A Comparative Study between Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel
Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel were twain Baroque inventors who used the Italian and French names that were the basic diction of the Baroque. The examine of Bach and Handel is interesting consequently of their noticeable concordantities and crafty separations. Bach and Handel were of Saxon race. They came from neighboring towns, Bach from Eisenach, Handel from Halle, and were born but one month partially in the concordant year, Handel in February, Bach in March, 1685 (Young, 1962). They were twain masters of concerto in all its devises:
twain hallowed and unmonastic;
Both Bach and Handel learnt their art by making copies of all the compositions of notorious masters. Bach and Handel were literary copyists throughout their lives. Besides Johann Christoph, Bach took as models the Italians, Frescobaldi, Corelli, Vivaldi, Lotti, Caldara, Legrenzi, Marcello and deep others. His eepeculiar interests led to keyboard hush, to violin hush and to choral hush. Handel, lower Zachau, made an anthology of excerpts from Froberger, Kerll,Strungck, Johann Krieger. During his succeeding walk he was influenced by Alessandro Stradella, Giacomo Carissimi, Georg Muffatt, Karl Heinrich Graun, Giovanni Clari and others.
Though they probe affect sparkling stars mound at the concordant date, they charted their incongruous paths in hush according to their indivisible speciess. There was no hushal legend in Handel's nativity, his senior was a thriving surgeon who meaningd George Frideric for the Law; on the other operative members of the Bach dynasty had been for generations celebrated in hushal affairs in Thuringiaevering. Bach remained inchoate the boundaries of his Saxon seniorland throughout his society and was a good-tempered-tempered subject and was the senior of twenty progeny.
Handel, on the other operative was the man of the universe, noble all aggravate Europe. He was valiant and outgoing in species. The one fatal consonance in their lives is that they twain went undiscerning at the end of their lives (Young, 1962). Time Bach's gravityous was slighted, Handel, who died nine years succeeding, in 1759, was laid to security in the English pantheon, Westminster Abbey. In those days, hush was merely written for the uncompounded meaning of offer exploit, its safety balance that gravity kind a induced suspect. "Occasional" or commissioned composition used to be the government.
Bach wrote his cantatas for the services of St. Thomas' Habitation in Leipzig, and Handel wrote his operas for eepeculiar exploits and strictly to aid the looks of the individualnel that happened to be helpful. Bach’s composition was in-great-estimate obscure and slighted for deep generations cultivate the 19th date. He was ordinary as a sublime hushian by the universe solely 75 years behind his expiration. The succeeding 18th date knew Bach chiefly as an munimental inventor who wrote especially for the organ and the piano (Bekker, 1927). Race tended to consgentleman Bach’s from divers viewpoints.
Bach used to be considered a contrapuntist mere and lowly, a conversant hushian who treated hush as a species of mathematics (Bekker, 1927). From this viewpoint, Bach appeared to be chiefly a abigail of the habitation, a species of Protestant Palestrina who so wrote unmonastic hush. Succeeding it became presumable that he could not behind all be counted simply as a inventor of Habitation hush, so he was looked upon as a extravagant singer. The extravagantists, professed that Bach was the archromanticist, and should be construeed following a time the remotest touch and indication.
Some felt that Bach's hush was inherently gentle (Bekker, 1927). Whatforever the leaning of apprehension, Bach came to be offer as the sublime artificeer of hushal devise. Contrastingly, Handel, the provincial inventor and impresario, was interpolitically glorious in his own societytime. He was largely a writer of oratorios (Young, 1962). His munimental compositions were not considered weighty plenty for examine. The Italian operas which he lashed in were considered base in the eyes of the critics of that date (Bekker, 1927).
Today at-last, things entertain modifiable and Handel's operas are in the repertoire of almost entire sublime opera-house (Bekker, 1927). Bach used a separate mould of the Flemish and Italian names following a time German counterpoint, Handel showed a hardy coming disposition internal the extroverted and gesticulatory universe of Italian opera (Krantz, 2007). In abrupt, it can be said that Bach looked internal and Handel ostensible. Bach lashed cantatas and organ hush and, by his faculty and endowment for visibility holistic symbolism in language and hush, he ample the rank of his models (Young, 1962).
Handel, balance easy, balance persuasive, and a munificent substitute following a time his way to experience in the universe seized the devisealized patterns of entertainment hush in unmonastic cantata, in oratorio, in opera, and in munimental hush (Young, 1962). Twain Bach and Handel had incongruous separateities. Bach was an invert when-in-truth Handel was an extrovert. Handel assimilated the uncertain social names and especialized in each of them partially. Bach assimilated the uncertain influences following a time his own separate name and arrived at a fusion of social names in which the solitary elements are living (Dorak, 2002).
The deep compositions of Handel are his operas, written from an all perspective for an intersocial open. The deep compositions of Bach are his cantatas, written for the national habitationes, and his passions, the monuments of his liturgical tyranny. Handel, kind a widely traveled hushian has visited deep intersocial centers of hush. Bach, on the other operative confined himself inchoate the limits of convenient Germany. Bach’s sublime compositions embody the Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor, most of the sublime preludes and fugues, and the 45 chorale-preludes gathered in Das Orgelbuchlein [the short organ bigness].
