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A History of Rome and Julius Caesar

Report Plan

Introduce:

  • Caesar
  • Battle at Alesia
  • Gallia/Europe

Report

  • Important Caesar to Rome o Caesar’s army
  • Vercingetorix o Tribe/prince
  • Gaul history
  • The annoy at Alesia and army strategy
  • The Gaul attack
  • Picture of army advance strategy
  • Final battle
  • Map

Conclusion

  • New area of Rome
  • Culture change in Europe

Pacere svbjectis, debellare svperbos

“To appearance benevolence to the baffled and subdue the proud”

(Aeneid 6.847-853- Virgil.)

1. Introduction

This address deals with the actual contest that happened during the time of the Roman Consul Caius Julius Caesar (Caesar).

It will aboriginal attending at the important action at a boondocks alleged Alesia. It will afresh call the action that took abode beneath the command of Caesar and his adversary Vercingetorix. It will call some of the altered aggressive action used.

Finally some abstracts will be fatigued about how this actual accident had afflicted how Europe looks today.

2. Methodology

Information in this address is taken from both books and from three websites. The websites were begin application Google searches. Websites were arrested to agreement the advice was reliable.

Books

1. Title: De Bellum Gallicum (in English it is alleged ‘Commentaries on the Gallic War’)

It is a accumulating of 7 books accounting by Caius Julius Caesar, Roman General, baby-kisser and columnist (12 Jul. 100 BC, 15 Mar. 44 BC). There is an added one, cardinal 8, accounting by Aulus Hirtius, soldier, historian, Roman Consul (90 BC – 43 BC).

Websites

  1. Livius.org

Livius is a website on age-old history accounting and maintained aback 1996 by the Dutch historian Jona Lendering. It started on a altered URL; the present one has been in use aback 2000. The website is not for profit; with a brace of exceptions that accept been indicated, you can use every photo and text, provided that you accredit aback to Livius and do not accomplish accumulation either.

  1. Arsbellica.it

ArsBellica is an Italian website, additionally translated in English to admittance adopted acceptance to draw from these adored studies, it belongs to Marco and Luca Maurino. These authors certificate history’s battles for their own website and they coact with few of the best important universities in Italy.

  1. ThoughtCo.com

Is a acclaimed all-embracing website endemic by Neil Vogel. The website debates about several capacity like politics, history, maths, religion, sports and abundant more. It is run by a agents of experts who accord the adventitious to freelance writers to accelerate in their own articles, and afterwards a accurate review, these accessories can be published.

3. The two Generals:

Caius Julius Caesar ( July 12/13, 100 B.C. – March 15, 44 B.C.)

Was one of the best important men of all time. He was accepted as a ablaze aggressive General, and he took allotment to anatomy the ‘first triumvirate.’ The aboriginal leash was a political accord amid three consuls in the backward Roman Republic: Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great, and Marcus Licinius Crassus.

Caesar was the aboriginal Roman to acreage in Britain, and he unified the Gaul afterwards its insurrection. During the annoy of Alesia, Caesar had ten legions accessible (V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV), for a absolute of 60,000 soldiers (ThoughtCo.com, 2017).

Picture of Caesar (Ancient History et cetera, 2015)

Vercingetorix (82 BC – 46 BC)   

Vercingetorix is the name that means’who won 100 battles.’ He was the Gallic Prince of the Arverni’s tribe. During the Gallic war he was  able to accumulate best of the Gallic tribes in one distinct absorbing army, with himself arch as the General.

During the annoy of Alesia he had 70,000 soldiers in the city’s walls and 240,000 as abatement army, anchored alfresco the Roman affected (Thought.com, 2017).

Picture of Vercingetorix (Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2014)

4. 58-51 BC, Gallia Cisalpina

In 58-51 BC, in area Gallia Cisalpina (commonly accepted today as France and allotment of Belgium), the Roman Consul Caius Julius Caesar (Caesar), ran an accelerated aggressive advance in the arena of Gaul. The attributes of Caesar’s tactics, and the appearance of his battlefront during this aeon was one of the best blood-soaked during Caesar’s aggressive career.

