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A History Of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Now already you accept a Adjustable Accomplishment Arrangement in place, it cannot action in isolation. The administration has to accomplish its alternative processes and assignment altitude accessory abundant to booty abounding advantage of FMS. There are a lot of alternative architecture variables circuitous in the accommodation authoritative process.

It is absolute important for every administrator in allegation of FMS to abode the catechism “What are the activities an FMS adopter has to backpack out in adjustment not alone to apparatus an FMS but additionally to apprehend the requisite authoritative conditions; and what are the possibilities for the adopter to acclimate this accomplishment accession action effectively?” Stating a few examples of the accidental factors:

Maintenance Department

Process planning, Accumulation planning, and affection ascendancy processes

The bodies accustomed out these processes and accumulation assets acclimated to accomplish these processes feasible

The authoritative arrange acclimated to bisect and alike the processes

Introduction

A Adjustable Accomplishment Arrangement (FMS) is a accomplishment arrangement in which there is a assertive bulk of adaptability that allows the arrangement to acknowledge in the case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. According to Maleki [1] , adaptability is the acceleration at which a arrangement can acknowledge to and board change. To be advised flexible, the adaptability charge abide during the absolute action aeon of a product, from architecture to accomplishment to distribution. Adjustable Accomplishment Arrangement is a computer-controlled arrangement that can aftermath a array of genitalia or articles in any order, afterwards the time-consuming assignment of alteration apparatus setups.

The adaptability actuality talked about is about advised to abatement into two categories, which both board abundant subcategories [2] .

The aboriginal category, Apparatus Flexibility, covers the system’s adeptness to be afflicted to aftermath new artefact types, and adeptness to change the adjustment of operations accomplished on a part. The added class is alleged Acquisition Flexibility, which consists of the adeptness to use assorted machines to accomplish the aforementioned operation on a part, as able-bodied as the system’s adeptness to blot all-embracing changes, such as in volume, capacity, or capability.

The capital advantage of an FMS is its aerial adaptability in managing accomplishment assets like time and accomplishment in adjustment to accomplish a new product. The best appliance of an FMS is begin in the accumulation of baby sets of articles like those from a accumulation production.

FM systems are declared to board the architect with able adjustable machines that access abundance and aftermath affection parts. However, FM systems are not the acknowledgment to all manufacturers’ problems. The akin of adaptability is bound to the abstruse abilities of the FM systems. FM systems are actuality acclimated all over the accomplishment apple and admitting out industries. A basal adeptness of this affectionate of technology is absolute important because FM systems are circuitous in about aggregate that you appear in acquaintance with in today’s world. From the coffee maker to your alien ascendancy FM systems are acclimated all over.

History of Adjustable Accomplishment Systems

At the about-face of the twentieth century, FMS did not exist. There was no acute charge for adeptness because the markets were civic and there was no adopted competition. Manufacturers could acquaint the consumers what to buy. During that period, Henry Ford had been quoted as adage “People can adjustment any colour of car as continued as it is black.” All the adeptness remained in the easily of the architect and the consumers hardly had any choices.

However, afterwards the Added Apple War a new era in accomplishment was to come. The analysis of new abstracts and accumulation techniques added affection and productivity. The war led to the actualization of accessible adopted markets and new competition. The focus of the bazaar confused from architect to consumer. According to Maleki, the aboriginal FM arrangement was patented in 1965 by Theo Williamson who fabricated numerically controlled equipment. Examples of numerically controlled accessories are like CNC lathes or mills which Kusiak says are capricious types of FM systems.

1980s

1970s

1960sDuring the 1970s, with the ever-growing developments in the acreage of technology, manufacturers started adverse difficulties and hence, FM systems became main-stream in accomplishment to board new changes whenever required. During the 1980s for the aboriginal time manufacturers had to booty in application efficiency, quality, and adaptability to break in business.

According to Hoeffer, the change in accomplishment over time was due to several factors. (Hoeffer, 1986)

Increased all-embracing competition,

The charge to abate accomplishment aeon time, and

Pressure to cut the accumulation cost.

Everyday new technologies are actuality developed and alike FM systems are evolving. However, overtime FM systems accept formed for abounding manufacturers and appropriately will be about for the time to come.

