detail program. Give sponsors counsel encircling the hearers they're arrive-ating after a while their advertising, what advertisers are getting for their currency. Share: The percentage of the hearerss figure on that is observeing a detail program. Demographics: Date encircling consumers' characteristics, such as age, pursuit and proceeds raze. Netperformance affiliates: Stations that use netperformance programming but are owned by companies other than the networks, not networked owned. Syndication: Services that dispose-of programming to indiscriminately places and cable. Independently executed programming. Oprah, Jeopardy, Wheel of Fortune. Analog: In heap messages, a character of technology used in indiscriminatelying, whereby video or audio counsel is sent as faithful notables through the air on peculiar airthrive frequencies. Digital transmission: Telenovelas: are pish vernacular pomps. These furnish a new hearers, agreement draws aggravate lighters than all english vernacular networks. the Internet: pronounces all characters of resources, sculpture, indiscriminately, movies and recordings using a sole grant classification after a whileout barriers. Combines favorites of computer networks casting and receiving account from all aggravate the universe. There is no low proprietor. Browser: Created by Tim Berners-Lee. Software that concedes persons to disdramatize and interact after a while counsel on Web pages. They can pursuit electronically HTML/HTPP: Created by Tim Berners-Lee. Hyperextract markup vernacular/Hyperextract constitute-balance protocol. These concede persons to cause and cast extract, graphics and video counsel electronically and too set up electronic integrateions from one spring of counsel to another. Sales (in television): persons in the sales province dispose-of the interchangeeffectual slots for the programs. Advertising is disappended into unconcealedly-known and topical sales. Advertising agencies, buy racesl ads for the products they touch. (An ad performance may buy opportunity on a netperformance for the ford union, for a tv ad that procure run all aggravate the kingdom simultaneously) Exchange (in television): exchange province integrates the advertising after a while the programming, making certain that all the ads that are sold are aired when they're spposed to be. Exchange too touchs billing for the ads. Transmitted resources: Digital/Multimedia: recounts all forms of messages resources that coalesce extract, delineates, investigate and video using computer technology. Bits: Intellectual goods directs: The admiteffectual direct of proprietorship of notions and full published in any moderation. There are uncertain copydirect holders that enjoy used seek questions to fir their admiteffectual proprietorship. Internet utility provider (ISP): Too named an internet avenue provider. This can be a telephone, attendant or ceffectual union, to frame and pronounce internet counsel and regalement. Web proceeds is made by the currency persons pay their ISP to integrate to the Web. Digital subscriber cord (DSL): Signal or account compression: the way of squeezing digital full into a smaller electronic quantity. Online/Web advertising: advertising is the promote immanent spring of proceeds on the web. They enjoy banners or borders on pages. The dispose-ofer can recognize correspondently who the buyer is gone it is a targeted moderation. There is internet tracking that helps advertisers form counsel encircling the hearerss for their ads. Digital Divide: The delaydrawal of avenue to digital technology figureclose low-income, agricultural and lad collections. Persons -Heinluscious Hertz: Responsible for original describing radio thrives in 1887 in germany. Guglielmo Marconi: Proagitation of wireclose radio thrive transmission outset in 1899 after a while the America's Cup career. Made morse jurisprudence. Marketed his invention. Fancy of a way that messages should be effectual to voyage opposite quantity after a whileout a wire. -Lee de Forest: “Father of radio” Made the audion in 1907, made radio serviceconducive to today's radio, pin severe the investigate. -David Sarnoff: made radio indiscriminatelying a vieffectual transaction in the One States. “radio for the persons” Made red and bluish networks, performanceed for NBC. He insufficiencyed to perform radio for households. -Edwin H. Armstrong: Responsible for licensing quantity harmonies (FM). -William S. Paley: Made radio indiscriminatelying a vieffectual transaction for the One States. Worked for CBS caused 25 places. -Thomas Edison: notion for the kinetoscope in 1888, made William K. L. Dickson cause it. -Rupert Murdoch: Proprietor of fox indiscriminatelying appended US resources transaction from Australia and was effectual to learn so abundant resources companies in a deficient totality of opportunity. -Charlie Chaplin: builded one artists in 1919. They rebelled abutting the close studio classification of diexpectation and formed their own studio. “Fatty “ Arbuckle: Comedian, hosted a marathon verge in San Fran. A mould was rushed to the hospital for stomach exertion, she died at the hospital and fatty was full after a while assassinate but then mean to manslaughter. After three trials, he was distinct. -Florence Lawrence: original movie colossus. Uncredited “Biograph girl”. She current ward confidence from Carl Laemmle. This began the colossust of salaried colossuss and product staff to be subordinate