Within the acropolis boondocks of Alesia, Caesar and his legions were accepting afterpiece to the battlefield that would eventually mark the accident as one of the best arresting aggressive victories in history. This is because the action that was fought in Alesia complex aggressive strategies which activated Caesar’s abilities as a leader. He had to acquisition means to administer abundant traitor-tribes, revolts, and baby rebellions.

Managing these were important because Caesar knew that if the Gallic tribes formed an accord adjoin him, the Roman countless may not abide to advance their aphorism in the region. (GreatMilitaryBattles.com, 2009)

5. The siege

In 52 BC., Vercingetorix, afterwards the action of Gergovia, anticipation that it wasn’t the appropriate moment to appoint in a aristocratic action adjoin the Caesar’s army, so accordingly he withdrew to the belted Mandubii boondocks of Alesia.

Placed on a acropolis and belted by river valleys, Alesia was in a able arresting position. Once adjacent Alesia Caesar had to adjudge the best way to accomplish his attack. Instead of ablution a aboveboard assault, he absitively the bigger action was to lay annoy to the town, by surrounding the boondocks and cat-and-mouse for them to surrender.

To accomplish abiding that Alesia was abroad from any array of rescue, Caesar’s army congenital a

‘circumvallation’ wall. Provided with ditches, watchtowers, and accessories (such as ‘stimuli,’ ‘lilies,’ and ‘tombstones’) the bank ran for almost 15 km.

During the endeavor to body the bank by the Romans, Vercingetorix was sending baby groups of army with the aim to afflict the Roman’s assignment and additionally to try to annihilate as abounding Roman soldiers as possible.

Wondering if a accessible abatement army in Vercingetorix could help, Caesar absitively to arrect a additional wall, in argot ‘contravallation,’ that was continued about 21 km (ThoughtCo.com, 2017).

Picture of the circumvallation and contravallation walls at Alesia (Ancient World, 2015)

After three weeks of siege, at the end of September, the bodies in the boondocks were starting to starve. Because of this, Vercingetorix absitively to try to advance the Roman affected from the city, with the abetment of the abatement army that accustomed the day afore beneath the advance of Commius (one of Vercingetorix’s army generals), advancing from alfresco the Roman camp. Both attacks were independent by the Romans, so the Gauls attacked afresh in the abutting day, this time with the advice of the darkness.

When Commius anticipation that it was the appropriate moment to breach through the Roman lines, Mark Anthony and Gaius Trebonius’ army gave a abundant affidavit of their valour befitting the position assigned to them by Caesar. From inside, Vercingetorix was additionally attacking, but the surprise’s aspect was absent due to the allegation to ample in the Roman trenches afore affective alee (ThoughtCo.com, 2017).

6. The final battle

The Gaul’s attack.

After one ages and a bisected of the siege, the Gauls absitively to apply their armament in one aftermost attack. The ambition was the Roman affected of Mount Rea, the further from Alesia but alike the added difficult to defend, because the mural of the area had poor visibility. Central the city’s wall, the charcoal of the army of Vercingetorix  absitively to abutment the final advance from central the lines.

After 7 hours boot and 5 hours rest, the Gauls launched a adverse allegation alpha a blood-soaked hand-to-hand fight. Appropriate abroad the Roman Tribunes bare reinforcements, so Caesar absitively to accelerate 6 aggressive units (cohorts) from the south camp, abutting to the Mount Flavigny. Vercingetorix saw this move, and he beatific bound a allegation to the affected that had aloof been beggared of a accordant cardinal of troopers.

After Caesar gave the adjustment to get the 6 cohorts aback to avert the affected from the advance of Vercingetorix, Caesar’s bearings was accepting affecting and he absitively to alight his horse and alpha to action with  his comrades. Once the legions of Caius Fabius and Decimus Brutus had accustomed the Accepted by his red blind angry on their side, they begin new energies starting to action harder (Arsbellica.it, 2015).

Picture of army camps and advance admonition (arsebellica.it, 2015)

Caesar’s aftermost move.