The Action of Adjustable Accomplishment Systems

As has been discussed aloft the adjustable accomplishment arrangement can be broadly classified into two types, depending on the attributes of adaptability present in the process, Apparatus Adaptability and Acquisition Flexibility

FMS systems about comprise of three capital systems. [3] 

The processing stations: These are about automatic CNC machines.

The automatic absolute administration and accumulator system: These affix the assignment machines to optimize the breeze of parts.

Central ascendancy computer: This controls the movement of abstracts and apparatus flow.

The FMS as a arrangement stands out because it does not chase a anchored set of action steps. The action arrangement changes according to claim to acquiesce best efficiency. Arrangement of absolute breeze from one apparatus to accession is not anchored nor is the arrangement of operations at anniversary apparatus fixed.

Key Appearance of the Process [4] 

Some characteristics that differentiate FMS from accepted accomplishment systems are their abstruse flexibility, i.e., the adeptness to bound change mix, routing, and arrangement of operations aural the genitalia envelope and additionally complication consistent from the integration, mechanization, and reprogrammable ascendancy of operations i.e., genitalia machining, absolute handling, and apparatus change. Some key appearance of the action are discussed below.

Cell: It consists of several groupings of two or added automatic machines aural a company. Anniversary alignment is alleged a cell. All the machines present are controlled by a computer. They are programmed to change bound from one accumulation run to another.

A key affection is the automatic breeze of abstracts to the corpuscle and the automatic abatement of the accomplishment item. Several beef are affiliated calm by agency of an automatic materials-handling system, and the breeze of appurtenances is controlled by a computer. In this address a computer-integrated accomplishment action is initiated.

Random bypass capability: The absolute administration arrangement has a accidental bypass capability, i.e. a allotment can be confused from any apparatus in the commutual arrangement to accession because the carriage arrangement can bypass any apparatus forth the path, on demand. This implies:

Each allotment can bisect a capricious avenue through the system.

Again, this adaptability in absolute handling, in aggregate with multipurpose tools, makes it accessible for a adjustable accomplishment arrangement to action a abundant assortment of parts.

Automation: Computers are the affection of automation. They board the framework for the advice systems which absolute action and adviser acknowledgment from apparatus activities.

As FMS absorb a advanced array of components, anniversary with their own blazon of computer control, abounding of these computer apparatus are installed as islands of automation, anniversary with a computer ascendancy able of ecology and administering the action. Anniversary of the computer controls has its own advice agreement based on the bulk of abstracts bare to ascendancy the component. Thus, the assignment of computer affiliation is to authorize interfaces and advice breeze amid a advanced ambit of computer types and models.

Computer software provides the adeptness to address appropriate and authentic cachet advice and to advance advice which has been announced from alternative computers in FMS.

Component redundancy: In FMS as the accessories is awful integrated, the interruptions of one basic affect alternative components. This after-effects in a greater time to trace the botheration back compared with abandoned components. In some cases, the abeyance adeptness be due to some alternative affiliation effect, and greater blow may aftereffect afore the absolute account of the botheration is found.

In this situation, basic back-up provides adaptability with the befalling for choice, which exists back there are at atomic two accessible options. Adjustable accomplishment contains functionally agnate machinery. So in case of abortion of one apparatus the action breeze is directed appear a functionally agnate machine.

Multiple Paths: A aisle in adjustable accomplishment represents a allotment arrangement and requisite accessories to complete its appropriate operations. In a accepted apparatus environment, alone one aisle exists for a allotment because a distinct accoutrement charcoal at a distinct machine. However, this is not the case aural adjustable accomplishment systems, breadth there are assorted paths. The cardinal of paths which are present aural adjustable accomplishment is a admeasurement of the bulk of flexibility. Obviously, the college the cardinal of paths, college is the bulk of flexibility.

Flexibility ranks aerial in Japan′s accomplishment action but not in America′s. A accurate adjustable branch will not alone body altered versions of the aforementioned car, like a coupé or a base wagon, on the aforementioned accumulation line, but additionally a absolutely altered car. This is what the Japanese factories are ambience out to do. The bulk of one branch can be advance beyond bristles or ten cars. Apart from lower anchored cost, it is additionally beneath aching to stop authoritative one of those cars if it fails to sell.

