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A Life Cycle Analysis Of A Dam Environmental Sciences Essay

Dams are congenital for assorted purposes; the aloft action includes hydroelectric ability generation, bubbler baptize supply, irrigation, flood control, amusement etc. But the altered incidents and studies done by several advisers accepted that these ample dams fabricated for these purposes, additionally accompanying affectation abundant threats to the life, acreage and the ambiance throughout their lifecycle. The impacts may be altered in altered phases, namely construction, operation and decommissioning phase. There are about 845,000 dams about the apple (Jacquot, 2009), the accumulative appulse of all these dams could be enormous. So, it is capital to minimise the impacts due to dam architecture on lives, acreage and environment. Identifying accessible impacts, artful accident and minimising the accident through the acceptance of assorted techniques could advice to lower the all-embracing impacts.

Major hazards associated with Dams throughout their lifecycle (Reservoir):

Construction Phase:

Construction of ample basement like dams demands massive bulk of architecture material, blasting action and vehicles, which anon impacts on the ambiance and society. Best of the equipments and agent appoint on such activities use deposit ammunition as the arch antecedent of action and accord to the blooming abode gas emission. The estimated discharge from Glen Canyon dam during its architecture appearance was afflicted as 800,000 metric bags of CO2 agnate (Pacca, 2002). The accident of accidents due to the vehicles, architecture action and blasting action to the artisan is probable. The architecture armpit could be of appropriate absorption for some beastly or plant, so this action may advance to the dematerialization such plant/animal from that breadth for ever.

Operation Phase:

The operation of dams additionally poses blackmail to the ambiance and people. The blackmail of dam abortion during the operation appearance due to assorted affidavit may account huge accident of action and property. There is consistently blackmail of cartoon of bodies on the dam. The discharge during this appearance from the adulteration of biomass in the backlog is obvious; the discharge from the Glen Canyon dam during its operation appearance was estimated to be 3,500,000 metric ton of CO2 agnate (Pacca, 2002). The abortion of dam is the best annihilative accident of the absolute lifecycle of dam. The accommodation on dam abortion are discussed alone below.

Decommissioning Phase:

This is the aftermost date of the action aeon of dam, this date affectation blackmail of across-the-board the afterwards areas (settlements, infrastructure, etc) and the lives. The discharge from this date is begin as better in allegory with architecture and operation. The discharge from the decommissioning of the Glen Canyon dam was afflicted as 33,000,000 metric bags of CO2 agnate (Pacca,2002), which was added than nine times the discharge from the absolute operation phase. Admitting the decommissioning assignment is done in controlled manner, the accident of acreage would not be as the dam failure.

Environmental and Social after-effects throughout a dam’s life:

Construction Phase:

Resettlement of people: Architecture of Dam requires huge breadth of land, which is generally acquired by displacing bodies from that place. Bodies are generally afflicted to leave their affiliated acreage giving them cerebral accent and the resettlement to the new breadth generally alters the absolute ambiance there. In China Three Gorges Dam accept already displaced a actor bodies and still addition 80000 are to be confused till its final stage, 1200 villages and 2 aloft towns accept had to be deserted and rebuilt (McGivering, 2006).

Archaeological sites: In some cases alike the archaeological sites additionally get destroyed due to dam construction. Added than 100 archaeological sites, some dating aback over 12000 years is to be abysmal due to the three gorge dam (Gleick, 2009).

Transportation, blasting and construction: The movement of cartage during the architecture of dam contributes to discharge to some admeasurement and appropriately afflict the anatomy there. The blasting and architecture action both appulse the anatomy locally. Air abuse due to the dust can be expected.

Operation Phase:

Siltation: Rivers backpack debris loads, the bulk alter according to the characteristics of the catchment breadth and the acceleration of the active water. The architecture of dam reduces the acceleration of the river appropriately allowance debris to achieve bottomward aural the reservoir. If the debris arrears avenue due to this in river, the approach can be accepted to abandon debris from its bed and banks in the afterwards ability the ambiance there (Grant,2003).

Methane Generation: Hydro ability was advised to be the renewable that aftermath no greenhouse gases. According to Boyle, G (2009), a address by the apple agency on dams (WCD, 2000, Anon, 2001), the corrupt of vegetable bulk in an anaerobic action produces methane (CH4), aback the acreage is abounding with hydro project.

Fish migration: Angle are afflicted anon by the obstruction like dam on its course. The best frequently afflicted breed like Salmon, which needs to go upstream for spawning, can be blocked from their ancestry place. Barrage of the ancestry breadth aural the reservoir, alternate barrage and dehydration out of ancestry arena and ambush breadth afterwards of the dam added hampers the fish’s activity. (Harvath, and Municio,1998).

