The Bauhaus art adept that I chose as a accountable to abstraction is Johannes Itten. He was a abstracted blush and art theorist who developed blush caster and stars which are broadly advised by art students. He additionally delved into airy and cerebral aspect of color. I feel acutely affiliated to his assignment as the aboriginal footfall arise compassionate art is to accept color. I feel Johannes Itten’s simplistic access arise all-embracing blush and assuming his acuteness in his artwork is absolutely apparent and that is the acumen I feel the charge to apprentice added about his artwork and blush theories.
Johannes Itten was built-in on 11th Nov, 1888 in Südern-Lindern, Switzerland in a academy teacher’s family. Afterwards acumen his affection for Arts he confused to Vienna for art studies in 1916 and again confused to Weimar in 1919 to advise in the Bauhaus.
It was a aggressive apple back Johannes Itten lived. Europe was war formed and bodies laid added accent on accomplishment and accumulation again cultivating aesthetic aptitude. Although Johannes Itten somehow able the horrors of war, best of the artist, painters, artist during that aeon had to forcibly enrol in the war. In the art apple bodies were sceptic of new account and that was one of the capital affidavit of his banishment from the Bauhaus. Art and ability was advancing in that aeon and clear designing grew adventurous with abstracts in typography, calligraphy and photography etc which led to a abrupt absorption in clear designing.
Since Johannes Itten was a teacher’s son he accomplished as a primary academy abecedary to accompany a career in the field. Itten about accomplished that teaching primary academy was not his affair and that he has predilection for blush and arts. Beneath affectionate burden he absitively to booty Diploma in mathematics and science to advise at a accessory school, but not afore demography a division at Geneva Ecole des Beaux – Arts in Genf. It was afterwards belief there that he accomplished his affection arise arts. He again advised beneath Adolf Hölzel in Stuttgart.
After finishing his studies he confused to Vienna in 1916 area he met Walter Gropius in 1919 (founder of the Bauhaus) who continued him the allurement to address at the Bauhaus in Weimar. In 1926, however, afterwards falling out with Gropius Walter, Johannes Itten accustomed an art academy in Berlin to alternation architects, artists, painters and photographers. From 1932 to 1938 Itten accomplished at the Krefeld Academy of Textile Design, area he edified automated designers. He became the administrator of the Museum and Institute of Arts and Crafts in Zurich afore backward in 1955.
Having actuality absolutely committed to the teaching institutes Itten never begin abundant time to allot to his own creations until 1955, afterwards retirement about he became added abounding again before. He died in Zurich in 1967.
Frank Whitford (Bauhaus, 1984) describes Johannes Itten as ‘a man of aberrant beliefs, a abecedary of anarchistic accuracy and a abstruse admixture of saint and charlatan’.
His aesthetics and teaching methods is said to accept been awful afflicted by Friedrich Froebel’s administration of ‘education through play’. Johannes Itten started the foundation advance at Bauhaus which afterwards angry out to be acute and Itten as one of the aloft pedagogical force, as the teaching affairs was based on Froebel’s principals. The advance included presenting acceptance with alone abstracts like wire, cardboard, newspaper, blade, matchbox etc, and challenges them to ad-lib something. Advance additionally amid belief abstracts like wood, metal, calamus etc, by looking, activity and cartoon them until they can be fatigued from memory. The abstraction abaft formulating such a advance was to beat astute reproduction to accomplish interpretative architecture instead of bald ersatz.
Itten accomplished in the Bauhaus till 1923, emphasizing mainly on the concepts of creating and focussing on anatomy and color. It was while teaching the foundation art advance that Itten formulated his theories on blush which afterwards begin their way in his abundant acclaimed book – The Art of Color. In March 1923, Itten larboard the Bauhaus because Walter Gropius no best accustomed of his teaching adjustment – in accurate the basic attentive contest and because he followed an far eastern abstruse acceptance alleged Mazdazhan which complex him cutting a continued bathrobe and atom his head. With the abandonment of Itten brought the end of the so alleged ‘Romantic’ or the ‘Universalistic’ era of the Bauhaus.
Johannes Itten wrote several books during his lifetime. One of his best acclaimed assignment is ‘The Art of Color’ which deals with blush contrast, assimilation and hues. He authentic and articular strategies for acknowledged blush combinations. He additionally created Blush wheel, triangle and tetrad which are broadly advised in the blush theories and abundantly congenital into computer systems area it organizes color. Johannes Itten formed acutely adamantine till the day he retired in 1955 and it was afterwards this that he started bearing his own assignment in the anatomy of books and paintings e.g. ‘My Preliminary Advance at the Bauhaus’ and ‘Art and Color’ advertence few amid the many.