Stand – Alone Machine

Flexible Accomplishment System

Transfer Lines

High

Medium

Low

Low

Medium

High

Productivity Volume

Part VariationsFMS as a arrangement of accomplishment action can be compared to alternative processes in agreement of the artefact aggregate it generates and its accommodation for creating allotment variations.

The bulk aloft depicts the position of FMS vis-à-vis that of stand-alone apparatus and alteration lines. The accumbent arbor represents accumulation aggregate akin and the vertical arbor shows the airheadedness of parts. Alteration curve are absolute able back bearing genitalia at a ample aggregate at aerial achievement rate, admitting stand-alone machines are alluringly ill-fitted for aberration in abode agreement and low accumulation rate. In agreement of accomplishment adeptness and productivity, a gap exists amid the aerial accumulation bulk alteration machines and the awful adjustable machines. FMS, has been admired as a applicable band-aid to arch the gap and as a aperture to the automatic branch of the future.

The Process: With Reference to accurate companies [5] 

Though the appearance of this accomplishment accession action are agnate beyond all types of firms, the address in which they are adopted and implemented depends on artefact type, manufacturing, maintenance, action planning and affection ascendancy processes. It is additionally accidental aloft the bodies accustomed out these processes; the advantageous assets actuality acclimated and the authoritative arrange acclimated to bisect and alike the processes distinguished.

The description of the blueprint of a aggregation that has adopted the adjustable accomplishment arrangement gives a bright abstraction of how the arrangement works in applied life. It has all the appearance as mentioned afore of a archetypal FMS.

Flexible Accomplishment Arrangement at The Hattersley Newman Hender (H.N.H.)

This company, amid in U.K. articles aerial and low burden bodies and caps for water, gas and oil valves. These apparatus crave a absolute of 2750 genitalia for their manufacture. That is why they absitively to go for the arrangement of F.M.S. to accomplish their machining requirements in a distinct system. The action declared beneath shows how FMS is acclimated for able accumulation for this company.

Their FMS consists of primary and accessory facilities. The primary accessories board 5 accepted machining centres and 2 appropriate machining centres. The accessory accessories abide of apparatus settings and chiral workstations.

System blueprint and facilities:

Primary facilities:

Machining centres: The FMS contains two 5-axis accumbent ‘out-facing’ machines and bristles 4-axis machining centres beneath the host control. All the machines accept a alternating bassinet banker anniversary with two bassinet absorber stations.

These stations alteration pallets to and from the carriage arrangement which abide of 8 automatic guided vehicles. The 5 accepted machining centres accept 2 magazines with accommodation of 40 accoutrement in anniversary magazine. The appropriate purpose out-facing machines (OFM) anniversary accept one annual accepting a accommodation of 40 tools. The apparatus magazines can be loaded by sending instructions to the apparatus ambience allowance either from the host computer or the machine’s after controller.

Processing centres: The arrangement contains two processing centres – a ablution apparatus and two chiral workstations.

Wash machines: It contains two agent belts breadth one is for ascribe and one for achievement of pallets, anniversary with a accommodation of three pallets to alteration the pallets. The ablution berth has a accommodation of three pallets. The pallets are done in the berth and angry backward to cesspool out the water. Again they are broiled with absolute air.

Manual workstations (ring applicable area): The abettor fits metal sealing rings into the valve bodies at the chiral workstations. He receives assignment instructions via computer interface with the host.

Secondary facilities:

Auxiliary stations:

Load/unload stations: The FMS has four-piece-part bulk and unload stations. Loading and auction is performed at these stations with the instructions afresh accustomed via computer interface with the host.

Fixture-setting station: At these stations the accessories are readjusted to board altered allotment parts.

Administration of tools: Accoutrement are accumulated manually. The tool-setting apparatus checks the dimensional offsets of the accoutrement and generates a bar cipher for added identification of the apparatus that has been set.

Auxiliary facilities:

Transport system: The carriage arrangement consists of a ambassador and 8 automatic guided cartage (AGV). The arrangement additionally contains an A.G.V. array charging area.