After the 6 cohorts were accustomed aback to the affected of Mount Flavigny, south of Alesia, Caesar had to blitz to the north, to Mount Rea, area the alfresco army of Vercassivellauno (Vercingetorix’s army general) was charging the Roman affected with about 60,000 men.

In his way up to the arctic encampment, Ceasar calm as abounding army as accessible (the Germanic abetting army were the best knights of that time), and 4 assets cohorts. Caesar knew it was his aftermost chance, so he gave his aftermost order: he beatific the Germanic army advanced afterward the absolute ambit to ability Mount Rea, run about it and booty the advancing Gauls with abruptness by their back.

It was a appealing alarming move because he had to bankrupt himself of the army for at atomic two hours, the time to run to the arctic of Alesia and run about the enemy.

In the meantime, Commander Labienus was captivation the bearings difficultly, cat-and-mouse for Caesar and abatement forces. When the Roman Accepted arrived, he became acquainted of the situation. The factions were so alloyed that wasn’t alike accessible to befuddled an arrow afterwards the accident of hit their own comrades.

The legions were in abundant suffering, but fortunately, as Caesar expected, the Germanic  abetting army accustomed at the appropriate moment to annihilation the Gauls from rear. Caesar wrote in his book like below:

“Nostri, omissis pilis, gladiis rem gerunt. Repente column tergum equitatus cernitur.

Cohortes aliae adpropinquabant: hostes terga vertunt. Fugientibus equites occurrunt. Fit magna caedes”

(“Ours, accommodated javelins and captivated the gladii. Suddenly appears abaft (of the enemy) our

Cavalry. The alternative cohorts are pressuring, enemies extend their backs. The riders block the fugitives. There is a abundant annihilation “).

(CAESAR, De Bello Gallico LXXXVIII, 5-7; arsbellica.it, 2015)

Picture of army camps and beat admonition (arsebellica.it, 2015)

The aftereffect of the Caesar’s aftermost move did not annihilate the better allotment of the adversary army, but the abandonment of 60,000 men had added the abhorrence of the alternative Gauls who burst in panic. Afterwards 50 canicule of annoy and their aftermost agenda played, the Gauls did not administer to breach through the Roman defenses. Later on, Vercingetorix yielded to Caesar (arsbellica.it, 2015).

7. Actual results

With the repression of the Vercingetorix’ riot, Rome would assuredly addendum the arena of Gaul as Republic Province. This was a cogent achievement which afflicted the ability in Gaul.

This achievement may accept alternative several results. The Romans, afterwards this achievement and the afterward acquisition of Britain (England), added their possession, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, until the Arctic Sea. This acreage began the admixture of the Celtic bodies with the Latin ones and the alliance of their cultures was be the alpha of the Romance ability of Provence, the adulatory balladry and the Carolingian aeon poems.

Despite the ascent of a new culture, addition one was dying out: The Celts. A advancing and old acculturation that survived alone in the further and admirable Island of Ireland.  (arsbellica.it, 2015).

8. References

  1. Caesar C.J. (2009). De Bellum Gallicum. Newburyport MA: Focus Publishing.
  1. Livius.org. (2014). Alesia (52 BCE).  Retrieved from http://www.livius.org/articles/battle/alesia-52-bce/
  1. Ars bellica. (2015). Assedio di Alesia. Retrieved from http://www.arsbellica.it/pagine/antica/Alesia/alesia.html
  1. Kennedy Hickman for ThoughtCo. (2017). Gallic Wars: Action of Alesia. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/gallic-wars-battle-of-alesia-2360869
  2. Ancient World. (2015). The annoy of Alesia 52 BC. Retrieved from http://www.antickysvet.cz/25994n-oblehani-alesie-52-pred-n.l.
  3. Ancient History et cetera. (2015). Barry Strauss on the Assassination of Caesar. Retrieved from http://etc.ancient.eu/interviews/barry-strauss-on-the-assassination-of-caesar/
  1. Ancient History Encyclopedia. (2014). Vercingetorix. Retrieved from http://www.ancient.eu/image/2399/
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