Fertility of the afterwards plains: The afterwards allotment of dam apart the comestible absolute soil, which acclimated to accept during flooding. Afterwards the architecture of the Aswan dam, in 1960’s, the acreage afterwards no best receives the clay and nutrients advanced agitated by the anniversary Nile flood. The agronomical arrangement has been destroyed in the afterwards and to be replaced and is replaced by irrigation and actinic fertilizer (Boyle, 2004).

Local altitude change: Increased precipitation has been empiric afterwards the architecture of dam, the concrete action by which ample calibration apparent dehydration triggers in the precipitation recycling in such breadth (Hossain, et al, 2009). Changes in the air damp percentage, air temperature, air movement in big calibration can be acquired by big calibration dam (Tahmiscioglu, et al,….).

Impact on biodiversity: In some cases architecture of dams afflict the abode of alarmingly endangered breed too, the winter apartment of Siberien Crane and the ‘Baiji’ Yangtze river dolphin, are begin to be afflicted by the three gorges dam (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam).

Induced earthquakes: ample reservoirs can account seismic contest as they fill, as the burden on bounded faults increases (ICE 1981). The seismic action of consequence 5.7 was recorded in Lake Oroville in Butte canton of California in June 1982(Allen, 1982).

Agricultural/ accident of forests: In abounding cases, the architecture of dam covers the advantageous agronomical acreage which acclimated to be the agency of sustenance for the bounded bodies and in abounding cases bright some allotment of backwoods antibacterial accustomed ecosystem. About 1400 badger of agronomical acreage is to be abysmal because of the three gorge dam (Gleick, 2009).

Spread of ache (increase in ache accustomed vectors, e.g. mosquito): Study agitated out by Yewhalaw, et al (2005), begin that the bondage can act as ancestry arena for vectors like mosquito, and begin that the accouchement active abreast to dam are at greater accident of plasmodium infection than the accouchement active away.

Decommissioning Phase:

Decommissioning: Alike though, decommissioning of dams advice to restore the reverine ecosystem to its accustomed condition, some abbreviate appellation abrogating aftereffect such as debris mobilisation, attenuated actual and blackmail of cool assimilation can be apparent (Bednarek, 2001).

Dam Failure:

One of the best acutely adverse aftereffect of ample dam is seen, aback it falls. The basal causes may be altered in anniversary case. Some of the aloft causes are (ICOLD, 1973):

Overtopping

Foundation defects

Piping and seepage

Conduits and valves

Seismic accident damage

Failure of dam due to centralized baptize pressure

Failure of dam due to abiding aeon of condensate and flooding

Causes of Dam Abortion that occurred amid 1075- 2001(NPDP, 2007)

(Adopted from celebrated annal of Dam Performance, 2007)

On the base of the aloft blueprint it can be said that, flood or overtopping of the dam bank angle far advanced from alternative causes of dam failure. Elimination and brim is on additional position and blow of all are amenable for actual beneath cardinal of dam failures, this blueprint proves that the overtopping of dam is the aloft causes of dam failures.

Cost of Dam Break: The bulk of dam breach consists of two components; about-face bulk of dam and bread-and-butter accident due to abolition and barrage afterwards (Kuo, et al, 2008).

Cost and Benefit from Dam: Dam architecture is an big-ticket assignment and demands huge sum of money, but it provides acutely all-important things for active the association and development like action and baptize for bubbler and irrigation purpose. On the alternative duke it has some impacts on association and environment, some of which needs lots of money and time for apology while others are irreparable. So architecture of dam has its own pros and cons.

Ways to minimise the accident of dam failure:

Dam abortion is the best annihilative adventure in the absolute action aeon of dam, which may account huge accident of action and property. So it is capital to ensure the assurance of dam in adjustment to assure the action and property. Some of the important accomplish capital for the abridgement of dam abortion and its impacts are as follows (MDE, 1996):

Strict legislation should be promulgated by government for the architecture of dam/ Reservoir.

Routine anamorphosis ecology of elimination from drains in and about beyond dams is all-important and if begin faulty, antidotal admeasurement should be taken. In case of bank fracture, bedrock grouting (pressure pumping of adhesive slurry) can be done to abate the accident of dam failure. Regular ecology and aliment could advice a lot to anticipate dam failure.

Early admonishing arrangement should be congenital in the backlog arrangement to assure bodies and acreage downstream, in case of dam failure.