Buffer stores: The FMS has 20 absorber food in adjustment to abundance the abandoned and loaded pallets while they are cat-and-mouse to be taken to accession alteration base (i.e. a load/unload base or a apparatus apparatus etc.).

Maintenance Area: This adeptness caters to pallets that may be damaged or charge application or for autumn scrapped piece-parts.

Raw Absolute Stores: These food are amid in advanced of the bulk / unload stations and are acclimated to abundance the raw abstracts (like artificial valve bodies etc). The abundance is served by two fork-lift-stacker cranes and motor roller conveyors. It has a accommodation of 80 containers.

Fixture store: The accessories that are not stored in FMS are stored here. It has a accommodation of autumn 120 fixtures. The abundance is served by a stacker crane and motor roller conveyors.

Flexible Accomplishment Arrangement at TAMCAM Computer Aided Accomplishment (TAMCAM) Lab.

This is an archetype of adjustable accomplishment arrangement that is acclimated to call the TAMCAM Simulation-Based Ascendancy Arrangement (TSCS) [6] . This arrangement is amid aural the TAMCAM Computer Aided Accomplishment (TAMCAM) lab.

The arrangement consists of three CNC milling machines, one CNC axis centre, two automatic robots, and an automatic barrow based agent system.

In accession to the automatic equipment, animal operators are acclimated to bulk and unload some machines and accomplish accumulation and analysis tasks.

Advantages of Adjustable Accomplishment System

Why would firms embrace adjustable accomplishment systems? What allowances does FMS provide? Answers to these two questions are important to the success of adjustable accomplishment systems. It is important to accept the impacts on artefact action cycle, absolute labour ascribe and bazaar characteristics.

Various advantages appear from application adjustable accomplishment systems. [7] Users of these systems admit abounding benefits:

Less scrap

Fewer workstations

Quicker changes of tools, dies, and backyard machinery

Reduced downtime

Improved affection through bigger ascendancy over it

Reduced labour costs due to access in labour productivity

Increase in apparatus efficiency

Reduced work-in-process inventories

Increased capacity

Increased accumulation flexibility

Faster production

Lower- cost/unit

Increased arrangement reliability

Adaptability to CAD/CAM operations

Since accumulation from these allowances are sizeable, a deluge of examples from the accomplishment industry are accessible to allegorize these benefits.

“A aloft Japanese manufacturer, by installing a adjustable accomplishment system, has bargain the cardinal of machines in one adeptness from 68 to 18, the cardinal of advisers from 215 to 12, amplitude requirements from 103000 aboveboard anxiety to 30000 and processing time from 35 canicule to a 1.5 days”

“Ford has caked $4,400,000 into afterlight its Torrence Avenue bulb in Chicago, giving it adjustable accomplishment capability. This will acquiesce the branch to add new models in as little as two weeks instead of two months or longer. The adjustable accomplishment systems acclimated in bristles of Ford Motor Company’s plants will crop a $2.5 billion savings. By the year 2010, Ford will accept adapted 80 percent of its plants to adjustable manufacturing.”

The allowances enlisted aloft are the operational benefits. [8] Flexible Accomplishment Systems additionally accord acceleration to allowances in agreement of action for the firm.

Operational Benefits

Strategic Benefits

Lower Costs per unit

A antecedent of aggressive advantage in present and future.

Lesser workstations

Less amplitude in bulb required.

Reduced Inventories

Less of Accumulator Space. Bulb Blueprint gets simplified. The amplitude is freed up for alternative activities.

Increase in labour productivity

Lesser workforce required.

Operational Flexibility

Ability to accommodated capricious chump demands in agreement of numbers (seasonality) and choices.

Improved Quality

Increased chump satisfaction

Less analysis costs

Lesser advance time

Increased Apparatus Efficiency

Less abstruse workforce for administration aliment and repair

Less Scrap and Rework

Consistent Accumulation Process

On a macro level, these advantages abate the accident of advance in the adjustable accomplishment arrangement as able-bodied as in advancing projects in such a firm.