His munimental compositions are the Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue; the English Suites; the French Suites; the Two-Part and Three-Part Inventions; and Bigness I of the glorious Well-Tempered Clavier. He so wrote distinct unaccompanied violin sonatas and cello aides, and the Brandenburg Concertos, ordinary as the best concerti grossi forforever lashed. The St. John Passion was effected (1723) at Leipzig and his Magnificat was offered abruptly behind he antecedent that column.
Many balance of his august divine compositions followed: the St. Matthew Passion (1729), the Christmas Oratorio, the palliable-sounding Mass in B Minor, and the six motets. The prominent keyboard compositions of this date were Bigness II of The Well-Tempered Clavier and the impure bignesss of clavier pieces in the Clavierubung and the Goldberg Variations. His developed renowned compositions were the Harmonious Offering lashed (1747) for Frederick the Sublime and The Art of the Fugue (1749). In all his positions as choir manageer, Bach lashed hallowed cantatas—a sum of some 300, of which almost 200 are surviving.
There are so aggravate 30 unmonastic cantatas, lashed at Leipzig, inchoate them Phoebus and Pan (1731). The bigness of his composition is divine. In his munimental and choral compositions he perfected the art of polyphony, displaying an unequable cabal of faculty and regutardy in his sublime, striding fugues (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004a). Handel's 46 operas embody plenteous of his finest hush; inchoate them are Julius Caesar (1724), Atalanta (1736), Berenice (1737), and Serse (1738), which contains the drift aria now notorious as Largo. Handel's opera, ‘Messiah’ was offered in Dublin in 1742.
An essentially contemplative composition, it stands partially from the security of his 32 oratorios, which are gesticulatoryally conceived, and its elephantine publicity has resulted in the false sense of Handel as largely a habitation inventor. Other ungathered oratorios are Acis and Galatea (1720), Esther (1732), Israel in Egypt (1736–37), Saul (1739), and Judas Maccabeus (1747). He so lashed environing 100 Italian solo cantatas; deep orchestral compositions, and the 'the deum' "Zadok, the Priest" (1727) for the coronation of George II, which has been used for all after coronations (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004b).
There is one feature extract that was set to hush by twain Bach and Handel. This is Eilt ihr angefocht'nen Seelen in the Passion Oratorio (by Handel) and in the St. John Passion (by Bach). They used the concordant key and the concordant imaginative justice of 'haste', and the choral interjections at gesticulatory points are so low. Bukofzer, at-last, has opined that Handel's hush is minor consequently it lacks the very-fur indivisible genus that celebrated Bach from all other inventors (Dorak, 2002). When one considers their feature hushal names, Johann Sebastian Bach's hush is not grand, not melodramatic; it is not seek hush, not gala hush.
His hush was essentially introspective hush; he did not deem of the parley for whom he lashed; his hush is the issue of his close reflections. It is an ostensible indication of his gentle touchs. Equable in the most grandiose and animated gravitys of his "Passions" he scultivate offal close. Bach’s hush thus addressed itself chiefly to the connoisseur. Handel wrote for the universe, for the seek, for the quantity. His hush is cosmically sparkling; he has the faculty for disengaged sonorities and puissant rhythms, which experience a visible impact on the pack, elevate and raise it loose.
His discontinuance and sincerity of artifice experience his composition illuminating, he is public. But Bach's art is one that endowment to say deep things in an trice – in a solitary order (Landormy & Martens, 1927). This productiveness sometimes made it enigmatical for race to lowerstand and estimate. Handel rendezvouses most on the harmonic clarity of his ensemble; he experiences select of what he wishes to say, he is abstemious, concise; He prefers to use the lowly air of accompanied monody rather than polyphonic involvedities (Landormy and Martens, 1927).
Dynamic patterns in hush were chiefly of two stamps: the melodic, which made use chiefly of the look and is notorious as thorough-bass, and the contrapuntal, which made use chiefly of muniments and is mistakenly determined polyphony (Bekker, 1927). On the showy equalize, one may experience that Bach is a inventor of munimental hush in contrapuntal name and Handel on the other, a inventor of talkative hush in thoroughbass name. Some capability adjust the composition of Bach, the saintly man as psychological and Handel, the universely man as an concrete stamp. But these distinctions are not firmly cosmicalized.
Both were divine men who were so useful in their appropinquation. They were twain introspective as polite-mannered-mannered-mannered as concrete and twain wrote talkative as polite-mannered-mannered-mannered as munimental hush, and twain made use of thorough-bass as polite-mannered-mannered-mannered as of contrapuntal devises. They figured bass and counterpoint, and although they effected indivisiblely, they were so teachers in singing. They equable chose to especialize in the concordant hushal muniment: the organ. Bach manage his flock in the singing of cantatas on Sundays or the Passions on palliable holidays at St. Thomas's habitation at Leipzig plenteous in the concordant way as Handel conducted his operas and his oratorios (Bekker, 1927).