Dam architecture should not be accustomed in the breadth of aerial seismic activity.

Most of the nations accomplish assurance programme for the aegis of dam. In USA best of the ‘states’ are amenable for the assurance of dams aural their abuttals and to ensure the assurance they consistently chase the afterward action (Lane, 2008);

Evaluate the assurance of absolute dam.

Review affairs and blueprint for assurance and authoritative programme.

Carry out alternate analysis on architecture on new and absolute dams.

Review and approval of emergency action plan.

Some measures to abate alternative impacts on and due to dams:

Management of catchment of river can advice to abate sedimentation on dam, which may accommodate acreage on the catchment area, acceptance of landside and abrasion ascendancy measures for the upstream breadth of dam. The alternate charwoman of dams can advice to abate the bulk of sediments aural a dam and advice to accost the accommodation to its aboriginal form. Angle ladder can advice to restore angle clearing to some extent. (source)

The adding of apparent best precipitation (PMP) and admiration of apparent best flood (PMF) and the anticipation of boilerplate acknowledgment aeon for that river, could advice to architecture the dam appropriately (CSCD,1985), which could anticipate dam from failure.

Monitoring should be agitated out to ascendancy the ancestry of mosquitoes in dam, if found, mosquito larvae charge be controlled with the accustomed mosquito larvicide, so that the alternative amphibian animal will accept basal impacts from larvicide (DHF,2006).

Rich account of Dam and associated Impacts

A Rich Account illustrating impacts of dam on assorted aspects of ambiance and society

Risk of Dam Abortion with age:

Percentage of altered age groups of dam failures in Russia in allegory with the failures of apple dams.

(Adopted from Management of Impounded Rivers, Wang and Melching, 2007).

Though age is one of the important agency for the dam abortion as the walls and alternative infrastructures erodes or weakens with age, but it is not alone the agency that causes dam failure; adulterated structures, acute acclimate events, sabotage, seismic activities etc additionally activate to dam failure. The aloft blueprint showed that the accomplished cardinal of dam abortion was in the age accumulation 0-10, which again gradually decreases as the age accumulation increases. The abnormal anatomy can advance to dam abortion alike at its aboriginal age while the able-bodied complete and able-bodied maintained dam can serve over hundred years. On the base of aloft blueprint it can be said that crumbling in not the primary agency for dam abortion and able aliment can amplify the action bulk of dam admitting of age, and does not appearance bright alternation with dam failure. One apparent acumen of beneath cardinal of dam failures of the age-old dam could be the able aliment and decommissioning afore the dam abortion occurs.

Risk Appraisal of dam failure:

Risk appraisal was afflicted on the base of abstracts from Annex-3.

High severity condition

Total Occurrence= 11

Average time taken to echo the contest for the chic IA (with added than 300 deaths) =11.1 year

Average Afterlife calculated=1111.1

Risk=Frequency (event/ assemblage time) -Magnitude (Deaths)=1/11.1-1111.1=0.09-1111.1=99.99

Therefore, Risk=99.99 per 11.1 year

Risk adding for all-embracing dam failure

Total accident of dam failure=46

Average gap amid alternating events=0.39 year

Average afterlife per event=357.91

Risk= Frequency (event/ assemblage time) -Magnitude (Deaths)

Therefore, Risk= 1/0.39-357.91=2.6-357.91=930.5 being per 0.39 year

Conclusion:

References:

Allen, C,R, 1982, Backlog Induced Earthquakes and Engineering Policy, California Geology, 35, 11

Bednarek, A,T, 2001,Undamming Rivers: A Review of the Ecological Impacts of Dam Removal, Ecology Management, 27,803-814.

Boyle, G, 2004, Renewable Energy: Ability for a Sustainable Future, Oxford University, Oxford

CSCD,1985, Assurance of Dams: Flood and Earthquake Criteria, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.

DHF, 2006,Guidelines for Preventing Mosquito Ancestry Sites Associated with Aquaculture Development in NT,Department of Health and Families, Darwin

Gleick, P.H., 2009, Three Gorges Dam Project, Yangtze River, China, Baptize Brief, 3, 139-150.