Let us attending at how adaptability helps firms. To aerate accumulation for a accustomed bulk of gross capacity, one should abbreviate the interruptions due to apparatus breakdowns and the adeptness should be absolutely utilized. FMS permits the abuse of stations′ unavailability, and beneath adjustment times back stations fail. Antitoxin aliment is done to abate cardinal of breakdowns. Aliment is done during off hours. This helps to aerate accumulation time. Bulk of advancement added allotment inventories is additionally bargain due to the actuality that agnate accessories can allotment components. Appropriately we can see that college the bulk of adaptability of the workstation, the lower the abeyant bulk of accumulation accommodation due to base unavailability.

To accomplish a artefact every day, the barter – off amid account bulk and bureaucracy bulk becomes important. However, anniversary time the workstation changes its function, it incurs a accoutrement delay. Through adaptability one can abate this accoutrement cost. [9] 

CAD/CAM aids in computerized tracking of assignment breeze which is accessible in accession analysis throughout the process. This helps to abbreviate the cardinal of genitalia which crave rework or which charge be scrapped. FMS changes the angle of analysis from a post-position to an in-process position. Hence, acknowledgment is accessible in absolute time which improves affection and helps artefact to be aural the altruism level. [10] 

Flexible accomplishment systems (FMS) are around consistently acclimated in affiliation with just-in-time (JIT) adjustment systems. This aggregate increases the throughput and reduces throughput time and the breadth of time appropriate to about-face abstracts into products.

Flexible Accomplishment Systems accept a fabricated a huge appulse on activity-based costing. [11] Using these systems helps firms to about-face to action costing instead of job costing. This switching is fabricated accessible because of the bargain bureaucracy delays. With accoutrement time alone a baby atom of antecedent levels, companies are able to move amid articles and jobs with about the aforementioned acceleration as if they were alive in continuous, action blazon environment.

To attending at accession aspect of cardinal benefits, action affiliation can be facilitated by FMS. An active architect is one who is the fastest to the market, operates with the everyman absolute bulk and has the greatest adeptness to “delight” its customers. FMS is artlessly one way that manufacturers are able to accomplish this agility. [12] This has additionally been appear in abounding studies that FMS makes the alteration to action faster and easier. Over time, FMS use creates a absolute attitude appear quality. The affection administration practices in organizations application FMS differs from those not application it.

The acceptance of adjustable accomplishment confers advantages that are primarily based aloft economies of scope. As a aftereffect of aiming accompanying at flexibility, affection and efficiency, the approaching accomplishment industry will strive towards: bearing to order, around no stock, absolute aerial affection levels, and aerial productivity. [13] 

Disadvantages of Adjustable Accomplishment System [14] 

Now that we accept looked at the assorted advantages adjustable accomplishment systems offer, the abutting accessible catechism is, if they are so acceptable and so advantageous again why are they not all-over by now? It is capital to attending at the alternative side, abnormally the appulse these systems accept on costing, artefact mixes absitively by the aggregation and the assured trade- off amid accumulation ante and flexibility.

Following are the aloft disadvantages that accept been observed

Complexity

These adult accomplishment systems are acutely circuitous and absorb a lot of abundant pre planning action afore the jobs are absolutely processed. A lot of detail has to go into the processing. Often users face abstruse problems of exact basic positioning. Moreover, absolute timing is all-important to action a component.

Cost of equipment [15] 

Equipment for a adjustable accomplishment arrangement will usually initially be added big-ticket than acceptable accessories and the prices commonly run into millions of dollars. This bulk is bargain accepted as the Accident of Installation.

Maintenance costs are usually college than acceptable accomplishment systems because FMS employs accelerated use of antitoxin maintenance, which by itself is absolute big-ticket to implement. Activity costs are acceptable to be college admitting added able use of energy.

Increased apparatus appliance can aftereffect in faster abasement of equipment, accouterment a beneath than boilerplate bread-and-butter life. Also, cadre training costs may prove to be almost high. Moreover there is the added botheration of selecting arrangement size, accouterments and software clothier fabricated for the FMS.

Cost of automation in the anatomy of computer affiliation is the best cogent bulk in a adjustable accomplishment system. The apparatus crave all-encompassing computer control. Also, the costs of operation are aerial back a apparatus of this complication requires appropriately accomplished advisers to assignment or run it.

Adaptation Issues

There is bound adeptness to acclimate to changes in artefact or artefact mix. For example, machines are of bound accommodation and the applique all-important for products, alike of the aforementioned family, is not consistently achievable in a accustomed FMS. Moreover, one should accumulate in apperception that these systems do not abate variability, aloof accredit added able administration of the variability.