odious contracts. -Mary Pickford: Left biograph to connect Laemmle by doubling her stipend. She became one of the most persuasive women in coming hollywood. She helped to finance the defiant studio One Artists. -Edward R. Murrow: Coming intelligence likeness at CBS, caused the earl plummets for indiscriminately intelligence. -Philo T. Farnsworth: pretended the electronic scanner. Familiar the cathode ray tube. He patented the scanner -Vladimir Zworykin: familiar an all-electronic classification to metamorphose a visual conception into an electronic noteffectual that voyageed through the air. When the noteffectual arrive-ated the tv receiver the noteffectual was metamorphoseed aform into a visual conception for the lighter. -David Brinkley: indiscriminately intelligence director who began at NBC. News indiscriminatelyer -Tim Berners-Lee: familiar programming vernaculars that concede persons to distribute all characters of counsel online, and the original browser which concedeed persons to light counsel oncord in 1989. -Newton Minow: Social intuition. Hired at the FCC by JFK. Asked indiscriminately place proprietors and supervisors to observe their own programs. He said they would perceive a extensive wasteland. He outlined tvs responsibilities to its hearerss. -Nicholas Negroponte: at the heapachusetts ordain of technology original uses the account mob to recount the intersection of industries. Said that the association of the transmitted resources industries after a while the computer toil would cause a new character of message. He caused two moulds to pomp the comcomposition of the resources industries in 78 and his incomplete expectation for those industries in 2000. he listed three members of the resources transaction; sculpture and publishing, indiscriminately and agitation delineates, and the computer toil. The plea of mob helped to figure todays thinking encircling the internet. Stations/Studios/Companies/Associations/etc: -KDKA: was the original interchangeeffectual radio place in Pittsburgh. KDKA began daily one-hour slumbering schedules indiscriminatelying from 8:30 to 9:30. they proved that customary programing could dispose a obedient hearers. -WEAF: New York. Weaf colossusted dispose-ofing advertising opportunity to sponsors. This permanent the result of who would pay the require of airing the programs.. Sold arrests of opportunity. -RCA: empire approved retired privilege. david sarnoff was unconcealed supervisor. He became tv's biggest promoter. RCA faced censure encircling its extensive govern aggravate the airwaves owing it continued to be the universe's largest distributor of radios. NBC (red and bluish): caused by David Sarnoff at NBC in 1926. The red netperformance was fed from WEAF in New York. The bluish netperformance originated from place WJZ in Newark. Place engineers hatch the intended hookups of the two networks after a while red and bluish colored pencils which is how the networks got their names. One of the original tv networks. -ABC: American indiscriminatelying union, the dispose-ofing of this union to Edward Noble gave the kingdom a three-netperformance radio classification. -ASCAP: American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. Created blanket licensing of voicelessness indiscriminatelying aggravate the radio. FCC: Federal Communications Commission. Granted quantity permits. FCC ordered NBC to unclothe one of its networks. FCC recognizes FM -National Social Radio: 1970, goes on air. Empire began funding the NPR in 1967. By project, social radio was caused as an opinion to interchangeeffectual radio. Depends primarily on retired donations to survive. Working the program All things considered for the slumbering drive-opportunity and instituted the morning edition. -Motion Delineate Producers and Distributors Association: In 1930, they adopted a product jurisprudence to govern movie full. Procure Hays was the moderator. The jurisprudence had three principles: No delineate shall be executed that procure inferior the ethical plummets, amend plummets of vivacity, question merely to the requirements of drama and regalement shall be presented, law, consistent or cosmical, shall not be ridiculed. The jurisprudence is then disappended into 12 categories of wickedness. Murder. Sex. Obscenity. Costume. -United Artists: Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and DW Griffith, defiant studio run by the colossuss themselves in 1919. -Disney: Walt Disney, merely 1930's newcomer to the movie transaction. Created snow stainclose & 7 dwarfs which was the original full-length inspiring component. Grey to resources union we recognize today. -CBS: Original tv networks. Created by William Paley. Had 25 places. Later, in 1947, CBS began indiscriminatelying teleexpectation intelligence. -CNN: Working in 1979 by Ted Turner, CNN's global arrive-at furnishs the US hearers twinkling avenue to new encircling intergenerally-known plaints. Modern attendants made this practicable. -TNT: 1976. Part of the ceffectual toil. Happenings -“War of the Worlds”: Orson Welles, Mercury Theater. Night anteriorly Halloween. Aired dramatized rendering of “war of the universes” as a subsist intelligence indiscriminately. Some persons fancy that it was truly happening. This questiond radio's instance/credibility. -American agitation delineate premier: Edison framed the original American agitation delineate premiere after a while an improved camera familiar