Grant, E, G, et al, 2003, A Geological Framework For Interpreting Afterwards Effects Of dams On Rivers, Baptize Science and Application 7, 209-225

Harvath, E, and Municio, M. A. T.,1998, 2nd International Symposium in Civil Engineering, Budapest

Hossain, F, et al, 2009, Bounded Altitude Change, EOS, 90,453-468

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam, adjourned on 4 March, 2010.

http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/srdamsafety.pdf, adjourned on 20 May, 2010

http://npdp.stanford.edu/npdphome/Historic%20Performance%20of%20Dams.pdf, adjourned on 20 May ,2010.

http://www.damsafety.org/, adjourned on 20 March, 2010

International Committee on Ample Dams (ICOLD, 1973),Lessons from Dam Incidents,Reduced Edition, Paris

Jacqot,J,2009, Numbers Dams; From Hoover to Three Gorges to the crumbling ones, Ecology Policy, http://discovermagazine.com/2009/mar/08-dams-hoover-three-gorges-crumbling-ones, adjourned on 17 May 2010.

Kuo,J,T, et al, 2008,Dam Over Topping Accident Appraisal Considering Analysis Programme, Stoch Environ Res Accident Assess, 22, 303-313

Lane,N, 2008,Aging Infracture: Dam Safety, Congressional Research Service

McGivering, J, 2006, Three Gorges Dam’s Social Impact, BBC , http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/asia-pacific/5000198.stm, adjourned on 3 March 2010.

MDE, 1996, Maryland Dam Assurance Manual, Association of State Dam Assurance Officials

Pacca,S, 2007, Impacts from Decommissioning of Hydroelectric Dams: A action Aeon Prospective, Altitude Change, 84, 281-294

Tahmiscioglu, M, S, et al,.. Positive and Abrogating Impacts of Dam on the Environment, International Congress on River Basin Management, 760-769

Wang,Z,Y, and Melching, S, 2007, Management of Impounded Rivers

Yewhalaw, D, et al, 2005, Malaria and Baptize Resource development: The Case of Gilgel-Gibe Hydroelectric Dam in Ethopia, Malar. J, 8, 21

Annex-1 (Part-A)

PLAGARISM DECLARATION

I acknowledge that the assignment I am appointment for appraisal contains no breadth afflicted in accomplished or in allotment from any alternative sources unless it is absolutely articular by agency of citation marks. I acknowledge that I accept additionally accustomed such citation by accouterment abundant references in an accustomed format. I accept that either or both anonymous and unreferenced artful constitutes plagiarism, which is one of a cardinal of actual austere offences beneath the university’s cipher of convenance on the Use of Unfair Means.

Student No- 200910979

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF A DAM

CONTENTS PAGE NO.

INTRODUCTION: 3

Major hazards associated with Dam: 3

Major ecology issues associated with dam 3-4

Catastrophes (Dam failure):

Siltation

Methane generation

Fish migration

Resettlement of people

Fertility of the afterwards plains

Local altitude change

Impact on biodiversity

Induced earthquakes

Agricultural/ accident of forests

Spread of disease

Archaeological sites

Decommissioning

Key questions for allotment B 5

Draft Plan 5

References 6

Word Count- 1076

Word Limit- 1000

INTRODUCTION:

Dams are congenital for assorted purposes; the aloft action includes hydroelectric ability generation, bubbler baptize supply, irrigation, flood control, amusement etc. But the altered incidents and studies done by several advisers accepted that these ample dams fabricated for these purposes, additionally accompanying affectation abundant threats to the life, acreage and the ambiance throughout their lifecycle. The impacts may be altered in altered phases, namely construction, operation and decommissioning phase. Yes, but what is th eproblem bearings or concern?

Major hazards associated with Dam:

Dam failure: one of the best acutely adverse aftereffect of ample dam is seen, aback it falls. The basal causes may be altered in anniversary case. Some of the aloft causes are:

Seismic accident damage

Failure of dam due to centralized baptize pressure.

Failure of dam due to abiding aeon of condensate and flooding.

Threat to animal action due to drowning in dam.

Major ecology issues associated with dam:

Catastrophes (Dam failure): Dam abortion generally after-effects huge accident of life, acreage and environment. During 20th aeon some 200 dam failures acquired added than ten thousand bodies alfresco China and in the year 1975 alone about division of actor bodies were asleep in the alternation of hydroelectric dam abortion in China (Boyle, G, 2004).

Siltation: Rivers backpack debris loads, the bulk alter according to the characteristics of the catchment breadth and the acceleration of the active water. The architecture of dam reduces the acceleration of the river appropriately allowance debris to achieve bottomward aural the reservoir. If the debris arrears avenue due to this in river, the approach can be accepted to abandon debris from its bed and banks in the afterwards ability the ambiance there (Grant,2003).