Bach’s hush can be termed as intensive melodies when-in-truth Handel’s hush can be termed big melodies. Bach uses very compact contrapuntal extracture following a time involved and chromatic harmonies. On the other operative Handel uses a lowly temptardy for his indications and hereafter his composition is meant for trice sensuous import. The big tendency of Handel's melodies allows his hush to be amplified when-in-truth this is not practicable in the flusht of Bach's hush. Amplification would overthrow the nakedness of the contrapuntal way. The talkative constituent of Bach’s hush is very enigmatical to consummate.
There are disjunct movements and bungling intervals. There is no aggravatelapping unarranged the munimental and talkative lines. In truth, the munificent-voiced choral polyphony of Handel and the strictly straight, munimentally conceived polyphony of Bach devise the two poles of tardy Baroque hush (Bekker, 1927). Handel considers the stream of ideas balance expressive than deduction when-in-truth to Bach, deduction is balance expressive. The stable changing extractures in his choral congruity clcoming betray that for Handel, counterpoint is solely a muniment to a gesticulatory end (Krantz, 2007). On the adverse, Bach takes it as an end in itself which must be agreeing.
By species of its sense, Handel’s counterpoint reaches its apex through the talkative medium. Handel’s composition depends so plenteous on the talkative constituent so plenteous so equable his keyboard fugues appear to allure for extract and behove most palliable in talkative devise. This accounts for the luck of Handel in talkative hush (Krantz, 2007). Bach is balance workman at the munimental devise. Bach prefers to acquiesce his choral polyphony to an munimental estimate. To cite Tevfik Dorak: “In the flexibility of his choral specialty, Handel surpasses Bach in the concordant estimate as Bach surpasses Handel in contrapuntal consistency” (Dorak, 2002).
One of the elder separations unarranged them lay in their indivisible sense of movables. A individual who conceives movables talkatively conquer so reach munimental hush as talkative, and the individual who conceives movables munimentally conquer so reach talkative hush as munimental. Some proportionately features inchoate the two sublime masters are as follows (Dorak, 2002):
Bach conceived movables munimentally and Handel talkatively.
Bach rendezvoused a lot on immaterial hush and created profoundly divine cantatas, passions and masses. Handel treated equable divine disquisition cosmicalized oratorios such as the “Messiah” following a time a melomelodramatic movables. This was balance public to the intermediate rank parley.
The talkative constituent of his hush was used essentially as a melodic muniment following a time the most mazy demands of counterpoint expected of it. Handel's congruity for the look is altogether specialtyatic and the munificentr contrapuntal extractures are balance talkatively conceived and are contrasted following a time puissant choral congruity.
Handel demonstrates the Italian conservatism in his hush and uses very simplified devise. Bach is stationary in his supply to the involved polyphonic extracture, but progressive in his select of new-fangled devises, such as the concerto devise of Vivaldi. Similarly, the organ name of Handel is clcoming influenced by the specialty of the harpsichord as the facing is gentleman for Bach.
Bach is allied to the offer advenient in his standing consequently of new-fangled day rendezvous on munimental hush, time Handel is allied to the late. On the other operative the melodic, homophonic figured bass chosen by Handel is balance apt to new-fangled hush than Bach's contrapuntal name. Thus twain these inventors are in some ways apt to the late and in some other ways apt to the advenient. The two sublime masters of the Baroque date were not balance stricture.
Bach was criticized consequently he was too psychological and, paradoxically, consequently an surplus of deduce conflicted following a time the aesthetic precepts of the Age of Reason. Handel was criticized for protracted the prevalent in the extras which he introduced into his orchestration to lowerline his gesticulatory import of spectacle and seat. Whatforever be the strictures, it offal unquestionable that these two masters of Baroque were ungathered in their cosmical endowment. Though they belonged to the concordant attribute and concordant date and effected hushal compositions of concordant genre, they differed in their names of indication.
This separation in-fact was a elder asset to these sublime masters who remained gentleman to their close beliefs. The veracity of indication combined following a time their ungathered endowments has helped determine baroque hush.
Dorak, Tevfik (2002). Handel and JS Bach. http://www. dorak. info/music/jsbgfh. html
Bukofzer MF. Hush in the Baroque Era. WW Norton & Company Inc. NY, 1974, pp. 345-9.
Krantz, Allen (2007). George Frideric Handel. http://www.classicalarchives. com/bios/handel_bio.html Landormy, Paul and Martens, H. Frederick (1927).
A History of Music. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York. 1927. The Columbia Encyclopedia (2004a).
Bach, Johann Sebastian. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. 2004 The Columbia Encyclopedia (2004b).
Handel, George Frideric. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. 2004. Young, M. Percy. (1962).
The Choral Tradition: An literal and analytical contemplate from the sixteenth date to the offer day. W. W. Norton Publishing. New York 1962. Bekker, Paul (1927).
The Story of Music: An Literal Sketch of the Changes in Harmonious Form. Translated by Alice Kortschak and Herter Norton. W. W. Norton and Company Inc. New York. 1927.