by defiant creator Thomas Armat. Edison dubbed the new record the Vitascope, and the original social pomping of the delineate was on April 23rth 1896 at Koster and Bial's Theater in New York. This spawned nickelodeons. -US v. Partotality Pictures case: Limit arrest booking to five, plug ignorant booking, plug requiring deficient film rentals, plug buying theaters. -quiz pomp shames: Brought encircling an ethics shame in 1958. aused the netwoks to reexamine the intercommunity between advertisers and programs. The networks figureed to other springs such as defiant producers, for their programming. Charles Van Doren dramatizeed on twenty one, he won 129,000 admitted he was fed the answers. -Radio Act of 1912:Licensing, poor immunity. Social Convenience, cause or requirement. Used for the account of indiscriminatelying. -Radio Act of 1927: formed the Federal Radio errand subordinate the sway of the province of exchange. The moderator apsevere the errand's five members, after a while the Senate's praise. Stations effect as a social freedom, cause or requirement requires. ” Too became the permit holder. Stations could effect merely after a while the empire's praise and places insufficiencyed errand praise to be sold or constitute-overred. This became the buildation for all indiscriminately principle in the One states. -Digital Millennium Copydirect Act: in 1998, made it ilalloweffectual to distribute copyrighted symbolical on the internet. -Public Broadcasting Act of 1967: caused the strengthening for Social Broadcasting and included funding for social radio and tv places. Telecommunications Act of 1996: original greater aggravatehaul of indiscriminately principle gone the federal messages errand was fired. The impart of the act is that interchangeeffectual radio is regulated fur close than the 70s. This is named the arrangement of deregulation. It removed proprietorship limits. Recognized peevish proprietorship, prompted league. Concepts -Radio vs. TV programming: -Race movies: directored the art of disturbance stereotypes. These films pompcased all bwithdrawal casts in a multiplicity of genres including westerns, mysteries, romances and melodramas. -Hays Office product jurisprudence: May not inferior ethical plummet of lighters. Proper plummets of vivacity. Respect for law. No tenderness for violators. Assassinate should not animate transcript. No libidinous kissing or libidinous embraces. No obscenity. Costumes must not be immodest, dancing moves that are exposing or immodest are forbidden. -syndicated TV programming: are defiantly executed programming. Oprah, danger, wheel of fortune. Services that dispose-of programming to indiscriminately places and cable. -1950s teleexpectation boom: -TV’s collision on sports: CBS compensated 28 favorite for NFL directs, in 1990 it require 3. 6 billion (now plain surpassing). TV funds fur of professional sports. Expansion to ceffectual (ESPN) -Spanish vernacular TV: New hearers. Agreement draws aggravate lighters than all english vernacular networks. Telenovelas. -Web advertising: banners and ads. They can target their hearerss by tracking. -Convergence: Melding of messages, computer and electronics industries. Movies -The Great Train Robbery: is a 1903 American western film written, executed, and frequenteded by Edwin S. Porter. 12 minutes crave, it is considered a milestone in film making. The film used a number of innovative techniques including composite editing, camera move and on precipitation shooting. The Rise of a Nation: 1915. Original budget, component-length film spectacular. D. W. Griffith. Now renamed for racist themes. Drawing specialized hearerss. Oscar Micheaux's performance countered rise of a race. -The Jazz Singer: is a 1927 American voicelessnessal film. The original component-length agitation delineate after a while synchronized conversation sequences, its discharge heralded the interchangeeffectual ascendance of the "talkies" and the deccord of the dormant film era. Directed by Alan Crosland and executed by Warner Bros. after a while its Vitaphone investigate-on-disc classification, the movie colossuss Al Jolson, who performs six songs. The film is fixed on The Day of Atonement, a dramatize by Samson Raphaelson. -Steamboat Willie: Disney in 1928. is a 1928 American inspiring deficient film frequenteded by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was executed in ebon-and-stainclose by the Walt Disney Studios and discharged by Celebrity Productions. The cartoon is considered the debut of Mickey Mouse, -Snow Stainclose and the Splain Dwarves: Disney, 1937. original full-length inspiring component. Require 2. 25 favorite, as fur as an MGM, voicelessnessal. -Empire of the Air: Proved that radio is an notionl moderation for arrive-ating heapes of the US, your geographic precipitation is not improbable by it. Government resultd patents that caused grating. All encircling currency—Sarnoff governled everything and caused a network. The film reflects capitalism and the “american dream” he was an immigrant and caused this regalement to befit luscious. Drive ourselves and insufficiency new technology to befit aristocracy. -Sunset Boulevard: Film noir. Used a exhibit in the insinuate to furnish the error of nature subordinatewater. -Quiz Show: Quiz Pomp is a 1994 American truthful drama film executed and frequenteded by Robert Redford. Charles Van Doren won 129,000 but was fed the answers. –The Social Network