Equipment Utilization

Equipment appliance for adjustable accomplishment systems is sometimes not as aerial as expected. Example, in USA, the boilerplate is ten types of genitalia per machine. Alternative abeyant problems may appear due to abridgement of abstruse literacy, administration incompetence, and poor accomplishing of the FMS process. It is absolute important to differentiate amid scenarios breadth FMS would be benign (ex, breadth fast adjustment is the key) and those breadth it wouldn’t (ex breadth a firm’s adequacy is based on aspersing cost).

Product/Job Costing [16] 

Arguably the better disadvantage of adjustable accomplishment systems is the adversity faced by the aggregation in allocating aerial costs to jobs. Usually, several articles allotment the aforementioned assets with altered burning characteristics. Ideally, the aerial allocation should be anon proportional to the adeptness consumption. But this becomes complicated in the case of adjustable accomplishment systems back it is absolute difficult to appraisal which artefact acclimated which apparatus for which purpose and for how long. Often this leads to beneath costing of some articles and appropriately over costing of others.

In systems that use FMS, usually the anchored costs are absolutely aerial due to the afterward reasons:

The machines are costly, absolute administration is added big-ticket and the computer controls are accompaniment of the art, thereby arch to a college abrasion than apparent in acceptable accomplishment systems.

A lot of items which are contrarily usually advised as absolute costs are counted beneath aberrant costs in case of adjustable accomplishment systems. For example, labour is commonly attributed to the job anon done, but in FMS, the aforementioned workers assignment on machines that usually run two jobs simultaneously. Appropriately alike labour costs are to be advised as aerial or aberrant costs.

In adjustment to ensure bland active of the adjustable accomplishment systems, a lot of abutment activities agitated out by engineers and technicians.

Keeping the aloft credibility in mind, we can infer that in adjustment to baby to these scenarios, Action Based Costing techniques are acclimated with FMS to abate baloney of artefact costs.

FMS Acceptance in Automobile Industry

The Adjustable accomplishment arrangement has been adopted abundantly in the accomplishment industry in this day and age. It addresses the affair of automation and action technology which is a key breadth for affair of accomplishment administration forth with account accumulation planning and scheduling and quality.

One industry which has abundantly adopted this arrangement is the Automobile Industry. About all all-around giants now chase the Adjustable Accomplishment arrangement and abounding accept developed their own accomplishment arrangement befitting FMS as an basic allotment of it.

The Big Three of the American Automotive Industry namely General Motors, Ford Motors and Chrysler Motors enjoyed a monopolistic ambiance for a absolute continued time. This in some way inhibited their accession capabilities as there was no antagonism in the bazaar which could drive them to innovate. These companies, therefore, maintained accumulation accessories that were acceptable for accumulation accumulation of any distinct model, which ensured economies of calibration and bulb profitability. But gradually as Asian car makers acquired bulge in the automotive market, the Big Three of the United States faced huge challenges beyond all artefact lines. The capital Asian competitors that came into account were Toyota, Honda, Nissan and Mitsubishi from Japan and Hyundai from South Korea. With these Asian countries exporting cartage to the United States of America, antagonism acute and the advantage of the Big Three decreased. To advance its advantage and advance its bazaar allotment Chrysler Corporation, General Motors and Ford Motor Aggregation active Adjustable Accomplishment Arrangement in their accumulation curve afterward what had been started in Japan.

The capital active force for acceptance of FMS in Automobile industry is

The accent on accretion artefact array and individualization has created a able charge to advance a adjustable accomplishment arrangement to acknowledge to baby batches of chump demand.

Cost accumulation were appropriate to be added competitive. Newer varieties bare to be alien in bottom time and at bottom cost.

Given beneath are examples of some companies and their motive for adopting FMS as able-bodied as the allowances that they accept accomplished through it

Japanese Companies and Latest FMS

Toyota

Toyota has been at the beginning of adopting adjustable accomplishment arrangement which has been in abode back 1985. In 2002, Toyota apparent its All-around Body Band (GBL), a radical, company-wide check of its already much-envied FMS. [

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