Johannes Itten aesthetics complex all-embracing blush as he believed “to become the adept of blush one charge see, feel, and acquaintance anniversary alone blush in its amaranthine combinations with all alternative color”. It involves defining and anecdotic strategies of altered blush combinations.
Although Johannes Itten was not the sole artist of blush wheel, his is one of the best broadly advised one. Blush caster was aboriginal invented by Sir Issac Newton focussing on continuum of color, was afterwards broadcast on by Goethe who concentrated on the cerebral aspect of color. It was Johannes Itten who termed blush caster as simple and accessible to understand.
His blush caster contains twelve colors: three primary colors, three secondary, and six tertiary colors.
Primary Color: These are the architecture blocks of all alternative color. They cannot be fabricated by bond alternative colors – Red, Yellow, and Blue.
Secondary Color: These are fabricated back primary blush is alloyed calm – Orange, Green, and Violet.
Tertiary Color: These are alloyed back Accessory blush is alloyed calm – yellow-green, yellow-orange, red-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, and blue-green.
Farbkreis by Johannes Itten (1961)
Color Theory: Johannes Itten formulated the ‘The seven methodology’ for accumulation colors application altered hues, adverse and assimilation of colors – explained below.
Contrast of assimilation Adverse of ablaze and aphotic Adverse of Extension
The adverse is formed by aggregate of ablaze and aphotic blush and their about adumbration and tint.
It refers to the arrangement of colours acclimated in beheld art. E.g. arrangement of blooming to amethyst in the angel above.
The adverse is formed by accumulation ablaze and aphotic color.
Contrast of complements Simultaneous adverse Adverse of hue
The adverse is formed back two adjoining blush of the blush caster are placed together. E.g. red and dejected flowers back are placed adjoining anniversary alternative arise blooming and orange.
The adverse is formed by aggregate of hues beyond the blush wheel. Accretion the ambit amid the hues increases the contrast.
The adverse is formed by accumulation agnate blush beyond the blush wheel. Bond such blush aftereffect in aloof tones such as blah or black.
Contrast of balmy and cool
Warm blush like red, yellow, orange back accumulated with air-conditioned blush like blue, green, violet actualize the adverse of balmy and cool.
Roy Newell: Though Roy Newell’s paintings mostly are abstruse and not expressionist like Itten’s, still I acquainted a affiliation in the assignment of the two legends. If we abstraction Roy’s ‘The clandestine myth’ I accept Roy uses aberration in blush with account to acuteness of corresponding hues e.g. use of altered shades of blooming and red capricious from ablaze to dark, which illustrates the absolute access of blush approach acclimated by Itten.
The Clandestine Myth
Mark Rothko: This painting of Mark Rothko shows the aforementioned use of balmy and air-conditioned colours as depicted in Itten’s Blush Theory. The white, yellow, orange acceptance to balmy colors while red, blush and atramentous acceptance to air-conditioned colors.
Red Orange Tan and Amethyst 1949
Paul Klee: While belief Johannes Itten’s ‘Group of Houses in spring’ I begin a arresting affinity in these two painter’s appearance of painting. I accept both ‘Temple Gardens’ and ‘group of houses in spring’ uses geometric shapes and altered hues of blush in assorted means to accomplish admirable allotment of art. Paul Klee’s ‘Double tent’ uses the Johannes Itten’s blush caster to appearance blush alternation by application hues forth with tints and shades.
Temple Gardens 1920
Double covering 1923
Frank Stella: In my assessment this painting has taken afflatus from Itten’s Blush caster as it forms adverse by application the about assimilation of ablaze and aphotic color, and as able-bodied as takes afflatus from his blush approach as it uses balmy and air-conditioned colors with accretion and abbreviating intensity.
These are Beheld examples of him application the allegory backdrop of blush to aftermath astounding expressions like depth, apparition and dimension. What is different in all these samples is that Itten acclimated geometrical shapes to accurate his art. Adverse is created in these samples by application balmy blush like yellow, red and orange and air-conditioned blush like dejected and black. Additionally use of adverse blush beyond the blush caster additionally creates adverse which can be apparent actuality in the adventurous use of chicken and blue.
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Johannes Itten, Depths 1915
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Johannes Itten, Group of homes in spring, 1916
Johannes Itten, The Bach Singer, 1916
Johannes Itten, Horizontal Vertical 1915
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