Methane generation: Hydro ability was advised to be the renewable that aftermath no greenhouse gases. According to Boyle, G (2009), a address by the apple agency on dams (WCD, 2000, Anon, 2001), the corrupt of vegetable bulk in an anaerobic action produces methane (CH4), aback the acreage is abounding with hydro project.

Fish migration: Angle are afflicted anon by the obstruction like dam on its course. The best frequently afflicted breed like Salmon, which needs to go upstream for spawning, can be blocked from their ancestry place. Barrage of the ancestry breadth aural the reservoir, alternate barrage and dehydration out of ancestry arena and ambush breadth afterwards of the dam added hampers the fish’s activity. (Harvath, E, and Municio, M. A. T.,1998).

Resettlement of people: Architecture of Dam requires huge breadth of land, which is generally acquired by displacing bodies from that place. Bodies are generally afflicted to leave their affiliated acreage giving them cerebral accent and the resettlement to the new breadth generally alters the absolute ambiance there. In China Three Gorges Dam accept already displaced a actor bodies and still addition 80000 are to be confused till its final stage, 1200 villages and 2 aloft towns accept had to be deserted and rebuilt (McGivering, 2006).

Fertility of the afterwards plains: The afterwards allotment of dam apart the comestible absolute soil, which acclimated to accept during flooding. Afterwards the architecture of the Aswan dam, in 1960’s, the acreage afterwards no best receives the clay and nutrients advanced agitated by the anniversary Nile flood. The agronomical arrangement has been destroyed in the afterwards and to be replaced and is replaced by irrigation and actinic fertilizer(Boyle, G, 2004).

Local altitude change: Increased precipitation has been empiric afterwards the architecture of dam, the concrete action by which ample calibration apparent dehydration triggers in the precipitation recycling in such breadth (Hossain, F, et al, 2009). Changes in the air damp percentage, air temperature, air movement in big calibration can be acquired by big calibration dam (Tahmiscioglu, M, S, et al,….).

Impact on biodiversity: In some cases architecture of dams afflict the abode of alarmingly endangered breed too, the winter apartment of Siberien Crane and the ‘Baiji’ Yangtze river dolphin, are begin to be afflicted by the three gorges dam (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam).

Induced earthquakes: ample reservoirs can account seismic contest as they fill, as the burden on bounded faults increases (ICE 1981). The seismic action of consequence 5.7 was recorded in Lake Oroville in Butte canton of California in June 1982(Allen, C,R, 1982)

Agricultural/ accident of forests: In abounding cases, the architecture of dam covers the advantageous agronomical acreage which acclimated to be the agency of sustenance for the bounded bodies and in abounding cases bright some allotment of backwoods antibacterial accustomed ecosystem. About 1400 badger of agronomical acreage will be abysmal because of the three gorge dam (Gleick, P.H., 2009).

Spread of ache (increase in ache accustomed vectors, e.g. mosquito): Study agitated out by Yewhalaw, D, et al (2005), begin that the bondage can act as ancestry arena for vectors like mosquito, and begin that the accouchement active abreast to dam are at greater accident of plasmodium infection than the accouchement active away.

Archaeological sites: In some cases alike the archaeological sites additionally get destroyed due to dam construction. Added than 100 archaeological sites, some dating aback over 12000 years will be abysmal due to the three gorge dam (Gleick, P.H., 2009).

Decommissioning: Alike though, decommissioning of dams advice to restore the reverine ecosystem to its accustomed condition, some abbreviate appellation abrogating aftereffect such as debris mobilisation, attenuated actual and blackmail of cool assimilation can be apparent (Bednarek, A,T, 2001).

Key questions for allotment B:

Answer to the afterward questions will be searched in the additional allotment of this case study:

What are the aloft hazards associated with dam and how the accident can be minimised?

What are the approaches practised to minimise the appulse on dam on ambiance and human?

How the dam induced appulse like sedimentation, obstruction on the angle clearing avenue and access in diseases carrier agent can be regulated?

How the acclimation anatomy ensure the assurance of dam?

How the factors like backroom and abridgement affect in the architecture of dam?

Draft Plan:

Introduction

Major hazards associated with Dam (Reservoir)

Causes of Dam failure

The accessible impacts of such hazards

Measures to minimise the impacts

Environmental Issues associated with Dam

Impact on agronomics and forest

Impact on angle migration

Impact on biodiversity

Measures practised to minimise the impact

Socio bread-and-butter appulse of Dam

Abandonment and resettlement of displaced people

Damages to age-old ancestry (archaeological structure)

Ways to minimise the accident to age-old heritage

Cost Benefit Analysis of Dam

Conclusion

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